Current Issue

CDC Science Clips: Volume 13, Issue 13, April 13, 2021

This week, Science Clips is pleased to feature articles on the topic of Climate and Health.

Climate change is already a threat to human health, with impacts expected to intensify in the future. Climate-related events such as heat waves, severe storms, flooding, wildfires, and vector-borne disease outbreaks can all impact our health. While everyone can be affected, these impacts affect some communities more than others.

Featured articles highlight recent research and practice in the field of climate and health.

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from recent published literature. The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Climate Change and Health
      1. The Impact of Climate Change on Mental Health: A Systematic Descriptive Reviewexternal icon
        Cianconi P, Betrò S, Janiri L.
        Front Psychiatry. 2020 ;11:74.
        BACKGROUND: Climate change is one of the great challenges of our time. The consequences of climate change on exposed biological subjects, as well as on vulnerable societies, are a concern for the entire scientific community. Rising temperatures, heat waves, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, fires, loss of forest, and glaciers, along with disappearance of rivers and desertification, can directly and indirectly cause human pathologies that are physical and mental. However, there is a clear lack in psychiatric studies on mental disorders linked to climate change. METHODS: Literature available on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library until end of June 2019 were reviewed. The total number of articles and association reports was 445. From these, 163 were selected. We looked for the association between classical psychiatric disorders such as anxiety schizophrenia, mood disorder and depression, suicide, aggressive behaviors, despair for the loss of usual landscape, and phenomena related to climate change and extreme weather. Review of literature was then divided into specific areas: the course of change in mental health, temperature, water, air pollution, drought, as well as the exposure of certain groups and critical psychological adaptations. RESULTS: Climate change has an impact on a large part of the population, in different geographical areas and with different types of threats to public health. However, the delay in studies on climate change and mental health consequences is an important aspect. Lack of literature is perhaps due to the complexity and novelty of this issue. It has been shown that climate change acts on mental health with different timing. The phenomenology of the effects of climate change differs greatly-some mental disorders are common and others more specific in relation to atypical climatic conditions. Moreover, climate change also affects different population groups who are directly exposed and more vulnerable in their geographical conditions, as well as a lack of access to resources, information, and protection. Perhaps it is also worth underlining that in some papers the connection between climatic events and mental disorders was described through the introduction of new terms, coined only recently: ecoanxiety, ecoguilt, ecopsychology, ecological grief, solastalgia, biospheric concern, etc. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of climate change can be direct or indirect, short-term or long-term. Acute events can act through mechanisms similar to that of traumatic stress, leading to well-understood psychopathological patterns. In addition, the consequences of exposure to extreme or prolonged weather-related events can also be delayed, encompassing disorders such as posttraumatic stress, or even transmitted to later generations.

      2. How Can U.S. Employers Keep Workers Safe From the Health Harms of Climate Change?external icon
        Constible J, Knowlton K.
        Am J Health Promot. 2021 Jan;35(1):143-146.

      3. The “value” of values-driven data in identifying Indigenous health and climate change prioritiesexternal icon
        Donatuto J, Campbell L, Trousdale W.
        Climatic Change. 2020 2020/01/01;158(2):161-180.
        Scholars worldwide have stated that some of the most devastating health impacts from climate change are experienced by Indigenous peoples. Yet, climate change health assessments rely primarily on technical data from climate models, with limited local knowledge and little to no values-driven community data. Values-driven data provide important information about how people define what health means, their health priorities, and preferred actions to maintain or improve health. The Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA) developed and implemented a climate change health assessment founded on values-driven data. Successfully eliciting, structuring, and ultimately summarizing community values were achieved by incorporating tools and techniques from western disciplines (e.g., decision science, behavioral research) with local indigenous ways of learning and sharing. Results demonstrate that the assessment meaningfully engaged community members and effectively added their knowledge and values into the decision process. The assessment results protect and strengthen Swinomish community health and well-being by elevating health priorities, focusing limited energy and resources, ensuring that community members and others are working toward common goals, and establishing agreement around intended outcomes/results.

      4. The need for clean air: The way air pollution and climate change affect allergic rhinitis and asthmaexternal icon
        Eguiluz-Gracia I, Mathioudakis AG, Bartel S, Vijverberg SJ, Fuertes E, Comberiati P, Cai YS, Tomazic PV, Diamant Z, Vestbo J, Galan C, Hoffmann B.
        Allergy. 2020 Sep;75(9):2170-2184.
        Air pollution and climate change have a significant impact on human health and well-being and contribute to the onset and aggravation of allergic rhinitis and asthma among other chronic respiratory diseases. In Westernized countries, households have experienced a process of increasing insulation and individuals tend to spend most of their time indoors. These sequelae implicate a high exposure to indoor allergens (house dust mites, pets, molds, etc), tobacco smoke, and other pollutants, which have an impact on respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution derived from traffic and other human activities not only has a direct negative effect on human health but also enhances the allergenicity of some plants and contributes to global warming. Climate change modifies the availability and distribution of plant- and fungal-derived allergens and increases the frequency of extreme climate events. This review summarizes the effects of indoor air pollution, outdoor air pollution, and subsequent climate change on asthma and allergic rhinitis in children and adults and addresses the policy adjustments and lifestyle changes required to mitigate their deleterious effects.

      5. Associations Between Simulated Future Changes in Climate, Air Quality, and Human Healthexternal icon
        Fann NL, Nolte CG, Sarofim MC, Martinich J, Nassikas NJ.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jan 4;4(1):e2032064.
        IMPORTANCE: Future changes in climate are likely to adversely affect human health by affecting concentrations of particulate matter sized less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in many areas. However, the degree to which these outcomes may be mitigated by reducing air pollutant emissions is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To model the associations between future changes in climate, air quality, and human health for 2 climate models and under 2 air pollutant emission scenarios. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This modeling study simulated meteorological conditions over the coterminous continental US during a 1995 to 2005 baseline and over the 21st century (2025-2100) by dynamically downscaling representations of a high warming scenario from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Coupled Model version 3 (CM3) global climate models. Using a chemical transport model, PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were simulated under a 2011 air pollutant emission data set and a 2040 projection. The changes in PM2.5 and O3-attributable deaths associated with climate change among the US census-projected population were estimated for 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2095 for each of 2 emission inventories and climate models. Data were analyzed from June 2018 to June 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcomes were simulated change in summer season means of the maximum daily 8-hour mean O3, annual mean PM2.5, population-weighted exposure, and the number of avoided or incurred deaths associated with these pollutants. Results are reported for 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2095, compared with 2000, for 2 climate models and 2 air pollutant emissions data sets. RESULTS: The projected increased maximum daily temperatures through 2095 were up to 7.6 °C for the CESM model and 11.8 °C for the CM3 model. Under each climate model scenario by 2095, compared with 2000, an estimated additional 21 000 (95% CI, 14 000-28 000) PM2.5-attributable deaths and 4100 (95% CI, 2200-6000) O3-attributable deaths were projected to occur. These projections decreased to an estimated 15 000 (95% CI, 10 000-20 000) PM2.5-attributable deaths and 640 (95% CI, 340-940) O3-attributable deaths when simulated using a future emission inventory that accounted for reduced anthropogenic emissions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that reducing future air pollutant emissions could also reduce the climate-driven increase in deaths associated with air pollution by hundreds to thousands.

      6. Ticks exist on all continents and carry more zoonotic pathogens than any other type of vector. Ticks spend most of their lives in the external environment away from the host and are thus expected to be affected by changes in climate. Most empirical and theoretical studies demonstrate or predict range shifts or increases in ticks and tick-borne diseases, but there can be a lot of heterogeneity in such predictions. Tick-borne disease systems are complex, and determining whether changes are due to climate change or other drivers can be difficult. Modeling studies can help tease apart and understand the roles of different drivers of change. Predictive models can also be invaluable in projecting changes according to different climate change scenarios. However, validating these models remains challenging, and estimating uncertainty in predictions is essential. Another focus for future research should be assessing the resilience of ticks and tick-borne pathogens to climate change.

      7. Developing an Experimental Climate and Health Monitor and Outlookexternal icon
        Jones HM, Quintana AV, Trtanj J, Balbus J, Schramm P, Saha S, Castranio T, Di Liberto TE.
        Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 2020 01 Oct. 2020;101(10):E1690-E1696.
        The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Climate and Health Monitor and Outlook (CHMO) workshop convened 23 experts in climate and health from government and academia to understand how existing climate and health prediction systems for specific diseases, vectors, and pathogens are producing and sharing information for health decision-making. The principal goal of the workshop was to understand how a national, integrated climate and health outlook, focused on vector-borne diseases, could be developed to support public health decision-makers in managing health risks. The CHMO workshop enabled the group to incorporate lessons and information from the many existing disease prediction systems across the nation to discuss how to create a consistent national view of potential health impacts from predicted future climatic conditions. This workshop summary synthesizes our discussion, captures a table of datasets and products that the CHMO can draw upon to characterize important aspects of climate-sensitive disease risk, and suggests a set of next steps to achieve progress in predicting these risks.

      8. The global climate has been changing over the last century due to greenhouse gas emissions and will continue to change over this century, accelerating without effective global efforts to reduce emissions. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) are inherently climate-sensitive due to the sensitivity of tick lifecycles to climate. Key direct climate and weather sensitivities include survival of individual ticks, and the duration of development and host-seeking activity of ticks. These sensitivities mean that in some regions a warming climate may increase tick survival, shorten life-cycles and lengthen the duration of tick activity seasons. Indirect effects of climate change on host communities may, with changes in tick abundance, facilitate enhanced transmission of tick-borne pathogens. High temperatures, and extreme weather events (heat, cold, and flooding) are anticipated with climate change, and these may reduce tick survival and pathogen transmission in some locations. Studies of the possible effects of climate change on TTBDs to date generally project poleward range expansion of geographical ranges (with possible contraction of ranges away from the increasingly hot tropics), upslope elevational range spread in mountainous regions, and increased abundance of ticks in many current endemic regions. However, relatively few studies, using long-term (multi-decade) observations, provide evidence of recent range changes of tick populations that could be attributed to recent climate change. Further integrated 'One Health' observational and modeling studies are needed to detect changes in TTBD occurrence, attribute them to climate change, and to develop predictive models of public- and animal-health needs to plan for TTBD emergence.

      9. Climate Change and Health: Local Solutions to Local Challengesexternal icon
        Schramm PJ, Ahmed M, Siegel H, Donatuto J, Campbell L, Raab K, Svendsen E.
        Curr Environ Health Rep. 2020 Dec;7(4):363-370.
        PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Climate change has direct impacts on human health, but those impacts vary widely by location. Local health impacts depend on a large number of factors including specific regional climate impacts, demographics and human vulnerabilities, and existing local adaptation capacity. There is a need to incorporate local data and concerns into climate adaptation plans and evaluate different approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided funding, technical assistance, and an adaptation framework to assist localities with climate planning and activities. The differing processes with which states, cities, and tribes develop and implement adaptation plans have been observed. We outline examples of the implementation of CDC's framework and activities for local adaptation, with a focus on case studies at differing jurisdictional levels (a state, a city, and a sovereign tribe). The use of local considerations and data are important to inform climate adaptation. The adaptable implementation of CDC's framework is helping communities protect health.

