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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Formaldehyde

RTECS #

LP8925000

CAS #

50-00-0; 8005-38-7; 8006-07-3; 8013-13-6; 112068-71-0

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

30.03

Molecular Formula

CH2O

Synonyms

Aldehyd mravenci (Czech)
Aldehyde formique (French)
Aldeide formica (Italian)
BFV
Fannoform
Formaldehyd (Czech, Polish)
Formaldehyde (ACGIH:OSHA)
Formaldehyde, gas
Formalin
Formalin 40
Formalina (Italian)
Formaline (German)
Formalin-loesungen (German)
Formalith
Formic aldehyde
Formol
FYDE
Lysoform
Methaldehyde
Methanal
Methyl aldehyde
Methylene oxide
Morbicid
NCI-C02799
Oplossingen (Dutch)
Oxomethane
Oxymethylene
Paraform
RCRA waste number U122
Superlysoform

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 4 ppm/5MIAPWAR 4,79,1961
eye /human 1 ppm/6M rinse mildAIHAAP 44,463,1983
eye /rabbit 750 µg/24H severe85JCAE -,264,1986
eye /rabbit 750 µg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 10 mg severeTXAPA9 55,501,1980
eye /rabbit 37% severeJTPAE7 29,187,2001
skin /human 2%/48HJAADDB 8,157,1983
skin /human 0.01% severeBJDEAZ 158,734,2008
skin /human 150 µg/3D- intermittent mild85DKA8 -,127,1977
skin /man 1%/2DCODEDG 58,175,2008
skin /rabbit 2 mg/24H severe85JCAE -,264,1986
skin /rabbit 540 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 4/21/1967
skin /rabbit 50 mg/24H moderateTXAPA9 21,369,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species40 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/grasshopper750 µmol/LENMUDM 8,401,1986
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human10 mg/LTSITAQ 24,1056,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/human2 mmol/LMUREAV 119,309,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat500 µg/m3/17W-continuousGISAAA 53(5),75,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat15 ppm/5D- intermittentENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),53,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse100 mg/kgENMUDM 4,317,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse15 mg/kgENMUDM 5,381,1983
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster18 mg/LGMCRDC 27,95,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster200 µg/LENMUDM 7,1,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse125 µmol/L/2HMUTAEX 17,183,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human0.0003 µmol/L/30HMUREAV 649,45,2008
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human150 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 719,35,2011
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human0.9 µg/L/8H/18Y- intermittentMUREAV 698,11,2010
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human50 µmol/L/10DTOLED5 225,233,2014
DNA adductother cell types/human500 mg/LMUREAV 563,13,2004
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)500 ppmMOLBBJ 7,201,1973
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli5 ppmMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human10 µmol/LCRNGDP 17,121,1996
DNA Damagefibroblast/human100 µmol/LENMUDM 7,267,1985
DNA Damagelung/human100 µmol/LSCIEAS 220,216,1983
DNA Damageleukocyte/human12500 nmol/LMUREAV 468,93,2000
DNA Damageliver/mouse250 µmol/LCRNGDP 15,991,1994
DNA Damageleukocyte/mouse125 µmol/LJJIND8 67,217,1981
DNA Damageovary/hamster1 mmol/LMUREAV 367,143,1996
DNA Damageliver/rat1 mmol/LCRNGDP 15,991,1994
DNA Damageinhalation/rat35 µg/m3/8W- intermittentPRKHDK 4,101,1979
DNA Damageoral/rat10 µmol/kgENMUDM 4,317,1982
DNA Damageother cell types/rat500 µmol/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
DNA Damageother cell types/rat200 µmol/LTXCYAC 51,309,1988
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)660 mmol/LBIORAK 39,436,1974
DNA Damageother cell types/mouse62.5 µmol/L/2HMUTAEX 17,183,2002
DNA Damageleukocyte/chicken500 ppmCELLB5 5,45,1975
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.1 mmol/L/3H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.3 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human0.001 µmol/L/1HNSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R113,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/human25 µmol/LMUTAEX 22,69,2007
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster50 µmol/LMUREAV 649,146,2008
DNA Damagemammary gland/human0.14 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damageother cell types/rat5 mmol/L/10MMUREAV 634,51,2007
DNA Damagelung/human100 µmol/L/1HEMMUEG 49,300,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/human200 µmol/L/24HTOLED5 198,289,2010
DNA Damagelung/mouse2 mmol/L/1HTIVIEQ 27,798,2013
DNA Damagefibroblast/human0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
DNA Damagefibroblast/mouse0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
DNA Damageother cell types/human150 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 719,35,2011
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human400 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat100 µmol/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human210 µmol/LCNREA8 45,2522,1985
DNA inhibition/Escherichia coli5 mmol/LMUREAV 156,153,1985
DNA repair/Escherichia coli1950 µg/LCRNGDP 2,189,1981
DNA repairinhalation/human0.9 µg/L/8H/18Y- intermittentMUREAV 698,11,2010
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/rat625 µg/kg/5D-continuousMUREAV 389,141,1997
Dominant Lethal Testoral/Drosophila melanogaster1300 ppmMGGEAE 106,286,1970
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae24 mmol/LMUREAV 33,179,1975
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse10 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testoral/rat200 mg/kg/30HMUTAEX 4,327,1989
micronucleus testmultiple/other fish0.0074 pph/1H/5D- intermittentMUREAV 724,22,2011
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human300 µmol/L/27HMUTAEX 26,805,2011
micronucleus testlung/human300 µmol/L/2HMUTAEX 26,805,2011
micronucleus testlung/human150 µmol/L/30HMUTAEX 26,805,2011
