NIOSH logo and tagline

Gene Expression Profiles of Di-n-butyl Phthalate in Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

January 2013
NIOSH Dataset RD-1001-2013-0

Di-n-butyl phthalate is a known endocrine disruptor and has been found in increased levels in women of childbearing age. To investigate mechanisms of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells and to provide information concerning inter-individual variation and gene-environment interactions.

Protocol and Methodology

Normal human mammary epithelial cell strains were obtained from discarded tissues following reduction mammoplasty. Gene transcription in each of 4 cell strains was analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A, Affymetrix™) and changes in the expression of selected genes were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. DNA microarrays were hybridized with total RNA that was collected after DBP treatment for 5 hr and 10 hr. Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. View detailed descriptions of the methods.

Publications Based on Dataset

Gwinn MR, Whipkey DL, Tennant LB, Weston A [2007]. Gene expression profiling of di-n-butyl phthalate in normal human mammary epithelial cells. J Environ Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 26:51-61.


This project was supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). When a publication makes use of this dataset, acknowledgement of the development of the dataset should be attributed to NIOSH Health Effects Laboratory Division.


NIOSH/Respiratory Health Division
Surveillance Branch
(304) 285-5749