      10. How Indigenous Communities Are Adapting To Climate Change: Insights From The Climate-Ready Tribes Initiativeexternal icon
        Schramm PJ, Al Janabi AL, Campbell LW, Donatuto JL, Gaughen SC.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2020 Dec;39(12):2153-2159.
        Climate change directly threatens human health, with substantial impacts on Indigenous peoples, who are uniquely vulnerable as climate-related events affect their practices, lifeways, self-determination, and physical and cultural health. At the same time, Indigenous communities are leading the way in innovative health-related climate change adaptation work, using traditional knowledges and novel approaches. In 2016 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Indian Health Board created the Climate-Ready Tribes Initiative to support these efforts. The initiative has funded tribes, shared information nationally, and supported a learning cohort, resulting in pioneering work to protect health from climate hazards. We describe how two tribes-the Pala Band of Mission Indians and the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-implemented their Climate-Ready Tribes Initiative projects, and we provide recommendations for making climate and health policy more effective for tribes. Lessons learned from the Climate-Ready Tribes Initiative can inform climate and health policy and practice nationwide.

      11. The objective of this study is to assess ambient temperatures' and extreme heat events' contribution to work-related emergency department (ED) visits for hyperthermia in the southeastern United States to inform prevention. Through a collaborative network and established data framework, work-related ED hyperthermia visits in five participating southeastern U.S. states were analyzed using a time stratified case-crossover design. For exposure metrics, day- and location-specific measures of ambient temperatures and county-specific identification of extreme heat events were used. From 2010 to 2012, 5,017 work-related hyperthermia ED visits were seen; 2,298 (~46%) of these visits occurred on days when the daily maximum heat index was at temperatures the Occupational Safety and Health Administration designates as having "lower" or "moderate" heat risk. A 14% increase in risk of ED visit was seen for a 1°F increase in average daily mean temperature, modeled as linear predictor across all temperatures. A 54% increase in risk was seen for work-related hyperthermia ED visits during extreme heat events (two or more consecutive days of unusually high temperatures) when controlling for average daily mean temperature. Despite ambient heat being a well-known risk to workers' health, this study's findings indicate ambient heat contributed to work-related ED hyperthermia visits in these five states. Used alone, existing OSHA heat-risk levels for ambient temperatures did not appear to successfully communicate workers' risk for hyperthermia in this study. Findings should inform future heat-alert communications and policies, heat prevention efforts, and heat-illness prevention research for workers in the southeastern United States.

      12. Heat-Related Deaths - United States, 2004-2018external icon
        Vaidyanathan A, Malilay J, Schramm P, Saha S.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jun 19;69(24):729-734.
        Deaths attributable to natural heat exposure, although generally considered preventable (1), represent a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2004-2018, an average of 702 heat-related deaths occurred in the United States annually. To study patterns in heat-related deaths by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and level of urbanization, and to explore comorbid conditions associated with deaths resulting from heat exposure, CDC analyzed nationally comprehensive mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS).* The rate of heat-related mortality tended to be higher among males, persons aged ≥65 years, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives, and persons living in noncore nonmetropolitan and large central metropolitan counties. Natural heat exposure was a contributing cause of deaths attributed to certain chronic medical conditions and other external causes. Preparedness and response initiatives directed toward extreme heat events, currently underway at local, state, and national levels, can contribute to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with natural heat exposure. Successful public health interventions(†) to mitigate heat-related deaths include conducting outreach to vulnerable communities to increase awareness of heat-related symptoms and provide guidance for staying cool and hydrated, particularly for susceptible groups at risk such as young athletes and persons who are older or socially isolated (2). Improved coordination across various health care sectors could inform local activities to protect health during periods of high heat. For instance, jurisdictions can monitor weather conditions and syndromic surveillance data to guide timing of risk communication and other measures (e.g., developing and implementing heat response plans, facilitating communication and education activities) to prevent heat-related mortality in the United States. CDC also recommends that federal, state, local, and tribal jurisdictions open cooling centers or provide access to public locations with air conditioning for persons in need of a safe, cool, environment during hot weather conditions. In light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, CDC updated its guidance on the use of cooling centers to provide best practices (e.g., potential changes to staffing procedures, separate areas for persons with symptoms of COVID-19, and physical distancing) to reduce the risk for introducing and transmitting SARS COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, into cooling centers.(§).

      13. Climate change and gender-based health disparitiesexternal icon
        van Daalen K, Jung L, Dhatt R, Phelan AL.
        Lancet Planet Health. 2020 Feb;4(2):e44-e45.

      14. The 2020 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: responding to converging crisesexternal icon
        Watts N, Amann M, Arnell N, Ayeb-Karlsson S, Beagley J, Belesova K, Boykoff M, et al .
        Lancet. 2021 Jan 9;397(10269):129-170.
        For the Chinese, French, German, and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Addressing Oral Health Inequities, Access to Care, Knowledge, and Behaviorsexternal icon
        Hannan CJ, Ricks TL, Espinoza L, Weintraub JA.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2021 Mar 25;18:E27.

      2. Correlates of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV in Kenya: A cross-sectional studyexternal icon
        Kemper KE, McGrath CJ, Eckert LO, Kinuthia J, Singa B, Langat A, Drake AL.
        Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021 Mar 30.
        OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among Kenyan women. It is important to identify how demographics and knowledge of cervical cancer are associated with screening to determine best practices for targeted screening efforts. METHODS: We conducted a sub-analysis of women who were asked about cervical cancer from a cross-sectional study of women attending large HIV care and treatment programs across Kenya between June and September 2016. RESULTS: 1671 of 3007 (56%) women reported ever being screened, 804 (48%) of whom were screened within the last 12 months. Prevalence of screening was highest among women who were older (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [APR] age 35-49 versus 18-24: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.68-3.05, P<0.001), employed (APR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.24-1.93, P<0.001), married (APR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59, P=0.047), had at least secondary education (APR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77, P<0.001), with longer time since HIV diagnosis (APR: 1.09/year average increase, 95% CI: 1.04-1.13, P<0.001). 36% knew cervical cancer is treatable. CONCLUSION: Characteristics linked to social or economic capital are correlated with cervical cancer screening. Integrating cervical cancer screening into HIV care and educating patients on the need for annual screening and potential treatment are important strategies for increasing screening uptake.

      3. Occurrence rates of von Willebrand disease among people receiving care in specialized treatment centres in the United Statesexternal icon
        Michael Soucie J, Miller CH, Byams VR, Payne AB, Abe K, Sidonio RF, Kouides PA.
        Haemophilia. 2021 Mar 29.
        INTRODUCTION: In the network of U.S. comprehensive haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs), von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common bleeding disorder other than haemophilia. Estimates of the size and characteristics of the VWD population receiving treatment are useful for healthcare planning. AIM: Estimate the prevalence and incidence of VWD among males and females receiving care at U.S. HTCs (HTC-treated prevalence and incidence). METHODS: During the period 2012-2019, de-identified surveillance data were collected on all VWD patients who visited an HTC including year of birth, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, VWD type, and laboratory findings and used to calculate period HTC-treated prevalence by VWD type and sex. Data from patients born 1995-1999 were used to estimate HTC-treated incidence rates. RESULTS: During the period, 24,238 patients with a diagnosis of VWD attended HTCs; for 23,479 (96.9%), VWD type was reported or could be assigned. Age-adjusted HTC-treated prevalence was 8.6 cases/100,000 (7.2/100,000 for Type 1, 1.2/100,000 for Type 2 and 1.7/million for Type 3) and was twice as high in women as men (4.8 vs. 2.4 cases/100,000) for Type 1 and similar by sex for Type 2 and Type 3. HTC-treated Type 1 incidence increased over the period, averaging nearly threefold higher for women than men (26.2 vs. 9.9/100,000 live births). Sex differences were less for Type 2 (2.2 vs. 1.4 cases/100,000 births) and slight in Type 3. CONCLUSION: Prevalence and incidence of HTC-treated VWD differ by sex and type and are likely strongly influenced by differences in rates of diagnosis.

      4. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among employed US adults from 36 states by occupation group using data from 2014 to 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. METHODS: Prevalence of diabetes was calculated by 22 broad and 93 detailed occupation groups among a sample of 366,633 employed respondents. Wald chi-square values were used to determine the significance of associations between diabetes and occupation groups after adjusting for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes was 6.4% among employed US adults. The three broad occupation groups with the highest adjusted prevalence of diabetes were protective services (8.9%), farming, fishing, and forestry (8.8%), and community and social services (8.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of diabetes differed by occupation. Work-related factors (eg, shift work, job stress) should be further examined in relation to risk of developing diabetes.

      5. Clinical preventive services play an important role in preventing deaths, and Healthy People 2020 has set national goals for using clinical preventive services to improve population health (1). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires many health plans to cover certain recommended clinical preventive services without cost-sharing when provided in-network (covered clinical preventive services).* To ascertain prevalence of the use of selected recommended clinical preventive services among persons aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state-based annual nationwide survey conducted via landline and mobile phones in the United States, for 10 clinical preventive services covered in-network with no cost-sharing pursuant to the ACA. The weighted prevalence of colon, cervical, and breast cancer screening, pneumococcal and tetanus vaccination, and diabetes screening ranged from 66.0% to 79.2%; the prevalence of the other four clinical preventive services were <50%: 16.5% for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 26.6% for zoster (shingles) vaccination, 33.2% for influenza vaccination, and 45.8% for HIV testing. Prevalence of HIV testing had the widest variation (3.1-fold differences) across states among the 10 services included in this report. The prevalence of use of clinical preventive services varied by insurance status, income level, and rurality, findings that are consistent with previous studies (2-6). The use of nine of the 10 services examined was lower among the uninsured, those with lower income, and those living in rural communities. Among those factors examined, insurance status was the dominant factor strongly associated with use of clinical preventive services, followed by income-level and rurality. Understanding factors influencing use of recommended clinical preventive services can potentially help decision makers better identify policies to increase their use including strategies to increase insurance coverage.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Kawasaki Disease With Coronary Artery Lesions Detected at Initial Echocardiographyexternal icon
        Ae R, Maddox RA, Abrams JY, Schonberger LB, Nakamura Y, Kuwabara M, Makino N, Kosami K, Matsubara Y, Matsubara D, Sasahara T, Belay ED.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Mar 31:e019853.
        Background Detection of coronary artery lesions (CALs) at initial echocardiography can aid in diagnosing Kawasaki disease (KD) and inform primary adjunctive treatments. We aimed to characterize patients with KD with CALs detected at initial echocardiography. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the nationwide Japanese KD survey that contained information on 103 222 population-based patients diagnosed with KD across Japan during 2011 to 2018. Patients with CALs detected at initial echocardiography were assessed by age, day of illness, and number of principal KD signs (≥3). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors independently associated with CAL detection. Overall, 3707 (3.6%) patients had CALs detected at initial echocardiography. Patients aged <12 and ≥60 months were associated with CAL detection (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.28 [1.18‒1.39] and 1.32 [1.20‒1.45], respectively; reference, 12‒59 months). Patients with delayed hospital visits were increasingly at higher risk for CAL detection (days 7‒8, 1.84 [1.63‒2.08]; days 9-10, 4.30 [3.58-5.15]; and days ≥11, 9.12 [7.63‒10.90]; reference, days 1-4). Patients with 3 or 4 principal KD signs were independently associated with CAL detection (1.75 [1.63‒1.88]). These patients were significantly more likely to be aged <12 months but were not associated with delayed hospital visit. Younger patients visited at earlier days of illness. Conclusions Timely diagnosis could be beneficial for patients with KD. However, even when the hospital visit occurred early in the course of illness, patients with 3 or 4 principal KD signs, especially younger patients, were at higher risk of CAL detection at initial echocardiography.