micronucleus testother cell types/human300 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 22,69,2007
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse25 µmol/L/24HTOLED5 225,233,2014
micronucleus testfibroblast/human0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster3 mmol/L/15MMUREAV 514,133,2002
micronucleus testinhalation/human2 ppm/15MMUREAV 605,30,2006
micronucleus testinhalation/human0.1 ppm/8HMUREAV 615,18,2007
micronucleus testinhalation/human0.985 mg/m3/8H/8.5YMUREAV 588,22,2005
micronucleus testother cell types/human300 µmol/L/44HMUTAEX 22,69,2007
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster100 µmol/LMUREAV 649,146,2008
morphological transformkidney/rat100 µmol/L/3HEJCODS 22,671,1986
morphological transformembryo/hamster125 µg/LMUREAV 356,85,1996
morphological transformkidney/hamster4 mg/LCRNGDP 4,457,1983
morphological transformembryo/mouse1 mg/LENMUDM 4,357,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse74 mg/LFCTOD7 23,115,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human130 µmol/L50RXAH 2,173,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster1 mmol/LMUREAV 367,143,1996
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.25 µmol/L/20M (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 514,133,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium8.48 µg/plate/72H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 15,495,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli5 µg/plate/48HMUTAEX 15,317,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium5 µg/plate/48HMUTAEX 15,317,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli2.5 mmol/L/30MMUTAEX 22,353,2007
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse25 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 23,115,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa10 mmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step)CSHSAZ 16,245,1952
mutation in microorganisms/Serratia marcescens5 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)ATXKA8 28,93,1971
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1 pph/5M-continuous (-enzymatic activation step)MMAPAP 49,205,1973
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms10 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)POASAD 34,114,1953
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms200 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)APMBAY 6,45,1958
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)JOBAAY 63,1,1952
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms250 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)SOGEBZ 8,412,1972
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1 pph/15M (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 7,19,1969
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms200 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 62,239,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium100 µmol/L (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 1,427,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli100 ppm/3H (-enzymatic activation step)AMNTA4 85,119,1951
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli300 µmol/LMUREAV 203,81,1988
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium19 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systemsother cell types/non-mammalian species40 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972
other mutation test systemsother cell types/non-mammalian species25 mmol/LECREAL 95,233,1975
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human210 µmol/LCNREA8 45,2522,1985
other mutation test systemsother cell types/rat100 µmol/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human10 mg/LTSITAQ 24,1056,1982
phage inhibition capacityembryo/hamster3 µL/LENMUDM 6,474,1984
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli25 µg/wellMUREAV 260,349,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans20 mg/LEVHPAZ 31,81,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionmultiple/non-mammalian species700 ppmMUREAV 201,137,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionunreported route/Drosophila melanogaster10 pph/3H-continuousAMNTA4 90,377,1956
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster7 pph/24HTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster250 ppmTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster2000 ppmENMUDM 7,677,1985
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human125 µmol/LMUTAEX 1,427,1986
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/mouse0.013 mmol/L/24HTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/human0.4 ppm/15Y- intermittentMUREAV 514,115,2002
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster67 µmol/LARTODN 58,10,1985
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster110 µg/LENMUDM 7,1,1985
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/human0.985 mg/m3/8H/8.5YMUREAV 588,22,2005
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster100 µmol/LMUREAV 649,146,2008
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/human200 µmol/L/72HMUTAEX 22,69,2007
specific locus testother cell types/mouse125 µmol/L/2HMUTAEX 17,183,2002
specific locus testinhalation/human0.9 µg/L/8H/18Y- intermittentMUREAV 698,11,2010
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster12500 µmol/LMUREAV 182,243,1987
specific locus testunreported route/non-mammalian species700 ppmMUREAV 80,273,1981
sperm morphologyoral/rat200 mg/kgARTODN 53,71,1983
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/rat625 µg/kg/5D-continuousMUREAV 389,141,1997
sperm morphologyintratesticular/domestic animal23 mg/kgIJEBA6 11,143,1973
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rat50 µmol/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat55 mg/kgJJCREP 79,917,1988
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat400 mmol/LMUREAV 221,263,1989
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human10 nmol/LCNREA8 38,2621,1978

