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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Sodium fluoride

RTECS #

WB0350000

CAS #

7681-49-4; 39287-69-9

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

41.99

Molecular Formula

FNa

Synonyms

Alcoa sodium fluoride
Antibulit
Cavi-trol
Chemifluor
Credo
Disodium difluoride
F1-Tabs
FDA 0101
Floridine
Florocid
Flozenges
Fluoral
Fluorid sodny (Czech)
Fluoride, sodium
Fluorident
Fluorigard
Fluorineed
Fluorinse
Fluoritab
Fluorocid
Fluor-O-kote
Fluorol
Fluorure de sodium (French)
Flura
Flura drops
Flura-gel
Flura-loz
Flurcare
Flursol
Fungol B
GEL II
Gelution
Gleem
Iradicav
Karidium
Karigel
Kari-rinse
Lea-Cov
Lemoflur
Luride
Luride lozi-tabs
Luride-SF
Na frinse
Nafeen
NaFpak
Natrium fluoride
NCI-C55221
Nufluor
Ossalin
Ossin
Pediaflor
Pedident
Pennwhite
Pergantene
Phos-Flur
Point two
Predent
Rafluor
Rescue squad
Roach salt
Sodium fluoride cyclic dimer
Sodium fluorure (French)
Sodium hydrofluoride
Sodium monofluoride
SO-Flo
Stay-Flo
Studafluor
Super-dent
T-Fluoride
Thera-flur
Thera-flur-N
Trisodium trifluoride

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate28ZPAK -,20,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/human20 mg/LMUREAV 139,193,1984
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human20 mg/LMUTAEX 2,497,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human952 µmol/LTIVIEQ 5,353,1991
Cytogenetic Analysisbone marrow/rat100 nmol/LMUREAV 343,67,1995
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/rat500 µmol/LMUREAV 368,7,1996
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse10 mg/kgCARYAB 40,79,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse1 ppm/3W-continuousFLUOA4 15,110,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse200 mg/LAEHLAU 29,230,1974
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse40 mg/kgCARYAB 40,79,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster50 mg/LCNREA8 44,938,1984
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster25 mg/LCYTOAN 52,889,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster50 mg/LMUREAV 223,191,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/domestic animal25 mg/LAEHLAU 29,230,1974
Cytogenetic Analysislung/mammal (species unspecified)300 µmol/LHKXUDL 3,94,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/cattle10 mg/LAEHLAU 29,230,1974
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)4 mmol/LMUREAV 301,183,1993
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human34 µmol/L/24HFCTOD7 48,1234,2010
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse24000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMUREAV 751,59,2013
DNA Damagefibroblast/human0.1 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
DNA Damagefibroblast/mouse0.1 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human34 µmol/L/24HFCTOD7 48,1234,2010
DNA Damageoral/mouse24000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMUREAV 751,59,2013
DNA Damageembryo/rat40 mg/L/24HTOLED5 179,1,2008
DNA Damageliver/rat1 mmol/LMUREAV 368,59,1996
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human100 mg/LMUREAV 279,109,1992
DNA inhibitionlung/human100 mg/LMUREAV 279,109,1992
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis86 mg/LWATRAG 14,1613,1980
micronucleus testoral/mouse40 mg/kgICHUDW 8(5),39,1986
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse10 mg/kgCARYAB 40,79,1987
micronucleus testovary/hamster1 mmol/LMUREAV 367,99,1996
micronucleus testoral/mouse72000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMUREAV 751,59,2013
micronucleus testfibroblast/human0.1 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse1.0 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse24 mg/L/10DMUREAV 702,100,2010
morphological transformembryo/hamster25 mg/LTIVIEQ 2,103,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse20 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 1,157,1986
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human440 mg/LMUREAV 196,61,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse300 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 187,165,1987
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CYGEDX 16(6),41,1982
other mutation test systemslung/hamster100 mg/LMUREAV 279,109,1992
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat200 mmol/LEXPEAM 35,71,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 pph/24HFLUOA4 6,113,1973
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster60 µg/LGNAMAP 15,36,1976
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse40 mg/kgICHUDW 8(5),39,1986
sister chromatid exchangelung/mammal (species unspecified)3 mmol/LHKXUDL 3,94,1983
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/hamster80 mg/LCNREA8 44,938,1984
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster66700 µg/LNTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human0.1 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/mouse1.0 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
sperm morphologyoral/rat1225 mg/kg/7W- intermittentMUREAV 792,35,2015
sperm morphologyoral/mouse405.328 mg/kg/8W-continuousFCTOD7 94,103,2016
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse10 mg/kg/5D-continuousCARYAB 40,79,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster10 mg/LCNREA8 44,938,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human100 mg/LMUREAV 139,193,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/hamster200 mg/LMUREAV 140,43,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat36 mg/LMUREAV 172,77,1986