      2. MSG07: An International Cohort Study Comparing Epidemiology and Outcomes of Patients with Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii infectionsexternal icon
        Baddley JW, Chen SC, Huisingh C, Benedict K, DeBess EE, Galanis E, Jackson BR, MacDougall L, Marsden-Haug N, Oltean H, Perfect JR, Phillips P, Sorrell TC, Pappas PG.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 27.
        BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii varies with geographic region, populations affected, disease manifestations and severity of infection, which impact treatment. METHODS: We developed a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with culture-proven cryptococcosis during 1995-2013 from five centers in North America and Australia. We compared underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes in patients with C. gattii or C. neoformans infection. RESULTS: A total of 709 patients (452 C. neoformans; 257 C. gattii) were identified. Mean age was 50.2 years; 61.4% were male; and 52.3% were Caucasian. Time to diagnosis was prolonged in C. gattii patients compared with C. neoformans (mean 52.2 vs 36.0 days; p<0.003) and there was a higher proportion of C. gattii patients without underlying disease (40.5% vs 10.2%; p<0.0001). Overall, 59% had central nervous system (CNS) infection, with lung (42.5%) and blood (24.5%) being common sites. Pulmonary infection was more common in patients with C. gattii than those with C. neoformans (60.7% vs 32.1%; p<0.0001). CNS or blood infections were more common in C. neoformans-infected patients (p≤0.0001 for both). Treatment of CNS disease with induction therapy of amphotericin B and flucytosine occurred in 76.4% of patients. Crude 12-month mortality was higher in patients with C neoformans (28.4% vs 20.2%; Odds Ratio 1.56; 95% CI 1.08, 2.26). CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes differences in species-specific epidemiology and outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis, including underlying diseases, site of infection and mortality. Species identification in patients with cryptococcosis is necessary to discern epidemiologic patterns, guide treatment regimens and predict clinical progression and outcomes.

      3. The long-term impact of the Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program on leprosy incidence: A modelling studyexternal icon
        Blok DJ, Steinmann P, Tiwari A, Barth-Jaeggi T, Arif MA, Banstola NL, Baskota R, Blaney D, Bonenberger M, Budiawan T, Cavaliero A, Gani Z, Greter H, Ignotti E, Kamara DV, Kasang C, Manglani PR, Mieras L, Njako BF, Pakasi T, Saha UR, Saunderson P, Smith WC, Stäheli R, Suriyarachchi ND, Tin Maung A, Shwe T, van Berkel J, van Brakel WH, Vander Plaetse B, Virmond M, Wijesinghe MS, Aerts A, Richardus JH.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Mar;15(3):e0009279.
        BACKGROUND: The Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program explored the feasibility and impact of contact tracing and the provision of single dose rifampicin (SDR) to eligible contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. As the impact of the programme is difficult to establish in the short term, we apply mathematical modelling to predict its long-term impact on the leprosy incidence. METHODOLOGY: The individual-based model SIMCOLEP was calibrated and validated to the historic leprosy incidence data in the study areas. For each area, we assessed two scenarios: 1) continuation of existing routine activities as in 2014; and 2) routine activities combined with LPEP starting in 2015. The number of contacts per index patient screened varied from 1 to 36 between areas. Projections were made until 2040. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all areas, the LPEP program increased the number of detected cases in the first year(s) of the programme as compared to the routine programme, followed by a faster reduction afterwards with increasing benefit over time. LPEP could accelerate the reduction of the leprosy incidence by up to six years as compared to the routine programme. The impact of LPEP varied by area due to differences in the number of contacts per index patient included and differences in leprosy epidemiology and routine control programme. CONCLUSIONS: The LPEP program contributes significantly to the reduction of the leprosy incidence and could potentially accelerate the interruption of transmission. It would be advisable to include contact tracing/screening and SDR in routine leprosy programmes.

      4. Prevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Health Care Workers - Zambia, July 2020external icon
        Fwoloshi S, Hines JZ, Barradas DT, Yingst S, Siwingwa M, Chirwa L, Zulu JE, Banda D, Wolkon A, Nikoi KI, Chirwa B, Kampamba D, Shibemba A, Sivile S, Zyambo KD, Chanda D, Mupeta F, Kapina M, Sinyange N, Kapata N, Zulu PM, Makupe A, Mweemba A, Mbewe N, Ziko L, Mukonka V, Mulenga LB, Malama K, Agolory S.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 30.
        INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Zambia have become infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, SARS-CoV-2 prevalence among HCWs is not known in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 prevalence survey among Zambian HCWs in twenty health facilities in six districts in July 2020. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for health facility clustering, were calculated for each test separately and a combined measure for those who had PCR and ELISA performed. RESULTS: In total, 660 HCWs participated in the study, with 450 (68.2%) providing nasopharyngeal swab for PCR and 575 (87.1%) providing a blood specimen for ELISA. Sixty-six percent of participants were females and the median age was 31.5 years (interquartile range 26.2-39.8 years). The overall prevalence of the combined measure was 9.3% (95% CI 3.8%-14.7%). PCR-positive prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 6.6% (95% CI 2.0%-11.1%) and ELISA-positive prevalence was 2.2% (95% CI 0.5%-3.9%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 prevalence among HCWs was similar to a population-based estimate (10.6%) during a period of community transmission in Zambia. Public health measures such as establishing COVID-19 treatment centers before the first cases, screening for COVID-19 symptoms among patients accessing health facilities, infection prevention and control trainings, and targeted distribution of personal protective equipment based on exposure risk might have prevented increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission among Zambian HCWs.

      5. OBJECTIVES: Despite a growing HIV threat, there is no definition and characterisation of key populations (KPs), who could be the major drivers of the epidemic in Turkey. We used programmatic mapping to identify locations where KPs congregate, estimate their numbers and understand their operational dynamics to develop appropriate HIV programme implementation strategies. METHODS: Female and transgender sex workers (FSWs and TGSWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM) were studied in İstanbul and Ankara. Within each district, hot spots were identified by interviewing key informants and a crude spot list in each district was developed. The spot validation process was led by KP members who facilitated spot access and interviews of KPs associated with that spot. Final estimates were derived by aggregating the estimated number of KPs at all spots, which was adjusted for the proportion of KPs who visit multiple spots, and for the proportion of KPs who do not visit spots. RESULTS: FSWs were the largest KP identified in İstanbul with an estimate of 30 447 (5.8/1000 women), followed by 15 780 TGSWs (2.9/1000 men) and 11 656 MSM (2.1/1000). The corresponding numbers in Ankara were 9945 FSWs (5.2/1000 women), 1770 TGSWs (1/1000 men) and 5018 MSM (2.5/1000 men). Each KP had unique typologies based on the way they find and interact with sex partners. MSM were mostly hidden and a higher proportion operated through internet and phone-based applications. Night time was the peak time with Friday, Saturday and Sunday being the peak days of activity in both İstanbul and Ankara. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted the presence of a substantial number of FSWs, TGSW and MSM in İstanbul and Ankara. The information obtained from this study can be used to set priorities for resource allocation and provide HIV prevention services where coverage could be the highest.

      6. COVID-19 Case Surveillance: Trends in Person-Level Case Data Completeness, United States, April 5-September 30, 2020external icon
        Gold JA, DeCuir J, Coyle JP, Duca LM, Adjemian J, Anderson KN, Baack BN, Bhattarai A, Dee D, Durant TM, Ewetola R, Finlayson T, Roush SW, Yin S, Jackson BR, Fullerton KE.
        Public Health Rep. 2021 Mar 31.
        OBJECTIVES: To obtain timely and detailed data on COVID-19 cases in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses 2 data sources: (1) aggregate counts for daily situational awareness and (2) person-level data for each case (case surveillance). The objective of this study was to describe the sensitivity of case ascertainment and the completeness of person-level data received by CDC through national COVID-19 case surveillance. METHODS: We compared case and death counts from case surveillance data with aggregate counts received by CDC during April 5-September 30, 2020. We analyzed case surveillance data to describe geographic and temporal trends in data completeness for selected variables, including demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and outcomes. RESULTS: As of November 18, 2020, national COVID-19 case surveillance data received by CDC during April 5-September 30, 2020, included 4 990 629 cases and 141 935 deaths, representing 72.7% of the volume of cases (n = 6 863 251) and 71.8% of the volume of deaths (n = 197 756) in aggregate counts. Nationally, completeness in case surveillance records was highest for age (99.9%) and sex (98.8%). Data on race/ethnicity were complete for 56.9% of cases; completeness varied by region. Data completeness for each underlying medical condition assessed was <25% and generally declined during the study period. About half of case records had complete data on hospitalization and death status. CONCLUSIONS: Incompleteness in national COVID-19 case surveillance data might limit their usefulness. Streamlining and automating surveillance processes would decrease reporting burdens on jurisdictions and likely improve completeness of national COVID-19 case surveillance data.

      7. Mask Mandates, On-Premises Dining, and COVID-19external icon
        Guy GP, Massetti GM, Sauber-Schatz E.
        Jama. 2021 Apr 1.

      8. Rapid Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a State Prison After Introduction by Newly Transferred Incarcerated Persons - Wisconsin, August 14-October 22, 2020external icon
        Hershow RB, Segaloff HE, Shockey AC, Florek KR, Murphy SK, DuBose W, Schaeffer TL, Powell Mph JA, Gayle K, Lambert L, Schwitters A, Clarke KE, Westergaard R.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Apr 2;70(13):478-482.
        SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can spread rapidly in prisons and can be introduced by staff members and newly transferred incarcerated persons (1,2). On September 28, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) contacted CDC to report a COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison (prison A). During October 6-20, a CDC team investigated the outbreak, which began with 12 cases detected from specimens collected during August 17-24 from incarcerated persons housed within the same unit, 10 of whom were transferred together on August 13 and under quarantine following prison intake procedures (intake quarantine). Potentially exposed persons within the unit began a 14-day group quarantine on August 25. However, quarantine was not restarted after quarantined persons were potentially exposed to incarcerated persons with COVID-19 who were moved to the unit. During the subsequent 8 weeks (August 14-October 22), 869 (79.4%) of 1,095 incarcerated persons and 69 (22.6%) of 305 staff members at prison A received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of specimens from 172 cases among incarcerated persons showed that all clustered in the same lineage; this finding, along with others, demonstrated that facility spread originated with the transferred cohort. To effectively implement a cohorted quarantine, which is a harm reduction strategy for correctional settings with limited space, CDC's interim guidance recommendation is to serial test cohorts, restarting the 14-day quarantine period when a new case is identified (3). Implementing more effective intake quarantine procedures and available mitigation measures, including vaccination, among incarcerated persons is important to controlling transmission in prisons. Understanding and addressing the challenges faced by correctional facilities to implement medical isolation and quarantine can help reduce and prevent outbreaks.