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 1 mg/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)HYSAAV 34(5),266,1969
inhalation/rat 12 µg/m3/24H (15D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
HYSAAV 33(1-3),327,1968
inhalation/rat 12 µg/m3/24h (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicHYSAAV 33(7-9),112,1968
inhalation/rat 35 µg/m3/8H (60D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
PRKHDK 4,101,1979
inhalation/rat 12 µg/m3/24H (20D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicBEXBAN 66,868,1968
inhalation/rat 500 µg/m3/4H (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
GISAAA 56(9),35,1991
inhalation/rat 40 ppm (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)VCVGK* -,341,1994
inhalation/rat 0.0005 gm/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TPKVAL 12,78,1971
inhalation/rat 0.75 ppm (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXAPA9 278,266,2014
intramuscular/mouse 259 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ANREAK 142,479,1962
intraperitoneal/rat 80 mg/kg (10D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
JRBED2 7,42,1987
intraperitoneal/mouse 240 mg/kg (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 28,37A,1983
intraperitoneal/mouse 240 mg/kg (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTJADAB 30(1),34A,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse 160 mg/kg (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTJADAB 30(1),34A,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse 500 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)MUREAV 130,417,1984
intratesticular/rat 400 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)FESTAS 24,884,1973
intratesticular/Dog 7 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductAEFTAA 6,349,1975
intratesticular/monkey 4 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FESTAS 41,465,1984
intratesticular/domestic animal 6667 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 11,143,1973
oral/rat 17.6 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)VCVGK* -,341,1994
oral/rat 176 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
VCVGK* -,341,1994
oral/rat 10.5 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
GISAAA 6,31,1994
oral/rat 168 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemGISAAA 54(3),89,1989
oral/rat 168 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemGISAAA 55(3),89,1990
oral/rat 200 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TJADAB 26(3),14A,1982
oral/rat 168 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicGISAAA 55(4),36,1990
subcutaneous/rat 46243 mg/kg (20D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductENDOAO 28,129,1941

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 14300 ppb/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation/mouse toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
EVSRBT 25,353,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CIIT** DOCKET #10992,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 5600 ppb/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 14300 ppb/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
50EXAK -,111,1983
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 40,3398,1980
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 14300 ppb/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 6 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
EVSRBT 25,353,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/86W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXAPA9 81,401,1985
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 14 ppm/6H/84W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
JJIND8 68,597,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 18750 µg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
GISAAA 48(4),60,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 109 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
TIHEEC 5,699,1989
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1170 mg/kg/65W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
GANNA2 45,451,1954
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FAONAU 50A,71,1972

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.56 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.13 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.013 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 5.8 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4.3 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): 8220 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 63.0 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.9 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 7000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 7000 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/6WIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 205,235,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell growth: Colony formation