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 9 mg/kg (10-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AOBIAR 17,371,1972
intratesticular/rat 400 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 5,505,1991
oral/mouse 1240 mg/kg (8W male/8W pre-5D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
JONUAI 103,1319,1973
oral/mouse 620 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityJONUAI 103,1319,1973
oral/mouse 5600 µg/kg (14D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages32XPAD -,83,1975
oral/mouse 300 ng/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
FLUOA4 25,71,1992
oral/rabbit 8800 mg/kg (125W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJRPFA4 92,353,1991
oral/rat 12.9 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsFCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral/rat 3.4 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemFCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral/rat 28 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral/rat 560 mg/kg (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina
NETEEC 23,197,2001
oral/rat 1.52 gm/kg (6-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral/rat 680 mg/kg (6-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFCTOD7 40,551,2001
oral/rat 680 mg/kg (6-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral/rat 1520 mg/kg (6-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFCTOD7 40,551,2002
oral/rat 210 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
HETOEA 24,79,2005
oral/rat 560 mg/kg (28D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)REPTED 22,606,2006
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (60D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,233,2008
oral/rat 2287.19 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemNETEEC 32,536,2010
oral/rat 129 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory systemTIHEEC 22,375,2006
oral/rat 36 mg/kg (180D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)TIHEEC 23,507,2007
oral/rat 2250 mg/kg (180D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)
FCTOD7 56,297,2013
oral/rat 2250 mg/kg (180D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Other effects on female
FCTOD7 56,297,2013
oral/rat 3375 mg/kg (180D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Other effects on female
FCTOD7 56,297,2013
oral/rat 305 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring)
TXAPA9 271,206,2013
oral/rat 150 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JEBIDP 13,55,1992
oral/rat 221 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)JONUAI 101,525,1971
oral/rat 240 mg/kg (11-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNIPOAC 73,1900,1969
oral/rat 128 mg/kg (85D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralCHPLAB 18,290,1989
oral/rat 255 mg/kg (85D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemCHPLAB 18,290,1989
oral/rat 150 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchangeWDZAEK 7,121,1993
subcutaneous/rat 90 mg/kg (10-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AOBIAR 17,371,1972