      9. Patient navigation is a promising strategy for improving health among persons with multiple barriers to HIV care, yet little is known about navigation's core components. From 24 systematically identified navigation studies, we abstracted navigators' activities, grouped activities into 20 thematic activity categories, and ordered them by frequency. Subsequently, Principal Components Analysis of activity categories was used identify independent clusters. Accompaniment characterized 71% of navigation programs; ≥ half included health education (58%), collaboration/coordination (58%), linkage-to-care (54%), transportation support (54%), service referrals (50%) and instrumental support (50%). Five unique components (comprising 13 activity categories) were identified: (1) services beyond office, (2) health education and relationship building, (3) accompaniment and instrumental support, (4) locating patients and tracking information, and (5) beyond HIV care. Navigators who located patients or tracked information were less likely to provide accompaniment or instrumental support (r = - 0.60, p = 0.002). Findings can enhance precision in developing, describing, evaluating and improving navigation programs.

      10. Risk for Fomite-Mediated Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Child Daycares, Schools, Nursing Homes, and Officesexternal icon
        Kraay AN, Hayashi MA, Berendes DM, Sobolik JS, Leon JS, Lopman BA.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Apr;27(4):1229-1231.
        Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can persist on surfaces, suggesting possible surface-mediated transmission of this pathogen. We found that fomites might be a substantial source of transmission risk, particularly in schools and child daycares. Combining surface cleaning and decontamination with mask wearing can help mitigate this risk.

      11. Counties with High COVID-19 Incidence and Relatively Large Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations - United States, April 1-December 22, 2020external icon
        Lee FC, Adams L, Graves SJ, Massetti GM, Calanan RM, Penman-Aguilar A, Henley SJ, Annor FB, Van Handel M, Aleshire N, Durant T, Fuld J, Griffing S, Mattocks L, Liburd L.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Apr 2;70(13):483-489.
        Long-standing systemic social, economic, and environmental inequities in the United States have put many communities of color (racial and ethnic minority groups) at increased risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as more severe COVID-19-related outcomes (1-3). Because race and ethnicity are missing for a proportion of reported COVID-19 cases, counties with substantial missing information often are excluded from analyses of disparities (4). Thus, as a complement to these case-based analyses, population-based studies can help direct public health interventions. Using data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC identified counties where five racial and ethnic minority groups (Hispanic or Latino [Hispanic], non-Hispanic Black or African American [Black], non-Hispanic Asian [Asian], non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN], and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NH/PI]) might have experienced high COVID-19 impact during April 1-December 22, 2020. These counties had high 2-week COVID-19 incidences (>100 new cases per 100,000 persons in the total population) and percentages of persons in five racial and ethnic groups that were larger than the national percentages (denoted as "large"). During April 1-14, a total of 359 (11.4%) of 3,142 U.S. counties reported high COVID-19 incidence, including 28.7% of counties with large percentages of Asian persons and 27.9% of counties with large percentages of Black persons. During August 5-18, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 2,034 (64.7%) counties, including 92.4% of counties with large percentages of Black persons and 74.5% of counties with large percentages of Hispanic persons. During December 9-22, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 3,114 (99.1%) counties, including >95% of those with large percentages of persons in each of the five racial and ethnic minority groups. The findings of this population-based analysis complement those of case-based analyses. In jurisdictions with substantial missing race and ethnicity information, this method could be applied to smaller geographic areas, to identify communities of color that might be experiencing high potential COVID-19 impact. As areas with high rates of new infection change over time, public health efforts can be tailored to the needs of communities of color as the pandemic evolves and integrated with longer-term plans to improve health equity.

      12. Community-Associated Outbreak of COVID-19 in a Correctional Facility - Utah, September 2020-January 2021external icon
        Lewis NM, Salmanson AP, Price A, Risk I, Guymon C, Wisner M, Gardner K, Fukunaga R, Schwitters A, Lambert L, Baggett HC, Ewetola R, Dunn AC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Apr 2;70(13):467-472.
        Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is common in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities (1-3). On September 17, 2020, a Utah correctional facility (facility A) received a report of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dental health care provider (DHCP) who had treated incarcerated persons at facility A on September 14, 2020 while asymptomatic. On September 21, 2020, the roommate of an incarcerated person who had received dental treatment experienced COVID-19-compatible symptoms*; both were housed in block 1 of facility A (one of 16 occupied blocks across eight residential units). Two days later, the roommate received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, becoming the first person with a known-associated case of COVID-19 at facility A. During September 23-24, 2020, screening of 10 incarcerated persons who had received treatment from the DHCP identified another two persons with COVID-19, prompting isolation of all three patients in an unoccupied block at the facility. Within block 1, group activities were stopped to limit interaction among staff members and incarcerated persons and prevent further spread. During September 14-24, 2020, six facility A staff members, one of whom had previous close contact(†) with one of the patients, also reported symptoms. On September 27, 2020, an outbreak was confirmed after specimens from all remaining incarcerated persons in block 1 were tested; an additional 46 cases of COVID-19 were identified, which were reported to the Salt Lake County Health Department and the Utah Department of Health. On September 30, 2020, CDC, in collaboration with both health departments and the correctional facility, initiated an investigation to identify factors associated with the outbreak and implement control measures. As of January 31, 2021, a total of 1,368 cases among 2,632 incarcerated persons (attack rate = 52%) and 88 cases among 550 staff members (attack rate = 16%) were reported in facility A. Among 33 hospitalized incarcerated persons, 11 died. Quarantine and monitoring of potentially exposed persons and implementation of available prevention measures, including vaccination, are important in preventing introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in correctional facilities and other congregate settings (4).

      13. Estimated Prevalence and Incidence of Disease-Associated Human Papillomavirus Types Among 15- to 59-Year-Olds in the United Statesexternal icon
        Lewis RM, Laprise JF, Gargano JW, Unger ER, Querec TD, Chesson HW, Brisson M, Markowitz LE.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Apr 1;48(4):273-277.
        INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause anogenital warts and several types of cancer, including cervical cancers and precancers. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, and number of persons with prevalent and incident HPV infections in the United States in 2018. METHODS: Prevalence and incidence were estimated for infections with any HPV (any of 37 types detected using Linear Array) and disease-associated HPV, 2 types that cause anogenital warts plus 14 types detected by tests used for cervical cancer screening (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68). We used the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate prevalence among 15- to 59-year-olds, overall and by sex. Incidences in 2018 were estimated per 10,000 persons using an individual-based transmission-dynamic type-specific model calibrated to US data. We estimated number of infected persons by applying prevalences and incidences to 2018 US population estimates. RESULTS: Prevalence of infection with any HPV was 40.0% overall, 41.8% in men, and 38.4% in women; prevalence of infection with disease-associated HPV was 24.2% in men and 19.9% in women. An estimated 23.4 and 19.2 million men and women had a disease-associated HPV type infection in 2018. Incidences of any and disease-associated HPV infection were 1222 and 672 per 10,000 persons; incidence of disease-associated HPV infection was 708 per 10,000 men and 636 per 10,000 women. An estimated 6.9 and 6.1 million men and women had an incident infection with a disease-associated HPV type in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: We document a high HPV burden of infection in the United States in 2018, with 42 million persons infected with disease-associated HPV and 13 million persons acquiring a new infection. Although most infections clear, some disease-associated HPV type infections progress to disease. The HPV burden highlights the need for continued monitoring of HPV-associated cancers, cervical cancer screening, and HPV vaccination to track and prevent disease.

      14. State-level prevalence estimates of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States by medical risk factors, demographic characteristics and nativityexternal icon
        Mirzazadeh A, Kahn JG, Haddad MB, Hill AN, Marks SM, Readhead A, Barry PM, Flood J, Mermin JH, Shete PB.
        PLoS One. 2021 ;16(4):e0249012.
        INTRODUCTION: Preventing tuberculosis (TB) disease requires treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) as well as prevention of person-to-person transmission. We estimated the LTBI prevalence for the entire United States and for each state by medical risk factors, age, and race/ethnicity, both in the total population and stratified by nativity. METHODS: We created a mathematical model using all incident TB disease cases during 2013-2017 reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System that were classified using genotype-based methods or imputation as not attributed to recent TB transmission. Using the annual average number of TB cases among US-born and non-US-born persons by medical risk factor, age group, and race/ethnicity, we applied population-specific reactivation rates (and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [CI]) to back-calculate the estimated prevalence of untreated LTBI in each population for the United States and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. RESULTS: We estimated that 2.7% (CI: 2.6%-2.8%) of the U.S. population, or 8.6 (CI: 8.3-8.8) million people, were living with LTBI in 2015. Estimated LTBI prevalence among US-born persons was 1.0% (CI: 1.0%-1.1%) and among non-US-born persons was 13.9% (CI: 13.5%-14.3%). Among US-born persons, the highest LTBI prevalence was in persons aged ≥65 years (2.1%) and in persons of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity (3.1%). Among non-US-born persons, the highest LTBI prevalence was estimated in persons aged 45-64 years (16.3%) and persons of Asian and other racial/ethnic groups (19.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our estimations of the prevalence of LTBI by medical risk factors and demographic characteristics for each state could facilitate planning for testing and treatment interventions to eliminate TB in the United States. Our back-calculation method feasibly estimates untreated LTBI prevalence and can be updated using future TB disease case counts at the state or national level.

      15. Early-phase scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in two districts in Malawi (2017)external icon
        Nabity SA, Gunde LJ, Surie D, Shiraishi RW, Kirking HL, Maida A, Auld AF, Odo M, Jahn A, Nyirenda RK, Oeltmann JE.
        PLoS One. 2021 ;16(4):e0248115.
        BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) against tuberculosis (TB) is a life-saving intervention for people living with HIV (PLHIV). In September 2017, Malawi began programmatic scale-up of IPT to eligible PLHIV in five districts with high HIV and TB burden. We measured the frequency and timeliness of early-phase IPT implementation to inform quality-improvement processes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied a two-stage cluster design with systematic, probability-proportional-to-size sampling of six U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-affiliated antiretroviral therapy (ART) centers operating in the urban areas of Lilongwe and Blantyre, Malawi (November 2017). ART clinic patient volume determined cluster size. Within each cluster, we sequentially sampled approximately 50 PLHIV newly enrolled in ART care. We described a quality-of-care cascade for intensive TB case finding (ICF) and IPT in PLHIV. PLHIV newly enrolled in ART care were eligibility-screened for hepatitis and peripheral neuropathy, as well as for TB disease using a standardized four-symptom screening tool. Among eligible PLHIV, the overall weighted IPT initiation rate was 70% (95% CI: 46%-86%). Weighted IPT initiation among persons aged <15 years (30% [95% CI: 12%-55%]) was significantly lower than among persons aged ≥15 years (72% [95% CI: 47%-89%]; Rao-Scott chi-square P = 0.03). HIV-positive children aged <5 years had a weighted initiation rate of only 13% (95% CI: 1%-79%). For pregnant women, the weighted initiation rate was 67% (95% CI: 32%-90%), similar to non-pregnant women aged ≥15 years (72% [95% CI: 49%-87%]). Lastly, 95% (95% CI: 92%-97%) of eligible PLHIV started ART within one week of HIV diagnosis, and 92% (95% CI: 73%-98%) of patients receiving IPT began on the same day as ART. CONCLUSIONS: Early-phase IPT uptake among adults at ART centers in Malawi was high. Child uptake needed improvement. National programs could adapt this framework to evaluate their ICF-IPT care cascades.

