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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Phosgene

RTECS #

SY5600000

CAS #

75-44-5

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

98.91

Molecular Formula

CCl2O

Synonyms

Carbon dichloride oxide
Carbon oxychloride
Carbone (oxychlorure de) (French)
Carbonic chloride
Carbonio (ossicloruro di) (Italian)
Carbonyl chloride (DOT:OSHA)
Carbonyl dichloride
Carbonylchlorid (German)
CG
Chloroformyl chloride
Fosgeen (Dutch)
Fosgen (Polish)
Fosgene (Italian)
Koolstofoxychloride (Dutch)
NCI-C60219
Phosgen (German)
Phosgene (ACGIH:OSHA)
RCRA waste number P095

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 ppm/20MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 25,2080,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 ppm/20MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TIVIEQ 25,2080,2011
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 190 mg/m3/15M85GMAT -,99,1982
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 50 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 50 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 11 mg/m3/30MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/man Lowest published lethal concentration: 360 mg/m3/30M85GMAT -,99,1982
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.065 gm/m3/30MKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TPKVAL 5,123,1963
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,145,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,144,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,193,2002
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21 mg/m3/60MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.05 gm/m3/2HTPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 12.35 ppm/2HTPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 37 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
INHTE5 15,663,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 244 mg/m3/10MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47 mg/m3/30MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 2443 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
JJATDK 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
JAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 24430 mg/m3/10MVascular: Structural changes in vesselsJAPTO* 22,263,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 ppm/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.3 ppm/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.08 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 ppm/8HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 72,160,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 15,687,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.065 gm/m3/30MCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TPKVAL 5,123,1963
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 49 mg/m3/60MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 84 mg/m3/30MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 15,687,2003
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 334 mg/m3/10MHPV338 -,-,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/30MNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXCYAC 310,104,2013
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 315,17,2014
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 8 ppm/30MBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Cardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TXCYAC 326,109,2014

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppb/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
FAATDF 37,54,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppb/4H/17D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTEHD6 19,413,1986
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppb/6H/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 37,54,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.0 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/12H/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)TIHEEC 17,285,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 ppm/4W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
HPV338 -,,2003

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWANAEA3 35,165,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 28,272,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTCWA* 2,321,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 21,719,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 198,297,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,208,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3);KZW 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3 (0.02 ppm);short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), VLE 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 ppm (0.41 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 ppm (0.41 mg/m3), KZG-week 0.2 ppm (0.82 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.08 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.1 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.02 ppm (0.08 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 0.06 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PHOSGENE-air10H time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;ceiling concentration 0.2 ppm/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 57710; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 57; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2358; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 282
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 57710; Number of Industries 10; Total Number of Facilities 408; Number of Occupations 11; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5729

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-61
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