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/43W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/43W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 2190 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 4217 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 4242 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 4368 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 87 gm/kg/97W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7570.5 mg/kg/103W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
NTIS** PB91-178137
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12617 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/baxInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TOLED5 229,126,2014
In Vitro/baxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TOLED5 229,126,2014
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9677 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 3724 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3984 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1686 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 mmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 40 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4.05 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1.0 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 137 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 140 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 158 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, kidney tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 152 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 2.13 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 7.95 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1.6 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4.37 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 463 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 3 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 196,74,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 196,74,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 250 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.FTRPAE 105,73,2015
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 ppm/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 204,183,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 ppm/8HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 204,183,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 80 ppm/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 204,183,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 ppm/36HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 204,183,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 ppm/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 204,183,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 667 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 80 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETEEC 48,49,2015
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 mg/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherNETEEC 48,49,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 45.6 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 2.5 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 20 mmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXCYAC 287,131,2011
In Vitro/jnaInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TOLED5 224,341,2014
In Vitro/jpcInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/48HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 295,23,2012
In Vitro/jzxInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 65.51 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 25,1989,2011
In Vitro/mkiInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 308,138,2013
In Vitro/mkiInhibitor Concentration Low: 6 mmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 308,138,2013
In Vitro/mkiInhibitor Concentration Low: 4 mmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 308,138,2013
In Vitro/mkiInhibitor Concentration Low: 2 mmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 308,138,2013
In Vitro/mkiInhibitor Concentration Low: 4 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 308,138,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 234 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 76.4 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1.0 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.82 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1.52 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.42 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 259,329,2012
In Vitro/mqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,583,2012
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 14.02 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 149 µmol/L/44HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1416,2013
In Vitro/paxInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,583,2012
In Vitro/paxInhibitor Concentration Low: 250 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,583,2012
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.5 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)
TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 8 mmol/L/5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Hemolysis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)
TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 4 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)
TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/1HNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: CaTIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 4 mmol/L/5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 25,1609,2011
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/1HNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TIVIEQ 27,2335,2013
In Vitro/ppb Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/1HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphokinaseTIVIEQ 27,2335,2013
In Vitro/pqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mg/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 200,133,2011
In Vitro/pqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mg/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 200,133,2011
In Vitro/pqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 200,133,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 219 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.164 mmol/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 27,2279,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.082 mmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 27,2279,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.164 mmol/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 25,1269,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1.67 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.79 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.029 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.16 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.009 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 0.063 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.02 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 0.58 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
intradermal/human lowest published toxic dose: 14 µg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Paresthesia

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
RMLIAC 12,408,1957
intraperitoneal/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgXEURAQ UR-154,1951
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 38 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 151 mg/kgJTCTDW 39,349,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 mg/kgXEURAQ UR-154,1951
intravenous/monkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26600 µg/kgAPTOA6 22,99,1965
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50830 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26 mg/kgOlfaction: Tumors

Eye: Other eye effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 3,278,1961
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kgEndocrine: Hyperglycemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
TIHEEC 23,5,2007
oral/child lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NEZTAF 30,199,1982
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 3.57 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 0.07 mg/kgCardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVN5* -,355,1993
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 214 µg/kgBehavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
RMLIAC 12,408,1957
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 71 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
85KYAH 11,1361,1989
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 32 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1662 mg/kgCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 222,816,1972
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipationETPAEK 57,59,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 34 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrheaETPAEK 57,59,2005
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 44 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgJEENAI 61,751,1968
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 31 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kgAECTCV 16,483,1987
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kgBehavioral: Fluid intake

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 81,811,1923
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 360 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 100,97,1933
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kgEye: Ptosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
BMJOAE 1,886,1936
parenteral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgCardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)JTCTDW 46,401,2008
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kgEndocrine: Hyperglycemia

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
VCVN5* -,354,1993
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
VCVN5* -,355,1993
skin/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgAEPPAE 183,427,1936
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 14 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 155 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 448 mg/kgCRSBAW 124,133,1937
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 115 µg/kgNYKZAU 68(3),55P-74P,1972
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kgOYYAA2 2,411,1968

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/5H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures
VCVN5* -,355,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/kg/5H/17W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GTPZAB 24(1),15,1980
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1520 mg/kg/38D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/10D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOLED5 7,463,1981
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 57.42 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
FCTOD7 95,110,2016
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/50D- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Anorexia (human)
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 2240 mg/kg/16D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 1960 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/30D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: CatalasesETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/14D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 21840 mg/kg/26W- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 402 mg/kg/35D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 44,21,1988
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
WDZAEK 9,139,1995
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/120D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 147,229,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1138,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/7D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 47,1184,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 187.04 mg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: HyperglycemiaTXCYAC 263,75,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
MUREAV 751,59,2013
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 191,19,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 405.328 mg/kg/8W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 94,103,2016
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 gm/kg/15D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 48,2838,2010
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 20000 mg/kg/50D- intermittentLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 80,74,2006
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 5460 mg/kg/78W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Malabsorption