      16. Objective: To examine differences, at the census tract level, in the distribution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses and social determinants of health (SDH) among women with diagnosed HIV in 2017 in the United States and Puerto Rico. Background: In the United States, HIV continues to disproportionately affect women, especially minority women and women in the South. Methods: Data reported in the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to determine census tract-level HIV diagnosis rates and percentages among adult women (aged ≥18 years) in 2017. Data from the American Community Survey were combined with NHSS data to examine regional differences in federal poverty status, education level, income level, employment status, and health insurance coverage among adult women with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States and Puerto Rico. Results: In the United States and Puerto Rico, among 6,054 women who received an HIV diagnosis in 2017, the highest rates of HIV diagnoses generally were among those who lived in census tracts where the median household income was less than $40,000; at least 19% lived below the federal poverty level, at least 18% had less than a high school diploma, and at least 16% were without health insurance. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind and gives insight into how subpopulations of women are affected differently by the likelihood of an HIV diagnosis. The findings show that rates of HIV diagnosis were highest among women who lived in census tracts having the lowest income and least health coverage.

      17. The first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa: a cross-sectional studyexternal icon
        Salyer SJ, Maeda J, Sembuche S, Kebede Y, Tshangela A, Moussif M, Ihekweazu C, Mayet N, Abate E, Ouma AO, Nkengasong J.
        Lancet. 2021 Mar 24.
        BACKGROUND: Although the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic progressed more slowly in Africa than the rest of the world, by December, 2020, the second wave appeared to be much more aggressive with many more cases. To date, the pandemic situation in all 55 African Union (AU) Member States has not been comprehensively reviewed. We aimed to evaluate reported COVID-19 epidemiology data to better understand the pandemic's progression in Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional analysis between Feb 14 and Dec 31, 2020, using COVID-19 epidemiological, testing, and mitigation strategy data reported by AU Member States to assess trends and identify the response and mitigation efforts at the country, regional, and continent levels. We did descriptive analyses on the variables of interest including cumulative and weekly incidence rates, case fatality ratios (CFRs), tests per case ratios, growth rates, and public health and social measures in place. FINDINGS: As of Dec 31, 2020, African countries had reported 2 763 421 COVID-19 cases and 65 602 deaths, accounting for 3·4% of the 82 312 150 cases and 3·6% of the 1 798 994 deaths reported globally. Nine of the 55 countries accounted for more than 82·6% (2 283 613) of reported cases. 18 countries reported CFRs greater than the global CFR (2·2%). 17 countries reported test per case ratios less than the recommended ten to 30 tests per case ratio range. At the peak of the first wave in Africa in July, 2020, the mean daily number of new cases was 18 273. As of Dec 31, 2020, 40 (73%) countries had experienced or were experiencing their second wave of cases with the continent reporting a mean of 23 790 daily new cases for epidemiological week 53. 48 (96%) of 50 Member States had five or more stringent public health and social measures in place by April 15, 2020, but this number had decreased to 36 (72%) as of Dec 31, 2020, despite an increase in cases in the preceding month. INTERPRETATION: Our analysis showed that the African continent had a more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic than the first, and highlights the importance of examining multiple epidemiological variables down to the regional and country levels over time. These country-specific and regional results informed the implementation of continent-wide initiatives and supported equitable distribution of supplies and technical assistance. Monitoring and analysis of these data over time are essential for continued situational awareness, especially as Member States attempt to balance controlling COVID-19 transmission with ensuring stable economies and livelihoods. FUNDING: None.

      18. The spread of disease and increase in deaths during large outbreaks of transmissible diseases is often associated with fear and grief (1). Social restrictions, limits on operating nonessential businesses, and other measures to reduce pandemic-related mortality and morbidity can lead to isolation and unemployment or underemployment, further increasing the risk for mental health problems (2). To rapidly monitor changes in mental health status and access to care during the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC partnered with the U.S. Census Bureau to conduct the Household Pulse Survey (HPS). This report describes trends in the percentage of adults with symptoms of an anxiety disorder or a depressive disorder and those who sought mental health services. During August 19, 2020-February 1, 2021, the percentage of adults with symptoms of an anxiety or a depressive disorder during the past 7 days increased significantly (from 36.4% to 41.5%), as did the percentage reporting that they needed but did not receive mental health counseling or therapy during the past 4 weeks (from 9.2% to 11.7%). Increases were largest among adults aged 18-29 years and among those with less than a high school education. HPS data can be used in near real time to evaluate the impact of strategies that address mental health status and care of adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and to guide interventions for groups that are disproportionately affected.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Cord blood acrylamide levels and birth size, and interactions with genetic variants in acrylamide-metabolising genesexternal icon
        Hogervorst J, Vesper HW, Madhloum N, Gyselaers W, Nawrot T.
        Environ Health. 2021 Apr 1;20(1):35.
        BACKGROUND: Up to now, 3 epidemiological studies have shown clear inverse associations between prenatal acrylamide exposure and birth size. In addition to studying the association between acrylamide and birth size, we investigated the interaction between acrylamide and polymorphisms in acrylamide-metabolising genes, with the aim of probing the causality of the inverse relationship between acrylamide and fetal growth. METHODS: We investigated the association between prenatal acrylamide exposure (acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels (AA-Hb and GA-Hb) in cord blood) and birth weight, length and head circumference in 443 newborns of the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON AGEing in early life) birth cohort. In addition, we studied interaction with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2E1, EPHX1 and GSTP1, using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Among all neonates, the body weight, length and head circumference of neonates in the highest quartile was - 101 g (95% CI: - 208, 7; p for trend = 0.12), - 0.13 cm (95% CI: - 0.62, 0.36; p for trend = 0.69) and - 0.41 cm (- 0.80, - 0.01; p for trend = 0.06) lower, respectively, compared to neonates in the lowest quartile of AA-Hb in cord blood, For GA-Hb, the corresponding effect estimates were - 222 g (95% CI: - 337, - 108; p for trend = 0.001), - 0.85 (95% CI: - 1.38, - 0.33; p for trend = 0.02) and - 0.55 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.11; p for trend = 0.01), respectively. The associations for GA-Hb were similar or stronger in newborns of non-smoking mothers. There was no statistically significant interaction between acrylamide exposure and the studied genetic variations but there was a trend of stronger inverse associations with birth weight and head circumference among newborns with homozygous wildtypes alleles for the CYP2E1 SNPS and with variant alleles for a GSTP1 SNP (rs1138272). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal dietary acrylamide exposure, specifically in the form of its metabolite glycidamide, was inversely associated with birth weight, length and head circumference. The interaction pattern with SNPs in CYP2E1, although not statistically significant, is an indication for the causality of this association. Other studies are needed to corroborate this finding.

      2. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods allowed researchers to fully characterize microbial community in environmental samples, which is crucial to better understand their health effects upon exposures. In our study, we investigated bacterial and fungal community in indoor and outdoor air of nine classrooms in three elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. The extracted bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS regions were sequenced, and their taxa were identified. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for total bacteria DNA was also performed. The bacterial community was richer in outdoor air than classroom air, whereas fungal diversity was similar indoors and outdoors. Bacteria such as Enhydrobacter, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus that are generally found in human skin, mucous membrane, and intestine were found in great abundance. For fungi, Cladosporium, Clitocybe, and Daedaleopsis were the most abundant genera in classroom air and mostly related to outdoor plants. Bacterial community composition in classroom air was similar among all classrooms but differed from that in outdoor air. However, indoor and outdoor fungal community compositions were similar for the same school but different among schools. Our study indicated the main source of airborne bacteria in classrooms was likely human occupants; however, classroom airborne fungi most likely originated from outdoors.

      3. Prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals and birth size in a population-based cohort of British girlsexternal icon
        Marks KJ, Howards PP, Smarr MM, Flanders WD, Northstone K, Daniel JH, Sjödin A, Calafat AM, Hartman TJ.
        Epidemiology. 2021 Mar 24.
        BACKGROUND: Previous studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have examined one of these chemicals at a time in association with an outcome; studying mixtures better approximates human experience. We investigated the association of prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine disruptors [per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides] with birth size among female offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), based in the United Kingdom in 1991-1992. METHODS: We quantified concentrations of 52 endocrine-disrupting chemicals in maternal serum collected during pregnancy at median 15 weeks' gestation. Birth weight, crown-to-heel length, and head circumference were measured at birth; ponderal index and small for gestational age were calculated from these. We used repeated holdout weighted quantile sum regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression to examine mixtures in 313 mothers. RESULTS: Using weighted quantile sum regression, all mixtures (each chemical class separately and all three together) were inversely associated with birth weight. A one-unit increase in WQS index (a one-decile increase in chemical concentrations) for all three classes combined was associated with 55 g (β: -55 g, 95% CI: -89, -22 g) lower birth weight. Associations were weaker but still inverse using Bayesian kernel machine regression. Under both methods, PFAS were the most important contributors to the association with birth weight. We also observed inverse associations for crown-to-heel length. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals affects birth size.

      4. Maternal Urinary Organophosphate Esters and Alterations in Maternal and Neonatal Thyroid Hormonesexternal icon
        Percy Z, Vuong AM, Xu Y, Xie C, Ospina M, Calafat AM, Hoofnagle A, Lanphear BP, Braun JM, Cecil KM, Dietrich KN, Yolton K, Chen A.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Mar 29.
        Production of organophosphate esters (OPEs), which represent a major flame retardant class present in consumer goods, has risen over the past two decades. Experimental studies suggest that OPEs may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption, but few human studies have examined this association. We quantified OPE metabolites in the urine of 298 pregnant women in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study from Cincinnati, Ohio (enrolled 2003-2006) at three time points (16 and 26 weeks' gestation, delivery), and thyroid hormones in 16-week maternal and newborn cord sera. Urinary bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate concentrations were generally associated with decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine and increased thyroid stimulating hormone in maternal and newborn thyroid hormones in quartile dose-response analyses and multiple informant models. There was weaker evidence for thyroid hormone alterations in association with diphenyl-phosphate and di-n-butyl-phosphate. Bis-2-chloroethyl-phosphate was not associated with alterations in thyroid hormones in any analyses. We did not observe any evidence of effect modification by infant sex. These results suggest that gestational exposure to some OPEs may influence maternal and neonatal thyroid function, although replication in other cohorts is needed.