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)
TXAPA9 286,135,2015
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TXAPA9 286,135,2015
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 292,13,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 150 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 292,13,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/15MBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphokinaseTXCYAC 292,13,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/24WIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 205,235,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 16 gm/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.8 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.5 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.6 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 292,13,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,100,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 75 µg/m3/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 195,99,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µg/m3/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 195,99,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1400 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1400 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1400 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 3500 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
FCTOD7 62,763,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)
FCTOD7 62,763,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 62,763,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/8HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 62,763,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 350 µmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 3500 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 200,109,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 103 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 82 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 83 µmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 128 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 83.2 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTOLED5 223,154,2013
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 40 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 223,154,2013
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 190 mg/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1233,2013
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 126 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 126 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXAPA9 283,147,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 400 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 283,147,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 201.6 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 245,281,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 63.2 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 245,281,2010
In Vitro/jdcInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 198,289,2010
In Vitro/jdcInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 198,289,2010
In Vitro/jdcInhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µg/L/3HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 229,144,2014
In Vitro/jpcInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/10DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 225,233,2014
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 12.7 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 28,626,2014
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.013 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.13 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.32 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 26,1056,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 20.48 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.008 gm/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTIVIEQ 3,329,1989
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 80 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysNRTXDN 33,290,2012
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 80 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
NRTXDN 33,290,2012
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 60 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysNRTXDN 33,290,2012
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3/1MBehavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3/3MGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomitingVCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 400 mg/m3/2H85GMAT -,69,1982
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 17 mg/m3/30MEye: Lacrimation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAMAAP 165,1908,1957
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3Behavioral: HeadacheVCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 ppmLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 ppmEye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,345,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6MEye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVGK* -,345,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/40MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,337,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.75 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 44,87,2005
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 300 µg/m3Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Aggression
GTPZAB 12(7),20,1968
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 2.55 ppm/2MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 454 mg/m3/4HCUTOEX 1,47,1993
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 505 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 155 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 308 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 ppm/15MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiTOLED5 199,254,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 ppm/45MVascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOLED5 199,254,2010
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 578 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/2HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppmOlfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Gastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipation
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/10MOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 203 mg/m3Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
GTPZAB 18(2),55,1974
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/4HENTOX* -,375,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 815 ppm/0.5HENTOX* -,375,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.005 gm/m3/4HTPKVAL 11,143,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 gm/m3/4HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
TPKVAL 11,143,1969
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/4HTPKVAL 11,143,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6HOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,338,1984
intradermal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.3 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFITOT* 82,620,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 16 mg/kgTXAPA9 23,288,1972
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgBlood: Other changesAPTOA6 8,275,1952
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kgIPSTB3 3,93,1976
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 48 mg/kgARZNAD 5,213,1955
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 87 mg/kgVCVGK* -,336,1984
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 mg/kgVCVGK* -,336,1984
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,338,1984
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 2.14 mL/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Pleural effusion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
JTCTDW 45,72,2007
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 646 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JJTOEX 4,261,1991
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 643 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JJTOEX 4,261,1991
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 42 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
NTIS** AD-A125-539
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 385 mg/kgVCVGK* -,335,1984
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
oral/rat lethal dose (16 percent kill): 284 mg/kgVCVGK* -,335,1984
oral/rat lethal dose (84 percent kill): 729 mg/kgVCVGK* -,335,1984
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgFCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 108 mg/kg29ZWAE -,328,1968
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 1 mL/kgBehavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion
ICMED9 23,708,1997
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JTCTDW 41,665,2003
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 800 µg/kgIPSTB3 3,93,1976
parenteral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.05 mg/kgEye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Eye: Hemorrhage

Eye: Other eye effects
PHTOEH 89,74,2001
parenteral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgCardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)PHTOEH 89,74,2001
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFATOAO 50,94,1987
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kgVCVGK* -,336,1984
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 µL/kgUCDS** 4/21/1967
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 255,100,2009
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 350 mg/kgIPSTB3 3,93,1976
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgVCVGK* -,335,1984
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 292,331,2000
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma
APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18.18 mg/kgSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changesBCLPT* 105,120,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJOETD7 149,191,2013
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 240 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJAMAAP 62,984,1914
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 420 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma
APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.42 µL/kgSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changesBPBLEO 31,1559,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.009 gm/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationPYTOEY 10,474,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerveJCINAO 111,507,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.83 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 292,743,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distributionBJMRDK 34,397,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXIA6 43,273,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changesJPETAB 309,616,2004
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.42 gm/kgENTOX* -,375,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.76 mg/kgSpinal Cord: Inflammatory changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 441,67,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increaseFATOAO 45,81,1982
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 477 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 mg/m3/6H/8W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/50H-continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 0.011 mg/m3/30D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune responseVCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 14 pph/168D- intermittentEye: Other eye effectsVCVGK* -,341,1994
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 42 mg/m3/6H/2W- intermittentOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septumVCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/6H/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 3 pph/30D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 7.2 mg/m3/6H/30D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseVCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/1H/35W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiVCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 14.3 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentOlfaction: TumorsVCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppb/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppb/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppb/12W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/2W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOLED5 223,154,2013
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 214,35,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 256,157,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/12W- continuousOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ETPAEK 61,297,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 12.8 mg/m3/10W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOVEFN (5),13,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.005 gm/m3/19D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,78,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.0005 gm/m3/19D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTPKVAL 12,78,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5.6 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentOlfaction: TumorsVCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.36 mg/m3/6H/122W- intermittentOlfaction: TumorsVCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBehavioral: AtaxiaVCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/2W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesteraseVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/90D- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.035 mg/m3/98D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.012 mg/m3/98D- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/182D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/4W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 9.6 mg/m3/22H/60D- intermittentEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Liver: Changes in liver weight
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/40D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 mg/m3/60D- intermittentLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/50H-continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/90M/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 207,278,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/90M/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 205,327,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/90M/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 207,278,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6H/24W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ENVRAL 49,50,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 ppm/30M/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsTOLED5 47,287,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 99 ppm/6H/30D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,73,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3200 ppb/6H/3D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FAATDF 29,208,1996
inhalation/woman lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentBehavioral: Headache

