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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Sodium cyanide

RTECS #

VZ7525000

CAS #

143-33-9; 13998-03-3

Updated

July 2015

Molecular Weight

49.01

Molecular Formula

CNNa

Synonyms

Cianuro di sodio (Italian)
Cyanide of sodium
Cyanobrik
Cyanogran
Cyanure de sodium (French)
Cymag
Hydrocyanic acid, sodium salt
Kyanid sodny (Czech)
Prussiate of soda
RCRA waste number P106
Sodium cyanide (ACGIH)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster200 ppbMUREAV 261,85,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/hamster 5999 mg/kg (6-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TXAPA9 64,456,1982
implant/hamster 5928 mg/kg (6-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TXAPA9 64,456,1982
oral/rat 6 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTXAPA9 163,149,2000
oral/rat 2148 mg/kg (13W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NTPTR* NIH-94-3386
oral/mouse 4177 mg/kg (13W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductNTPTR* NIH-94-3386

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/25MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Behavioral: Irritability

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/3MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Behavioral: Irritability

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/20MBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/26MBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/16MBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 150 mg/m3/62MVCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 400 mg/m3/10MVCVN1* -,342,1988
intramuscular/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1666 µg/kgJACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4900 µg/kgNTIS** OTS0528336
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.6 mg/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaTOLED5 175,111,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
FCTOD7 42,359,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4300 µg/kgGISAAA 43(12),90,1978
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kgVCVN1* -,342,1988
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 0.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above
FATOAO 44,210,1981
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1300 µg/kgFEPRA7 6,349,1947
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgMusculoskeletal: Other changesTXAPA9 248,269,2010
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionFATOAO 49,107,1986
ocular/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5048 µg/kgJACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral/child lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesFSINDR 38,173,1988
oral/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kgTXAPA9 45,359,1978
oral/duck lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 µg/kgNTIS** OTS0530251
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 2800 µg/kgNTIS** OTS0528336
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 2857 µg/kg34ZIAG -,191,1969
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8 mg/kgBECTA6 23,211,1979
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 714 µg/kgBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
APTOA6 20,291,1963
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 6557 µg/kgBehavioral: Fluid intake

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis
APTOA6 1,18,1945
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8500 µg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6440 µg/kg28ZPAK -,13,1972
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4.7 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
VCVN1* -,342,1988
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesFSINDR 38,173,1988
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 60 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgVCVN1* -,343,1988
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10400 µg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0536153
subcutaneous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5360 µg/kgJAMAAP 149,113,1952
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5800 µg/kgMELAAD 46,221,1955
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3600 µg/kgAJPHAP 179,60,1954
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 2200 µg/kgJAMAAP 100,1920,1933
unreported route/human lowest published lethal dose: 1.43 mg/kgVCVN1* -,342,1988
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 2206 µg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 mg/kgIGAYAY 112,861,1980

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
FCTOD7 38,51,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
VCVN1* -,343,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdFCTOD7 66,203,2014
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse
FCTOD7 41,463,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 837 mg/kg/13W- continuousEndocrine: AndrogenicNTPTR* NIH-94-3386
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 5.1 mg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)VDVEAV (7),76,1978
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 5.1 mg/kg/7D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)VDVEAV (7),76,1978
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
VCVN1* -,343,1988

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGVOGAV 47,383,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 539,77,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,698,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 198,297,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,257,1998
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCECME 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 2 mg(CN)/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANceiling concentration 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 0.3 mg(CN)/m3, CEILING 10 mg(CN)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENceiling concentration 5 mg (CN)/m3, Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 3.8 mg/m3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CYANIDE-airceiling concentration 4.7 ppm(CN)/10MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 68950; Number of Industries 74; Total Number of Facilities 4423; Number of Occupations 63; Total Number of Employees Exposed 66484; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 15327
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 68950; Number of Industries 68; Total Number of Facilities 3285; Number of Occupations 41; Total Number of Employees Exposed 27329

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101207/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0693-9229
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-37, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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