      5. Assessment of Serum Concentrations of 12 Aldehydes in the U.S. Population from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveyexternal icon
        Silva LK, Espenship MF, Newman CA, Zhang L, Zhu W, Blount BC, De Jesús VR.
        Environ Sci Technol. 2021 Apr 1.
        Aldehydes are known carcinogens and irritants that can negatively impact health. They are present in tobacco smoke, the environment, and food. The prevalence of aldehyde exposure and potential health impact warrants a population-wide study of serum aldehydes as exposure biomarkers. We analyzed 12 aldehydes in sera collected from 1843 participants aged 12 years or older in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Several aldehydes were detected at high rates, such as isopentanaldehyde (99.2%) and propanaldehyde (88.3%). We used multiple linear regression models to examine the impact of tobacco smoke and dietary variables on serum concentrations of isopentanaldehyde and propanaldehyde. Although 12 serum aldehydes were analyzed and compared to tobacco smoke exposure, only isopentanaldehyde and propanaldehyde showed any significant association with tobacco smoke exposure. Survey participants who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD) had 168% higher serum isopentanaldehyde and 28% higher propanaldehyde compared with nonusers. Study participants who smoked 11-20 CPD had higher serum isopentanaldehyde (323%) and propanaldehyde (70%). Similarly, study participants who smoked >20 CPD had 399% higher serum isopentanaldehyde and 110% higher serum propanaldehyde than nonexposed nonusers. The method could not, however, differentiate between nonexposed nonusers and nonusers exposed to secondhand smoke for either of these two aldehydes. No dietary variables were consistently predictive of serum isopentanaldehyde and propanaldehyde concentrations. This report defines baseline concentrations of serum aldehydes in the U.S. population and provides a foundation for future research into the potential health effects of aldehydes. In addition, this study suggests that tobacco smoke is a significant source of exposure to some aldehydes such as isopentanaldehyde and propanaldehyde.

    • Genetics and Genomics

      1. Clade-specific chromosomal rearrangements and loss of subtelomeric adhesins in Candida aurisexternal icon
        Muñoz JF, Welsh RM, Shea T, Batra D, Gade L, Howard D, Rowe LA, Meis JF, Litvintseva AP, Cuomo CA.
        Genetics. 2021 Mar 26.
        Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen of rising concern due to global spread, the ability to cause healthcare-associated outbreaks, and antifungal resistance. Genomic analyses revealed that early contemporaneously detected cases of C. auris were geographically stratified into four major clades. While Clades I, III, and IV are responsible for ongoing outbreaks of invasive and multidrug-resistant infections, Clade II, also termed the East Asian clade, consists primarily of cases of ear infection, is often susceptible to all antifungal drugs, and has not been associated with outbreaks. Here, we generate chromosome-level assemblies of twelve isolates representing the phylogenetic breadth of these four clades and the only isolate described to date from Clade V. This Clade V genome is highly syntenic with those of Clades I, III, and IV, although the sequence is highly divergent from the other clades. Clade II genomes appear highly rearranged, with translocations occurring near GC-poor regions, and large subtelomeric deletions in most chromosomes, resulting in a substantially different karyotype. Rearrangements and deletion lengths vary across Clade II isolates, including two from a single patient, supporting ongoing genome instability. Deleted subtelomeric regions are enriched in Hyr/Iff-like cell-surface proteins, novel candidate cell wall proteins, and an ALS-like adhesin. Cell wall proteins from these families and other drug-related genes show clade-specific signatures of selection in Clades I, III, and IV. Subtelomeric dynamics and the conservation of cell surface proteins in the clades responsible for global outbreaks causing invasive infections suggest an explanation for the different phenotypes observed between clades.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. The impact of water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) improvements on hand hygiene at two Liberian hospitals during the recovery phase of an Ebola epidemicexternal icon
        Kanagasabai U, Enriquez K, Gelting R, Malpiedi P, Zayzay C, Kendor J, Fahnbulleh S, Cooper C, Gibson W, Brown R, Nador N, Williams DE, Chiriboga D, Niescierenko M.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 ;18(7).
        Fourteen years of civil war left Liberia with crumbling infrastructure and one of the weakest health systems in the world. The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak exposed the vulnerabilities of the Liberian health system. Findings from the EVD outbreak highlighted the lack of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices, exacerbated by a lack of essential services such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in healthcare facilities. The objective of this intervention was to improve IPC practice through comprehensive WASH renovations conducted at two hospitals in Liberia, prioritized by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The completion of renovations was tracked along with the impact of improvements on hand hygiene (HH) practice audits of healthcare workers pre-and post-intervention. An occurrence of overall HH practice was defined as the healthcare worker practicing compliant HH before and after the care for a single patient encounter. Liberia Government Hospital Bomi (LGH Bomi) and St. Timothy Government Hospital (St. Timothy) achieved World Health Organization (WHO) minimum global standards for environmental health in healthcare facilities as well as Liberian national standards. Healthcare worker (HCW) overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 36% (2016) to 89% (2018) at LGH Bomi hospital and from 86% (2016) to 88% (2018) at St. Timothy hospital. Improved WASH services and IPC practices in resource-limited healthcare settings are possible if significant holistic WASH infrastructure investments are made in these settings.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 following introduction of pcv10 and pcv13: Findings from the PSERENADE projectexternal icon
        Bennett JC, Hetrich MK, Quesada MG, Sinkevitch JN, Knoll MD, Feikin DR, Zeger SL, Kagucia EW, Cohen AL, Ampofo K, Brandileone MC, Bruden D, Camilli R, Castilla J, Chan G, Cook H, Cornick JE, Dagan R, Dalby T, Danis K, de Miguel S, De Wals P, Desmet S, Georgakopoulou T, Gilkison C, Grgic‐vitek M, Hammitt LL, Hilty M, Ho PL, Jayasinghe S, Kellner JD, Kleynhans J, Knol MJ, Kozakova J, Kristinsson KG, Ladhani SN, Macdonald L, Mackenzie GA, Mad’arová L, McGeer A, Mereckiene J, Morfeldt E, Mungun T, Muñoz‐almagro C, Nuorti JP, Paragi M, Pilishvili T, Puentes R, Saha SK, Khan AS, Savrasova L, Scott JA, Skoczyńska A, Suga S, Linden M, Verani JR, von Gottberg A, Winje BA, Yildirim I, Zerouali K, Hayford K, Pserenade Team.
        Microorganisms. 2021 ;9(4).
        Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococ-cal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) con-taining ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERE‐ NADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compar-ing the pre‐PCV10/13 period to each post‐PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi‐level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all‐site IRRs using a linear mixed‐effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all‐site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04–0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04–0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06–0.09) for 5–17 years, 0.06 (0.05–0.08) for 18–49 years, 0.06 (0.05–0.07) for 50–64 years, and 0.05 (0.04–0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.

      2. Risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) in Indian infants: A self-controlled case series analysisexternal icon
        Das MK, Arora NK, Poluru R, Tate JE, Gupta B, Sharan A, Aggarwal MK, Haldar P, Parashar UD, Zuber PL, Bonhoeffer J, Ray A, Wakhlu A, Vyas BR, Iqbal Bhat J, Goswami JK, Mathai J, Kameswari K, Bharadia L, Sankhe L, Ajayakumar MK, Mohan N, Jena PK, Sarangi R, Shad R, Debbarma SK, Shyamala J, Ratan SK, Sarkar S, Kumar V, Maure CG, Dubey AP, Gupta A, Sam CJ, Mufti GN, Trivedi H, Shad J, Lahiri K, R K, Luthra M, Behera N, P P, Rajamani G, Kumar R, Sarkar R, Santosh Kumar A, Sahoo SK, Ghosh SK, Mane S, Dash A, Charoo BA, Tripathy BB, Rajendra Prasad G, S HK, K J, Sarkar NR, Arunachalam P, Mohapatra SS, Garge S.
        Vaccine. 2021 Jan 3;39(1):78-84.
        BACKGROUND: An association between rotavirus vaccination and intussusception has been documented in post-licensure studies in some countries. We evaluated the risk of intussusception associated with monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) administered at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age in India. METHODS: Active prospective surveillance for intussusception was conducted at 22 hospitals across 16 states from April 2016 through September 2017. Data on demography, clinical features and vaccination were documented. Age-adjusted relative incidence for 1-7, 8-21, and 1-21 days after rotavirus vaccination in children aged 28-364 days at intussusception onset was estimated using the self-controlled case-series (SCCS) method. Only Brighton Collaboration level 1 cases were included. RESULTS: Out of 670 children aged 2-23 months with intussusception, 311 (46.4%) children were aged 28-364 days with confirmed vaccination status. Out of these, 52 intussusception cases with confirmed receipt of RVV were included in the SCCS analysis. No intussusception case was observed within 21 days of dose 1. Only one case occurred during 8-21 days after the dose 2. Post-dose 3, two cases in 1-7 days and 7 cases during 8-21 days period were observed. There was no increased risk of intussusception during 1-7 days after the doses 1 and 2 (zero cases observed) or dose 3 (relative incidence [RI], 1.71 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.0-5.11]). Similarly, no increased risk during 8-21 days after the dose 1 (zero cases observed), dose 2 (RI, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.0-3.28]) or dose 3 (RI, 2.52 [95% CI, 0.78-5.61]). The results were similar for 1-21 day periods after the doses separately or pooled. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of intussusception during the first 21 days after any dose of rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) was not higher among the Indian infants than the background risk, based on limited SCCS analysis of 52 children.

      3. Parental vaccine hesitancy and its association with adolescent HPV vaccinationexternal icon
        Nguyen KH, Santibanez TA, Stokley S, Lindley MC, Fisher A, Kim D, Greby S, Srivastav A, Singleton J.
        Vaccine. 2021 Mar 25.

      4. Willingness to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccination Among Incarcerated or Detained Persons in Correctional and Detention Facilities - Four States, September-December 2020external icon
        Stern MF, Piasecki AM, Strick LB, Rajeshwar P, Tyagi E, Dolovich S, Patel PR, Fukunaga R, Furukawa NW.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Apr 2;70(13):473-477.
        Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Rodent bite injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States, 2001–2015external icon
        Langley R, Haskell MG, Hareza D, Haileyesus T, King K, Mack K.
        J Environ Health. 2021 ;83(7):18-25.
        While an increasing number of households are keeping rodents as pets, rats and mice are considered pests and efforts are undertaken to control rodent populations to avoid human–rodent encounters. Tracking the burden of rodent bite injuries can guide prevention efforts. Data for this study were from the 2001–2015 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), a stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals. Records included information about age, body part affected, cause, diagnosis, case disposition, and sex. We coded narrative descriptions for the source of the bite. Every year, an estimated 12,700 injuries from rodent bites are treated in emergency departments, amounting to roughly one rodent bite injury treated every hour. Rats, mice, and squirrels were the most frequently reported rodents that bit people. The largest percentage of bites, approximately 27%, occurred in individuals <10 years and most bites occurred during the summer months. Injuries, zoonotic diseases, allergies, mental health adverse effects, and the environmental impact of rodent exposures exemplify the need for a multisectoral approach to prevention. © 2021, National Environmental Health Association. All rights reserved.