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
ENVRAL 62,14,1993
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 6930 mg/kg/99W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
ARTODN 67,573,1993
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 3650 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
BECTA6 30,388,1983
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1327 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JJATDK 5,11,1985
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 406 mg/kg/14D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB94-142684
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB95-110193
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15200 mg/kg/38D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1520 mg/kg/38D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
FCTOD7 40,551,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 366 mg/kg/122D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NETEEC 24,751,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/210D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,169,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/210D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,169,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 204,219,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 204,219,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.2 gm/kg/47W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18.8 gm/kg/47W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 gm/kg/60D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
ETOPFR 6,187,1998
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 639 mg/kg/30W- continuousLiver: Other changesTXCYAC 146,161,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/6W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
NETEEC 17,169,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 3,290,1961
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 603 mg/kg/26W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
GISAAA 39(1),17,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/60D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BECTA6 37,70,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.7 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTXCYAC 231,215,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1820 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
BCLPT* 92,162,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 22,606,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 22,606,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.238 gm/kg/8W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 160,69,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1237.6 mg/kg/8W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 160,69,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 527.1 mg/kg/21D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTJADAB 49,417,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1260 mg/kg/10W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeFCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1617 mg/kg/10W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 217.86 mg/kg/0.5Y- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 192,324,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 139.16 mg/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 48,1607,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360.5 mg/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2332,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/35D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 47,2544,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/8W- intermittentReproductive: Other effects on male

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXAPA9 230,352,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/10W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 254,61,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/20D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
TOLED5 196S,S53,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 196S,S53,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/30D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCTOD7 66,224,2014
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/21D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCTOD7 70,191,2014
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.73 gm/kg/1Y- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TIVIEQ 27,2335,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 225,318,2014
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2250 mg/kg/180D- continuousEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
FCTOD7 56,297,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3375 mg/kg/180D- continuousEndocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
FCTOD7 56,297,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
NETEEC 48,49,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1225 mg/kg/7W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainMUREAV 792,35,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1225 mg/kg/7W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
MUREAV 792,35,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 819.8 mg/kg/12W- continuousFCTOD7 62,566,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 230.4 mg/kg/40D- continuousTXAPA9 272,888,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 819.8 mg/kg/12W- intermittentFCTOD7 62,566,2013
oral/rat : 600 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: OsteoporosisTXCYAC 325,52,2014
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/180D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TIHEEC 23,507,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1125 mg/kg/60D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TIHEEC 25,49,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 562.5 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
TIHEEC 25,49,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/35D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,972,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 ppm/3M-continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOLED5 204,183,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 ppm/6M-continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 204,183,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 ppm/3M-continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 204,183,2011
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/4D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 83,151,2009
unreported route/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/10W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
IVEJAC 66,1089,1989

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 27,237,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 27,237,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMSUDL 7,208,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMSSAQ 400,5,1963
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMSUAI 19,535,1950
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,342,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 29,1,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 223,236,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,278,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3DTLVS* 3,116,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2.5 mg(F)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 1 mg(F)/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg(F)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2.5 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.6 mg(F)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg(HF)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg(HF)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 2 mg(F)/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 1 mg(F)/m3, KZG-week 4 mg(F)/m3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FLUORIDES, INORGANIC-air10H time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84425; Number of Industries 83; Total Number of Facilities 3970; Number of Occupations 69; Total Number of Employees Exposed 84776; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 26602
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84425; Number of Industries 50; Total Number of Facilities 3763; Number of Occupations 50; Total Number of Employees Exposed 25059

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction; N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo SCE-nonhuman; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);equivocal evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);no evidence:mouse
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