Chromium

RTECS #
GB4200000
CAS #
7440-47-3
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
March 2018
Molecular Weight
52.00
Molecular Formula
Cr
Synonyms
Chrome
Chromium, metal (ACGIH)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damagelung/human1 µmol/LTOXID9 72,219,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human5 µmol/L/1HTOXID9 12,430,2008

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ZEKBAI 52,425,1942
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 µg/kg/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,447,1955
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2160 µg/kg/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 16,447,1955

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2000 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27500 µg/kgGISAAA 37(10),27,1972

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 49,49,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMIBUBI 9,321,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Cr,22,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** CONF-691001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,63,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,111,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,600,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,305,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,297,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,487,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,595,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,36,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,31,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,73,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,11,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,72,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,113,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 34,298,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,589,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,278,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,77,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764-765,10,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 313,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIVIEQ 32,92,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3DTLVS* 3,56,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (dust), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.5 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, dust, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.5 mg/m3, a2 sen, s1 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.5 mg/m3, inhal, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHROMIUM METAL-air10H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5981; Number of Industries 10; Total Number of Facilities 318; Number of Occupations 6; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2034; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 3
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5982; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 19; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2379
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 19395; Number of Industries 228; Total Number of Facilities 25576; Number of Occupations 101; Total Number of Employees Exposed 386142; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 10433
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 19395; Number of Industries 43; Total Number of Facilities 1375; Number of Occupations 49; Total Number of Employees Exposed 16576

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/89/236665/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Chromium and compounds as Co, 7024
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Metals in urine, 8310
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 4, 1975
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID125G
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018