      2. Adverse childhood experiences and stimulant use disorders among adults in the United Statesexternal icon
        Tang S, Jones CM, Wisdom A, Lin HC, Bacon S, Houry D.
        Psychiatry Res. 2021 Mar 13;299:113870.
        Recent data indicate a resurgence of stimulant use and harms in the United States; thus, there is a need to identify risk factors to inform development of effective prevention strategies. Prior research suggests adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among individuals using stimulants and may be an important target for prevention. National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to estimate prevalence of ACEs among U.S. adults using amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cocaine, or both. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between ACEs and stimulant use and use disorders. Among adults reporting lifetime ATS use, 22.1% had ≥4 ACEs, 24.9% had 2-3 ACEs, 22.4% had 1 ACE, 30.6% reported no ACEs. Among adults with lifetime ATS use disorder, 29.3% reported ≥4 ACEs, 28.7% reported 2-3 ACEs, 21.6% reported 1 ACE, and 20.4% reported no ACEs. Multivariable logistic regression found a significant relationship between number of ACEs and stimulant use and use disorders. In conclusion, we found a strong relationship between increasing ACE exposures and stimulant use and use disorders. Advancing comprehensive strategies to prevent ACEs and treating underlying trauma among those using stimulants holds great promise to reduce stimulant use and its health and social consequences in the United States.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Performance and operational feasibility of antigen and antibody rapid diagnostic tests for COVID-19 in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in Cameroon: a clinical, prospective, diagnostic accuracy studyexternal icon
        Boum Y, Fai KN, Nicolay B, Mboringong AB, Bebell LM, Ndifon M, Abbah A, Essaka R, Eteki L, Luquero F, Langendorf C, Mbarga NF, Essomba RG, Buri BD, Corine TM, Kameni BT, Mandeng N, Fanne M, Bisseck AZ, Ndongmo CB, Eyangoh S, Hamadou A, Ouamba JP, Koku MT, Njouom R, Claire OM, Esso L, Epée E, Mballa GA.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 25.
        BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR is recommended to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, PCR availability is restricted in most countries. Rapid diagnostic tests are considered acceptable alternatives, but data are lacking on their performance. We assessed the performance of four antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests and one antigen-based rapid diagnostic test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community in Cameroon. METHODS: In this clinical, prospective, diagnostic accuracy study, we enrolled individuals aged at least 21 years who were either symptomatic and suspected of having COVID-19 or asymptomatic and presented for screening. We tested peripheral blood for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the Innovita (Biological Technology; Beijing, China), Wondfo (Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech; Guangzhou, China), SD Biosensor (SD Biosensor; Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), and Runkun tests (Runkun Pharmaceutical; Hunan, China), and nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 antigen using the SD Biosensor test. Antigen rapid diagnostic tests were compared with Abbott PCR testing (Abbott; Abbott Park, IL, USA), and antibody rapid diagnostic tests were compared with Biomerieux immunoassays (Biomerieux; Marcy l'Etoile, France). We retrospectively tested two diagnostic algorithms that incorporated rapid diagnostic tests for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients using simulation modelling. FINDINGS: 1195 participants were enrolled in the study. 347 (29%) tested SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive, 223 (19%) rapid diagnostic test antigen-positive, and 478 (40%) rapid diagnostic test antibody-positive. Antigen-based rapid diagnostic test sensitivity was 80·0% (95% CI 71·0-88·0) in the first 7 days after symptom onset, but antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests had only 26·8% sensitivity (18·3-36·8). Antibody rapid diagnostic test sensitivity increased to 76·4% (70·1-82·0) 14 days after symptom onset. Among asymptomatic participants, the sensitivity of antigen-based and antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests were 37·0% (27·0-48·0) and 50·7% (42·2-59·1), respectively. Cohen's κ showed substantial agreement between Wondfo antibody rapid diagnostic test and gold-standard ELISA (κ=0·76; sensitivity 0·98) and between Biosensor and ELISA (κ=0·60; sensitivity 0·94). Innovita (κ=0·47; sensitivity 0·93) and Runkun (κ=0·43; sensitivity 0·76) showed moderate agreement. An antigen-based retrospective algorithm applied to symptomatic patients showed 94·0% sensitivity and 91·0% specificity in the first 7 days after symptom onset. For asymptomatic participants, the algorithm showed a sensitivity of 34% (95% CI 23·0-44·0) and a specificity of 92·0% (88·0-96·0). INTERPRETATION: Rapid diagnostic tests had good overall sensitivity for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rapid diagnostic tests could be incorporated into efficient testing algorithms as an alternative to PCR to decrease diagnostic delays and onward viral transmission. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières WACA and Médecins Sans Frontières OCG. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

      2. Comparison of platforms for testing antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Togoexternal icon
        Gwyn S, Awoussi MS, Bakhtiari A, Bronzan RN, Crowley K, Harding-Esch EM, Kassankogno Y, Kilangalanga JN, Makangila F, Mupoyi S, Ngondi J, Ngoyi B, Palmer S, Randall JM, Seim A, Solomon AW, Stewart R, Togbey K, Uvon PA, Martin DL.
        Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 31;11(1):7225.
        Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. Serological testing for antibodies is promising for surveillance; determining useful thresholds will require collection of serological data from settings with different prevalence of the indicator trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Dried blood spots were collected during trachoma mapping in two districts each of Togo and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Anti-Ct antibodies were detected by multiplex bead assay (MBA) and three different lateral flow assays (LFA) and seroprevalence and seroconversion rate (SCR) were determined. By most tests, the district with > 5% TF (the elimination threshold) had five-sixfold higher seroprevalence and tenfold higher SCR than districts with < 5% TF. The agreement between LFA and MBA was improved using a black latex developing reagent. These data show optimization of antibody tests against Ct to better differentiate districts above or below trachoma elimination thresholds.

      3. A Bead-Based Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Trichinella Spp. Infection in Humansexternal icon
        Kahsay R, Gomez-Morales MA, Rivera HM, McAuliffe I, Pozio E, Handali S.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 29.
        Human trichinellosis can be diagnosed by a combination of medical history, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings, and through detection of anti-Trichinella IgG in the patient's sera. ELISA using excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens of Trichinella spiralis larvae is currently the most used assay to detect Trichinella spp. antibodies. Bead-based assay can detect antibodies to multiple antigens concurrently; the ability to detect antibody to T. spiralis using a bead assay could be useful for diagnosis and surveillance. We developed and evaluated a bead assay to detect and quantify total IgG or IgG4 Trichinella spp. antibodies in human serum using T. spiralis E/S antigens. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined using serum from 110 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis, 140 subjects with confirmed infections with other tissue-dwelling parasites, 98 human serum samples from residents of the United States with no known history of parasitic infection, and nine human serum samples from residents of Egypt with negative microscopy for intestinal parasites. Sensitivity and specificity were 93.6% and 94.3% for total IgG and 89.2% and 99.2% for IgG4, respectively. Twelve percent of sera from patients with confirmed schistosomiasis reacted with the IgG Trichinella bead assay, as did 11% of sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. The Trichinella spp. bead assay to detect IgG total antibody responses has a similar performance as the Trichinella E/S ELISA. The Trichinella spp. bead assay shows promise as a method to detect trichinellosis with a possibility to be used in multiplex applications.

      4. Recommendations on the measurement and the clinical use of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein - A position paper from the IFCC Committee on bone metabolismexternal icon
        Makris K, Bhattoa HP, Cavalier E, Phinney K, Sempos CT, Ulmer CZ, Vasikaran SD, Vesper H, Heijboer AC.
        Clin Chim Acta. 2021 Mar 10;517:171-197.
        Vitamin D, an important hormone with a central role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, is required for bone and muscle development as well as preservation of musculoskeletal function. The most abundant vitamin D metabolite is 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which is currently considered the best marker to evaluate overall vitamin D status. 25(OH)D is therefore the most commonly measured metabolite in clinical practice. However, several other metabolites, although not broadly measured, are useful in certain clinical situations. Vitamin D and all its metabolites are circulating in blood bound to vitamin D binding protein, (VDBP). This highly polymorphic protein is not only the major transport protein which, along with albumin, binds over 99% of the circulating vitamin D metabolites, but also participates in the transport of the 25(OH)D into the cell via a megalin/cubilin complex. The accurate measurement of 25(OH)D has proved a difficult task. Although a reference method and standardization program are available for 25(OH)D, the other vitamin D metabolites still lack this. Interpretation of results, creation of clinical supplementation, and generation of therapeutic guidelines require not only accurate measurements of vitamin D metabolites, but also the accurate measurements of several other "molecules" related with bone metabolism. IFCC understood this priority and a committee has been established with the task to support and continue the standardization processes of vitamin D metabolites along with other bone-related biomarkers. In this review, we present the position of this IFCC Committee on Bone Metabolism on the latest developments concerning the measurement and standardization of vitamin D metabolites and its binding protein, as well as clinical indications for their measurement and interpretation of the results.

      5. CD4 receptor diversity represents an ancient protection mechanism against primate lentivirusesexternal icon
        Russell RM, Bibollet-Ruche F, Liu W, Sherrill-Mix S, Li Y, Connell J, Loy DE, Trimboli S, Smith AG, Avitto AN, Gondim MV, Plenderleith LJ, Wetzel KS, Collman RG, Ayouba A, Esteban A, Peeters M, Kohler WJ, Miller RA, François-Souquiere S, Switzer WM, Hirsch VM, Marx PA, Piel AK, Stewart FA, Georgiev AV, Sommer V, Bertolani P, Hart JA, Hart TB, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Mar 30;118(13).
        Infection with human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV) requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the host protein CD4 on the surface of immune cells. Although invariant in humans, the Env binding domain of the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants circulating in wild populations. Here, we show that within-species CD4 diversity is not unique to chimpanzees but found in many African primate species. Characterizing the outermost (D1) domain of the CD4 protein in over 500 monkeys and apes, we found polymorphic residues in 24 of 29 primate species, with as many as 11 different coding variants identified within a single species. D1 domain amino acid replacements affected SIV Env-mediated cell entry in a single-round infection assay, restricting infection in a strain- and allele-specific fashion. Several identical CD4 polymorphisms, including the addition of N-linked glycosylation sites, were found in primate species from different genera, providing striking examples of parallel evolution. Moreover, seven different guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) shared multiple distinct D1 domain variants, pointing to long-term trans-specific polymorphism. These data indicate that the HIV/SIV Env binding region of the primate CD4 protein is highly variable, both within and between species, and suggest that this diversity has been maintained by balancing selection for millions of years, at least in part to confer protection against primate lentiviruses. Although long-term SIV-infected species have evolved specific mechanisms to avoid disease progression, primate lentiviruses are intrinsically pathogenic and have left their mark on the host genome.