Behavioral: Irritability
VCVGK* -,342,1994
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/13D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TIHEEC 23,573,2007
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2730 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
IYKEDH 24,1175,1993
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 9100 mg/kg/13W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainVCVGK* -,339,1994
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 29.68 mL/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
VHTODE 43,330,2001
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 198.45 mL/kg/7W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainVHTODE 43,330,2001
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 26.88 mL/kg/2W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 13.4925 mL/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 20.72 mL/kg/3W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 23.52 mL/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 48.44 mL/kg/2W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 97.86 mL/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 29.0675 mL/kg/8W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Reproductive: Other effects on female
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 112.14 mL/kg/8W- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 208.18 mL/kg/8W- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13650 mg/kg/13W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainVCVGK* -,339,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 962.5 mg/kg/11W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGK* -,339,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: GastritisVCVGK* -,339,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/20D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesVCVGK* -,339,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
FCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/2Y- continuousGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 27,77,1989
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13.4 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJOETD7 135,55,2011
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 pph/3D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune responseTXCYAC 261,103,2009
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)CODEDG 45,89,2001
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg/3D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Increased immune responseTXCYAC 117,229,1997
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationTXCYAC 117,229,1997
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFTRPAE 75,557,2004
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 380 mg/kg/20D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,339,1994
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1540 mg/kg/20D- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,339,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-ceiling concentration 0.3 ppm (sen)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 29,345,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 62,217,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMSUDL 7,211,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 62,217,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,430,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 1IMEMDT 88,280,2006
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,430,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMSUDL 7,211,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 2AIMEMDT 62,217,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100F,430,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW32XPAD -,49,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRTOPDW 34,17,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 17,349,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,179,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,239,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,261,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,111,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 612,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 10,29,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,375,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 6,85,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,259,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 233,355,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 252,40,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,150,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,144,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 88,171,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,225,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,33,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,51,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,152,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 711,13,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,118,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,35,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,72,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,375,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 250,87,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,49,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 203,20,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 203,97,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 761,40,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 49,196,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 743,10,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764,31,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 765,19,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,679,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,53,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,68,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 84,133,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,12,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,122,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDair-ceiling concentration 2 ppm (3 mg/m3)DTLWS* 3,19,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3);KZW 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), skin, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 0.3 ppm (0.38 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.3 ppm (0.37 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.5 ppm, VLE 1 ppm, C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.3 ppm (0.37 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.6 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.12 mg/m3), 2A carc, a2 sen, s1 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANceiling concentration 0.2 ppm (0.24 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOpeak 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDceiling concentration 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average short term exposure limit 0,3 ppm (0,37 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.3 ppm (0.37 mg/m3), KZG-week 0.6 ppm (0.74 mg/m3), carc 3, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 3 ppm, short term exposure limit 5 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1.5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (6 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (6 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1148CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 5 ppm (6 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)see 1910.1048CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMALDEHYDE-air8H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.016 ppm;ceiling concentration 0.1 ppm/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code M1529; Number of Industries 87; Total Number of Facilities 11309; Number of Occupations 69; Total Number of Employees Exposed 207013; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 104994
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 33640; Number of Industries 309; Total Number of Facilities 65738; Number of Occupations 193; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1329322; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 441902
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code M1529; Number of Industries 72; Total Number of Facilities 10311; Number of Occupations 67; Total Number of Employees Exposed 66921
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 33640; Number of Industries 213; Total Number of Facilities 33243; Number of Occupations 155; Total Number of Employees Exposed 394660

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166654)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: N crassa-reversion; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Aldehydes, screening, 2539
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formaldehyde by GC, 2541; by VIS, 3500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formaldehyde by on dust (textile or wood), 5700
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 34, APRIL 1981
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #52
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-102
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID205
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