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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-, dichloride

RTECS #

DW2275000

CAS #

1910-42-5; 3765-78-4; 57593-74-5; 65982-50-5; 136338-65-3; 205105-68-6; 247050-57-3

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

257.18

Molecular Formula

C12H14N2·2Cl

Synonyms

1,1'-Dimethyl-4
1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridynium dichloride
1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium-dichlorid (German)
4,4'-Dimethyldipyridyl dichloride
4'-bipyridilium dichloride
AH 501
Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-, dichloride
Cekuquat
Crisquat
Dextrone
Dextrone-X
Dexuron
Dimethyl viologen chloride
Dwuchlorek 1,1'-dwumetylo-4,4'-dwupirydyniowy (Polish)
Esgram
Galokson
Goldquat 276
Gramixel
Gramoxon
Gramoxone
Gramoxone D
Gramoxone dichloride
Gramoxone S
Gramoxone W
Gramuron
Herbaxon
Herboxone
Methyl viologen
Methyl viologen (reduced)
Methyl viologen dichloride
Methylviologen
N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride
OK 622
Ortho paraquat CL
Parakwat (Polish)
Paraquat (OSHA)
Paraquat chloride
Paraquat CL
Paraquat, dichloride
Pathclear
Pillarquat
Pillarxone
Praquat dichloride
Toxer total
Viologen, methyl-

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 25 mg mildBJIMAG 23,126,1966
eye /rabbit 12500 µg severeBECTA6 9,163,1973

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human7715 mg/LMUREAV 319,89,1993
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster20 µmol/LTIVIEQ 3,53,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster100 mg/LMUREAV 188,241,1987
DNA Damagelung/rat1 µmol/LCRNGDP 19,809,1998
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human250 mg/LMUREAV 344,41,1995
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat900 mg/LARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibitionoral/rat126 mg/kgFCTXAV 13,47,1975
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human900 mg/LARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium100 µg/plateMUREAV 68,183,1979
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 ppmMUREAV 21,83,1973
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse60 mg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae40 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/L/18H (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 653,63,2008
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans400 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 68,183,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli2 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 163,15,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2500 ng/plate (+enzymatic activation step)TOLED5 3,169,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)ABCHA6 45,327,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)IJEBA6 11,114,1973
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae12859 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 319,89,1993
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium1 gm/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systemsoral/rat126 mg/kgFCTXAV 13,47,1975
other mutation test systemsliver/chicken50 mg/LEJTXAZ 8,226,1975
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli2090 mmol/LMUREAV 267,1,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster1929 mg/LMUREAV 319,89,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans20 gm/LMUREAV 68,183,1979
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/rat1250 µg/LMUREAV 188,311,1987
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster1 mmol/LPAACA3 25,110,1984
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster80 nmol/LTIVIEQ 3,53,1989
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster100 mg/LMUREAV 188,311,1987
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster2 mmol/LMUREAV 280,291,1992
specific locus testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster4 mmol/LMUREAV 440,139,1999
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human20 mg/LMUREAV 68,183,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human20 mg/LMUREAV 68,183,1979

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 6500 µg/kg (6D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system26UZAB 6,257,1968/1970
intraperitoneal/mouse 30150 µg/kg (8-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TXAPA9 33,450,1975
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 mg/kg (2D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)REPTED 20,239,2005
oral/mouse 1163 gm/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)AECTCV 16,759,1987
oral/mouse 1785 gm/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsAECTCV 16,759,1987
oral/rat 149 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleNNGADV 13,157,1988
oral/rat 14 mg/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
MSCREJ 23,27,1995
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
MSCREJ 23,27,1995
oral/rat 14 mg/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: StillbirthMSCREJ 23,27,1995
subcutaneous/rat 7 mg/kg (21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemJTSCDR 19,151,1994

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 336 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 47 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 127 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 21 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Human, colon tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1012 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 232,271,2015
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 232 gm/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 45 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 20 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9.2 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 208,101,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 208,101,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.3 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 1,85,1987
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,3206,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,3206,2012
In Vitro/Human, melanoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 400 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
NETOX* 32,586,2011
In Vitro/Human, melanoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 400 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroNETOX* 32,586,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,239,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TOLED5 199,239,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/36HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,239,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,239,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 228,179,2014
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.8 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 94.5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1357,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 5.88 µmol/L/44HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1416,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/10DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TOLED5 230,188,2014
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 µmol/L/10DBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 230,188,2014
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 400 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TOLED5 213,316,2012
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 600 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TOLED5 213,316,2012
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 2,275,1988
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.26 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 18,79,2004
inhalation/Dog Lethal concentration: >4 mg/m3/3.4HBJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 2200 µg/m3/2.5HBJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation/mouse Lethal concentration: >2200 µg/m3/2.5HBJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation/rabbit Lethal concentration: >2200 µg/m3/2.5HBJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1 mg/m3/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32585 ng/kgVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic sectionNRTXDN 31,305,2010
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 mg/kgBJIMAG 23,126,1966
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPTLAS 128,21,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgCardiac: Change in rate

Cardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 312,115,2013
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 18 mg/kgBehavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VHTODE 21,404,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kgEye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)JTEHD6 60,477,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 216,181,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXID9 227,73,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTXCYAC 225,157,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 19 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
BJIMAG 23,126,1966
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 70,100,2014
intraperitoneal/turkey lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrheaPOSCAL 52,1625,1973
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 34500 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
FAATDF 2,261,1982
intravenous/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mg/kgJTCTDW 19,911,1983
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 180 mg/kgCSLNX* NX#00224
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TXAPA9 22,241,1972
intravenous/turkey lowest published lethal dose: 12500 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrheaPOSCAL 52,1625,1973
multiple/woman lowest published lethal dose: 12200 µg/kg/30D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
YJBMAU 50,481,1977
ocular/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgBECTA6 9,163,1973
oral/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 35 mg/kgIYKEDH 10,520,1979
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 262 mg/kgBJIMAG 23,126,1966
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 30 µL/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VHTODE 34,164,1992
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgIYKEDH 10,520,1979
oral/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg85GYAV -,104,1971
oral/duck lethal dose (50 percent kill): 199 mg/kgTXAPA9 47,451,1979
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
EXMPA6 17,317,1972
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 214 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
YKYUA6 30,985,1979
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BMJOAE 3,290,1968
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 43 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
BMJOAE 2,396,1978
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 857 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
NIBKAW 70,118,1981
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 1720 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
CTOXAO 18,915,1981
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 57 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BJCPAT 30,71,1976
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 3380 µL/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum
AJEMEN 6,509,1988
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 285.7 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JFLME* 15,48,2008
oral/monkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
EXMPA6 17,317,1972
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 120 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
GEPHDP 12,225,1981
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 73,140,2014
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 175 mg/kgTOLED5 143,51,2003
oral/pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg85GYAV -,104,1971
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 69030 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AIMJA9 23,599,1972
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 57 mg/kgRREVAH 10,97,1965
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58.27 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effectsRJENT* 2,53,2008
oral/turkey lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrheaPOSCAL 52,1625,1973
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Hemorrhage

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTCTDW 43,291,2005
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 111 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AIMDAP 146,681,1986
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kgBehavioral: Headache

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
FSIZAQ 27,494,1977
parenteral/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 mg/kgABHUE6 36,295,1985
parenteral/man lowest published lethal dose: 57 µL/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FSINDR 49,215,1991
skin/duck lethal dose (50 percent kill): 600 mg/kgTXAPA9 47,451,1979
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 325 mg/kgSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)BJIMAG 23,126,1966
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kgWRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin/turkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 375 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrheaPOSCAL 52,1625,1973
subcutaneous/man lowest published lethal dose: 3 µL/kgAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
BMJOAE 3,721,1967
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 37 mg/kgNNGADV 13,157,1988
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27 mg/kgNNGADV 13,157,1988

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 400 µg/m3/6H/3W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionFAATDF 10,717,1988
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1100 µg/m3/4H/19W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
KHZDAN 15,25,1972
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 750 µg/m3/6H/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 650 µg/m3/1H/3W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/21D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
FCTOD7 48,1627,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.15 mg/kg/21D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseFCTOD7 48,1627,2010
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg/14D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EESADV 17,47,1989
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
EESADV 17,47,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Blood: Hemorrhage

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ARTODN 77,353,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 735 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
JTEHF8 59,477,2000
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.575 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JKMSEH 24,636,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 74.76 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
NRTXDN 31,310,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 224 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
NRTXDN 31,310,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3276 mg/kg/13W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 608 mg/kg/19W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
KHZDAN 12,325,1969
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1638 mg/kg/13W- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 187 mg/kg/30D- continuousBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
EESADV 7,475,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 232 mg/kg/15D- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTEHD6 44,29,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13140 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/8D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTXCYAC 236,199,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)TXCYAC 236,199,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/91D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 31,345,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/6D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,529,2007

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEPRA7 35,89,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCNDQA8 10(3),43,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 15,121,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJHPA9 35,1368,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 14,1,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 557,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,329,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 71,52487,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 32,383,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 767,67,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 97,23,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,140,1998
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (respirable), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.1 mg/m3;KZW 0.1 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0,1 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 0.1 mg/m3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3 (resp. dust), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dustCFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dustCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dustCFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84723; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 699; Number of Occupations 3; Total Number of Employees Exposed 873

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
On EPA IRIS database
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