Phosgene

RTECS #
SY5600000
CAS #
75-44-5
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
June 2017
Molecular Weight
98.91
Molecular Formula
CCl2O
Synonyms
Carbon dichloride oxide
Carbon oxychloride
Carbone (oxychlorure de) (French)
Carbonic chloride
Carbonio (ossicloruro di) (Italian)
Carbonyl chloride (DOT:OSHA)
Carbonyl dichloride
Carbonylchlorid (German)
CG
Chloroformyl chloride
Fosgeen (Dutch)
Fosgen (Polish)
Fosgene (Italian)
Koolstofoxychloride (Dutch)
NCI-C60219
Phosgen (German)
Phosgene (ACGIH:OSHA)
RCRA waste number P095

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 ppm/20MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 25,2080,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 ppm/20MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 25,2080,2011
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 190 mg/m3/15M85GMAT -,99,1982
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 50 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 50 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 11 mg/m3/30MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/man Lowest published lethal concentration: 360 mg/m3/30M85GMAT -,99,1982
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.065 gm/m3/30MKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TPKVAL 5,123,1963
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,145,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,144,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,193,2002
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21 mg/m3/60MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.05 gm/m3/2HTPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 12.35 ppm/2HTPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 37 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
INHTE5 15,663,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 244 mg/m3/10MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47 mg/m3/30MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 2443 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
JJATDK 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
JAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MVascular: Structural changes in vesselsJAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 ppm/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.3 ppm/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.08 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 ppm/8HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 15,687,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.065 gm/m3/30MCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TPKVAL 5,123,1963
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 49 mg/m3/60MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 84 mg/m3/30MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 15,687,2003
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 334 mg/m3/10MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/30MNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXCYAC 310,104,2013
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 315,17,2014
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 8 ppm/30MBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Cardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TXCYAC 326,109,2014

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppb/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
FAATDF 37,54,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppb/4H/17D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTEHD6 19,413,1986
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppb/6H/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 37,54,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.0 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/12H/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 ppm/4W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
HPV338 -,,2003

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWANAEA3 35,165,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 28,272,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTCWA* 2,321,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 21,719,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 198,297,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,208,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3);KZW 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3 (0.02 ppm);short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), VLE 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 ppm (0.41 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 ppm (0.41 mg/m3), KZG-week 0.2 ppm (0.82 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.08 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.1 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PHOSGENE-air10H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;ceiling concentration 0.2 ppm/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 57710; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 57; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2358; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 282
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 57710; Number of Industries 10; Total Number of Facilities 408; Number of Occupations 11; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5729

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-61
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018