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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Silica, crystalline - quartz

RTECS #

VV7330000

CAS #

14808-60-7; 1317-79-9

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

60.09

Molecular Formula

O2Si

Synonyms

Agate
alpha-Quartz
Amethyst
Chalcedony
Cherts
Crystalline silica
Crystallized silicon dioxide
D & D
DQ12
Flint
Flintshot
Gold bond R
Imsil
Min-U-Sil
Novaculite
Onyx
Quartz
Quartz silica
Quazo puro (Italian)
Rock crystal
Rose quartz
Sand
SF 35
Sicron F 300
Siderite (SiO2)
Sikron F 100
Sil-Co-Sil
Silica
Silica dust
Silica flour (powdered crystalline silica)
Silica, crystalline quartz (ACGIH:OSHA)
Silicon oxide, di- (sand)
Silver bond B
Snowit
TGL 16319
Tiger-eye
W 12
W 12 (Filler)

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damageintratracheal/rat3 mg/kgTXAPA9 189,84,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human120 mg/L/24HEMMUEG 48,151,2007
DNA Damageother cell types/human120 mg/LEMMUEG 48,151,2007
DNA Damagelung/rat500 mg/plate/4HMUREAV 617,46,2007
DNA Damageintratracheal/rat30 mg/kg/3M- intermittentTXCYAC 303,177,2013
micronucleus testlung/human40 µg/cm2MUREAV 335,27,1995
micronucleus testlung/hamster160 µg/cm2MUREAV 335,27,1995

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4000 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
BJCAAI 22,825,1968
implant/rat toxic dose: 4554 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CORTBR 88,223,1972
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AICCA6 10,119,1954
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/6H/71W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ENVRAL 40,499,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 162,467,1976
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 57,509,1976
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NATWAY 59,318,1972
intrapleural/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 83 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
31BYAP -,92,1974
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 57,509,1976
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
JNCIAM 48,797,1972
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BJCAAI 41,908,1980
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
AIHAAP 41,836,1980
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 79,797,1987
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 111 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CREMEX 2,243,1986
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/19W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
EVHPAZ 34,47,1980
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 57,509,1976

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 183,46,2002
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 125 mg/L/17HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 1,71,1987
In Vitro/Human, erythrocytes Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.86 gm/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Hemolysis in vitroTIVIEQ 1,239,1987
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 36.19 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 272,11,2010
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 272,11,2010
In Vitro/mjaInhibitor Concentration Low: 200 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXAPA9 283,92,2015
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration Low: 60 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TIVIEQ 27,1049,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration Low: 15 mg/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTIVIEQ 27,1049,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 68 mg/L/17HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 1,77,1987
In Vitro/mpeInhibitor Concentration Low: 80 µg/well/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 26,323,2012
In Vitro/mpeInhibitor Concentration Low: 40 µg/well/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assay

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TIVIEQ 26,323,2012
In Vitro/mpeInhibitor Concentration Low: 80 µg/well/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assay

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TIVIEQ 26,323,2012
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 16 million particles per cubic foot/8H/17.9Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** PB246-697
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 300 µg/m3/10Y- intermittentLiver: Other changesANYAA9 271,324,1976
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,45,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),372,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 248 mg/m3/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,306,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,213,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
AJPHAP 267,L686,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 248 mg/m3/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 266,16,2009
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 185,1,2002
intratracheal/mouse Lethal dose: >20 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ARDSBL 141(Suppl),A3-A937,1990
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16.7 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,44,2003
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,390,2009
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strainsTOLED5 142,71,2003
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
TOXID9 60,423,2001
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgTOXID9 90,214,2006
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 225,119,2006
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOLED5 158,1,2005
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXAPA9 194,111,2004
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1250 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 149,255,2004
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 155,353,2005
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 66,76,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 66,98,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
TOXID9 78,191,2004
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Consolidation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,382,2004
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15.69 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,43,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),372,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 72,45,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JTEHD6 19,403,1986
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
IVIEM* -,453,1985
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)ARTODN 74,716,2001
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)BJIMAG 10,9,1953
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 192,286,2010
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOLED5 192,286,2010
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgLiver: TumorsTXCYAC 303,177,2013
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgBIJOAK 27,1007,1933
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgJNCIAM 1,241,1940
intravenous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kgJNCIAM 57,509,1976
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXAPA9 283,92,2015
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 111.1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 203,127,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
EPASR* #86940001000,1994

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/domestic animal lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 gm/m3/10D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
EXLRDA 15,409,1989
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 28 mg/m3/3W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXAPA9 68,152,1983
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/6H/78W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
INHTE5 10,699,1998
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/818D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,44,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 195,167,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1475 µg/m3/8H/21W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesENVRAL 39,331,1986
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 4932 µg/m3/24H/39W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
ENVRAL 21,298,1980
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 mg/m3/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
GTPZAB 31(1),24,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 108 mg/m3/6H/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 107,350,1991
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 58 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
FCTOD7 29,341,1991
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6.2 mg/m3/6H/6W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOXID9 78,11,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/79D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 1,81,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,44,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.74 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,44,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/75D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 72,44,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOXID9 90,213,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 96 mg/m3/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 186,152,2009
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3M- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 303,177,2013
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21.75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,105,2008
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 144 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,105,2008
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 203 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,105,2008
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 µg/kg/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TXCYAC 175,63,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 960 µg/kg/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 175,63,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 µg/kg/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 66,353,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.88 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TXCYAC 175,63,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11.52 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TXCYAC 175,63,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.025 mg/m3 (resp)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 42,39,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 68,41,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 42,39,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 68,41,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100C,396,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100C,396,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 68,41,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100C,396,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW31BYAP -,94,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,83,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,223,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,14,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,241,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 120,35,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,225,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 18,695,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,185,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,72,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 744,8,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 767,67,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,12,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-respirable dust in airtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3/% resp. SiO2+2DTLWS* 3,33,1973
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-total dust in airtime-weighted average 30 mg/m3/2(SiO2+3)DTLWS* 3,33,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (respirable), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp.), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (total), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 mg/m3, (resp), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (respirable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3 (respirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (total dust), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0,05 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.15 mg/m3, carc 1, resp, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (resp. dust), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 30 mg/m3 (total dust), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.075 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3/(% resp SiO2+2)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 30 mg/m3/(%SiO2+2), total dustCFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 250 mppcf/(%SiO2+5)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3/(% resp SiO2+2)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 250 mppcf/(%SiO2+5)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO SILICA, crystalline quartz-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X6478; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 135; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 8927; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 741
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 66495; Number of Industries 254; Total Number of Facilities 53724; Number of Occupations 173; Total Number of Employees Exposed 944731; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 112888
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 66495; Number of Industries 59; Total Number of Facilities 4077; Number of Occupations 82; Total Number of Employees Exposed 81221

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Silica, crystalline in coal mine dust, by IR, 7603
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Silica, crystalline, by XRD, 7500; by VIS, 7600; by IR, 7602
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 36, 1981
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-125G
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID142
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