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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 108–03–2

NIOSH REL: 25 ppm (90 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 25 ppm (90 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 25 ppm (91 mg/m3) TWA

Description of substance: Colorless liquid with a somewhat disagreeable odor.

LEL: . . 2.2% (10% LEL, 2,200 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 2,300 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on an analogy with 2-nitropropane which has an IDLH of 2,300 ppm. The animal data for 1-nitropropane given in Patty [1963] (i.e., 5,000 ppm for 3 hours killed 2 of 2 rabbits and 2 of 2 guinea pigs; 10,000 ppm for 1 hour killed 0 of 2 rabbits and 2 of 2 guinea pigs [Machle et al. 1940]) have not been used to determine the IDLH for 1-nitropropane because cats, which were far more susceptible to 2-nitropropane than guinea pigs or rabbits, were not used to study the effects of 1-nitropropane.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50 (ppm) LCLo (ppm) Time Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF) Derived value
Rabbit Marhold 1986 LC100: 5,000 —– 3 hr 9,000 ppm (1.8) 900 ppm
Rabbit Machle et al. 1940 LC100: 5,000 —– 3 hr 9,000 ppm (1.8) 900 ppm
G. pig Machle et al. 1940 LC100: 5,000 —– 3 hr 9,000 ppm (1.8) 900 ppm
G. pig Machle et al. 1940 LC100: 10,000 —– 1 hr 12,500 ppm (1.25) 1,250 ppm
Rat NPIRI 1974 3,100 —– 8 hr 7,750 ppm (2.5) 775 ppm

Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50 (mg/kg) LDLo (mg/kg) Adjusted LD >Derived value


Gig Sanit 1967Machle 1940

NPIRI 1974







1,514 ppm473 ppm

861 ppm

151 ppm47 ppm

86 ppm

Other animal data: It has been reported that rabbits survived a 1-hour exposure to 10,000 ppm [Machle et al. 1940].

Human data: Volunteers found brief exposures to concentrations exceeding 100 ppm to cause eye irritation [Silverman et al. 1946].

Revised IDLH: 1,000 ppmBasis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for 1-nitropropane is 1,000 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Machle et al. 1940; Marhold 1986; NPIRI 1974]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data in workers exposed to concentrations above 100 ppm.


1. Gig Sanit [1967]; 32(9):9 (in Russian).

2. Machle W, Scott EW, Treon J [1940]. The physiological response of animals to some simple mononitroparaffins and to certain derivatives of these compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 22(8):315-332.

3. Marhold J [1986]. Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie, Organicke Latky. Prague, Czechoslovakia: Avicenum, p. 404 (in Czechoslovakian).

4. NPIRI [1974]. Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 91.

5. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., pp. 2077-2078.

6. Silverman L, Schulte HF, First MW [1946]. Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 28:262-266.