Effects and Burden of HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STDs on Pregnant Women and Infants

Infection with HIV, viral hepatitis or STDs can affect the wellbeing of the mother, the pregnancy outcome, and child. HIV, hepatitis B, and syphilis infection can have particularly serious health consequences for both mothers and infants.

Not All Pregnant Women and Their Infants/Children are Equally Affected by HIV, Hepatitis B Infection, and Congenital Syphilis

Of the 1,995 children living with diagnosed perinatal HIV at the end of 2014 in the United States, 65% were black/African American; 15% were Hispanic/Latino; and 11% were white.1

Infants with perinatal hepatitis B infection are more likely to have a younger mother and be of Asian/Pacific Islander race.2

The highest diagnosis rates of congenital syphilis during 2016 were among non-Hispanic blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives, and occurred among women in the U.S. southern and western regions.3

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2015 pdf icon[PDF – 3.9 MB]; vol 27; Table 20a. Published November 2016. Accessed April 24, 2017.
  2. Schillie S, Talker T, Veselsky S, et al. Outcomes of infants born to women infected with hepatitis Bexternal icon. Pediatrics 2015;135(5):e1141-1147.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance pdf icon[PDF – 21 MB]. Accessed February 16, 2018.
Page last reviewed: May 22, 2019