      6. Optimizing drug inventory management with a web-based information system: The TBTC study 31/ACTG A5349 experienceexternal icon
        Scott NA, Lee KK, Sadowski C, Kurbatova E, Goldberg SV, Nsubuga P, Kitshoff R, Whitelaw C, Thuy HN, Batra K, Allen-Blige C, Davis H, Kim J, Phan M, Fedrick P, Chiu KW, Heilig CM, Sizemore E.
        Contemp Clin Trials. 2021 Mar 29:106377.
        INTRODUCTION: Efficient management of study drug inventory shipments is critical to keep research sites enrolling into multisite clinical treatment trials. A standard manual drug-management process used by the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium (TBTC), did not accommodate import permit approval timelines, shipment transit-times and time-zone differences. We compared a new web-based solution with the manual process, during an international 34-site clinical trial conducted by the TBTC and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG); TBTC Study 31/ACTG A5349. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed and implemented a technological solution by integrating logistical and regulatory requirements for drug importation with statistical simulations that estimated stock-out times in an online Drug Management Module (DMM). We measured the average shipment-related drug stock-outs and time to drug availability, to assess the efficiency of the DMM compared to the manual approach. RESULTS: An Interrupted Time-Series (ITS) analysis showed a 15% [p-value = 0.03; 95% C.I. (-28.8%, -2.0%)] reduction in average shipment-related study drug stock-out after DMM implementation. The DMM streamlined the restocking process at study sites, reducing median transit-time for sites associated with a depot by 2 days [95% C.I. (-3.0, -1.0)]. Under the DMM, study drugs were available for treatment assignment on the day received, compared to one day after receipt under the manual process. DISCUSSION: The DMM provided TBTC's Data and Coordinating Center and site staff with more efficient procedures to manage and consistently maintain study drug inventory at enrolling sites. This DMM framework can improve efficiency in future multicenter clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with (Identifier: NCT02410772) on April 8, 2015.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Neurodevelopment correlates with gut microbiota in a cross-sectional analysis of children at 3 years of age in rural Chinaexternal icon
        Rothenberg SE, Chen Q, Shen J, Nong Y, Nong H, Trinh EP, Biasini FJ, Liu J, Zeng X, Zou Y, Ouyang F, Korrick SA.
        Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7384.
        We investigated cross-sectional associations between children's neurodevelopment and their gut microbiota composition. Study children (36 months of age) lived in rural China (n = 46). Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition, yielding the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). Children's gut microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Microbial diversity was characterized using alpha diversity patterns. Additionally, 3 coabundance factors were determined for the 25 most abundant taxa. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the relationships between Bayley scores (MDI and PDI) and children's gut microbiota. In adjusted models, MDI and PDI scores were not associated with alpha diversity indices. However, in adjusted models, MDI and PDI scores were positively associated with the first coabundance factor, which captured positive loadings for the genera Faecalibacterium, Sutterella, and Clostridium cluster XIVa. For an interquartile range increase in the first coabundance factor, MDI scores increased by 3.9 points [95% confidence interval (CI): 0, 7.7], while PDI scores increased by 8.6 points (95% CI 3.1, 14). Our results highlight the potential for gut microbial compositional characteristics to be important correlates of children's Bayley Scales performance at 36 months of age.

    • Medicine
      1. Measuring Patient Safety: The Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (Past, Present, and Future)external icon
        Classen DC, Munier W, Verzier N, Eldridge N, Hunt D, Metersky M, Richards C, Wang Y, Brady PJ, Helwig A, Battles J.
        J Patient Saf. 2021 Apr 1;17(3):e234-e240.
        The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care. The MPSMS is a chart review-based national patient safety surveillance system that provides rates of 21 specific hospital inpatient adverse event measures, which have been divided into 4 clinical domains (general, hospital-acquired infections, postprocedure adverse events, and adverse drug events) for analysis. The 2014 MPSMS national sample was drawn from 1109 hospitals and includes approximately 20,000 medical records of patients admitted to the hospital (all payors) for at least 1 of the 4 conditions of congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and major surgical procedures as defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Surgical Care Improvement Project. The MPSMS is now going through a major transformation to capture additional types of adverse events and is being redeveloped as the Quality and Safety Review System (QSRS). As an example of this transformation, QSRS will electronically import electronic data, which are standardized according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services billing definitions and will be updated and evolve over time to incorporate expanded standardized data available from electronic health records. This article reviews the development of MPSMS, the strengths and limitations of MPSMS, and expected future directions in patient safety measurement, focusing on those issues that are informing the development and implementation of QSRS.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Shift Work Adaptation Among Police Officers: The BCOPS Studyexternal icon
        Nevels TL, Burch JB, Wirth MD, Ginsberg JP, McLain AC, Andrew ME, Allison P, Fekedulegn D, Violanti JM.
        Chronobiol Int. 2021 Mar 30:1-17.
        Few studies have examined shiftwork adaptation among police officers or potential differences in disease biomarkers among adapted and maladapted shiftworkers. This study characterized shiftwork adaptation among 430 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study. Police officers working fixed night shifts with symptoms characteristic of adaptation and maladaptation were identified using latent class analysis (n = 242). Two approaches were applied, one with police-specific symptoms and another using more general symptoms as shiftwork adaptation indicators. Biomarkers of inflammation, heart rate variability, and cardiometabolic risk were then compared between shiftwork adaptation groups, and with officers working day shifts, after adjusting for confounding. When analyses included police-specific symptoms, maladapted shiftworkers (n = 73) had more self-reported stress, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and less social support than adapted shiftworkers (n = 169). Using more general symptoms, maladapted officers (n = 56) reported more stress and depression, and less social support than adapted officers (n = 186). In police-specific models, adjusted (least-squares) means (± standard error) of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in maladapted officers (0.8 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml]) were modestly elevated relative to adapted shiftworkers (0.7 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml], p = .09) and relative to permanent day workers (0.5 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml], p ≤ 0.01), and leptin levels in maladapted officers (9.6 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml]) exceeded those in the adapted (9.4 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml], p ≤ 0.01) and day shift groups (9.4 ± 0.1 ln[pg/ml], p = .03). In the general model, adjusted mean tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentrations among maladapted officers (5.6 ± 0.23 pg/ml) exceeded the adapted (4.8 ± 0.2 pg/ml, p ≤ 0.01) and day workers (5.0 ± 0.2 pg/ml, p = .04), and insulin among maladapted officers was higher (2.4 ± 0.1 ln[uu/ml]) than the adapted group (1.8 ± 0.1 ln[uu/ml], p = .03). No differences were observed for the other biomarkers. The results suggest that maladaptation among police officers working fixed night shifts may lead to increases in leptin, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α; however, the cross-sectional design and possible residual confounding preclude interpretation of cause and effect. Prospective studies are planned to further characterize the relationship between shiftwork maladaptation and biomarkers of chronic disease risk in this police officer cohort.

      2. Shortages of surgical N95 respirators (surgical N95 FFRs) can occur during a pandemic. To understand if industrial N95 FFRs have FDA required fluid penetration resistance and flammability, five NIOSH approved N95 models were evaluated using the ASTM F1862 method and flammability using the 16 CFR 1610 method, respectively. Three models passed both fluid penetration resistance and flammability indicating that some N95 models on the market can be used as surgical N95 FFRs during a pandemic.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Atovaquone/Proguanil Resistance in an Imported Malaria Case in Chileexternal icon
        Chenet SM, Oyarce A, Fernandez J, Tapia-Limonchi R, Weitzel T, Tejedo JR, Udhayakumar V, Jercic MI, Lucchi NW.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 29.
        In November 2018, we diagnosed a cluster of falciparum malaria cases in three Chilean travelers returning from Nigeria. Two patients were treated with sequential intravenous artesunate plus oral atovaquone/proguanil (AP) and one with oral AP. The third patient, a 23-year-old man, presented with fever on day 29 after oral AP treatment and was diagnosed with recrudescent falciparum malaria. The patient was then treated with oral mefloquine, followed by clinical recovery and resolution of parasitemia. Analysis of day 0 and follow-up blood samples, collected on days 9, 29, 34, 64, and 83, revealed that parasitemia had initially decreased but then increased on day 29. Sequencing confirmed Tyr268Cys mutation in the cytochrome b gene, associated with atovaquone resistance, in isolates collected on days 29 and 34 and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase mutation Asn51Ile, associated with proguanil resistance in all successfully sequenced samples. Molecular characterization of imported malaria contributes to clinical management in non-endemic countries, helps ascertain the appropriateness of antimalarial treatment policies, and contributes to the reporting of drug resistance patterns from endemic regions.

      2. Mass testing and treatment on malaria in an area of western Kenyaexternal icon
        Samuels AM, Odero NA, Odongo W, Otieno K, Were V, Shi YP, Sang T, Williamson J, Wiegand R, Hamel MJ, Kachur SP, Slutsker L, Lindblade KA, Kariuki SK, Desai MR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 15;72(6):1103-1104.

      3. School-Based Serosurveys to Assess the Validity of Using Routine Health Facility Data to Target Malaria Interventions in the Central Highlands of Madagascarexternal icon
        Steinhardt LC, Ravaoarisoa E, Wiegand R, Harimanana A, Hedje J, Cotte AH, Zigirumugabe S, Kesteman T, Rasoloharimanana TL, Rakotomalala E, Randriamoramanana AM, Rakotondramanga JM, Razanatsiorimalala S, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Perraut R, Ratsimbasoa A, Butts J, Rogier C, Piola P, Randrianarivelojosia M, Vigan-Womas I.
        J Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 29;223(6):995-1004.
        BACKGROUND: In low-malaria-transmission areas of Madagascar, annual parasite incidence (API) from routine data has been used to target indoor residual spraying at subdistrict commune level. To assess validity of this approach, we conducted school-based serological surveys and health facility (HF) data quality assessments in 7 districts to compare API to gold-standard commune-level serological measures. METHODS: At 2 primary schools in each of 93 communes, 60 students were randomly selected with parents and teachers. Capillary blood was drawn for rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and serology. Multiplex bead-based immunoassays to detect antibodies to 5 Plasmodium falciparum antigens were conducted, and finite mixture models used to characterize seronegative and seropositive populations. Reversible catalytic models generated commune-level annual seroconversion rates (SCRs). HF register data were abstracted to assess completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: RDT positivity from 12 770 samples was 0.5%. Seroprevalence to tested antigens ranged from 17.9% (MSP-1) to 59.7% (PF13). Median commune-level SCR was 0.0108 (range, 0.001-0.075). Compared to SCRs, API identified 71% (95% confidence interval, 51%-87%) of the 30% highest-transmission communes; sensitivity declined at lower levels. Routine data accuracy did not substantially affect API performance. CONCLUSIONS: API performs reasonably well at identifying higher-transmission communes but sensitivity declined at lower transmission levels.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Older Adults in Indiaexternal icon
        Mbulo L, Murty KS, Zhao L, Smith T, Palipudi K.
        J Aging Health. 2021 Mar 31:8982643211000489.
        Objectives: Current tobacco use (CTU) and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among older adults in India (≥60 years) are prevalent in India and indicate the importance of addressing associated factors. Methods: Pooled Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 and 2016-2017 data (n = 17,299) for older adults examined prevalence of CTU and SHS exposure at home and/or in public places and associated socioeconomic and demographic correlates. Results: CTU among older adults in India was 44.6%, and SHS exposure at home and public places were 20.0% and 30.0%, respectively. Men, younger age-group, rural, lower education, lower wealth index, and lower knowledge were independently associated with CTU. Men, rural, lower education, lower wealth index, CTU, and lower knowledge were independently associated with SHS exposure at home. Men, younger age, and rural residence were associated with SHS exposure in public places. Conclusion: CTU and SHS exposure among older adults in India suggest targeted interventions to address associated social and demographic factors.

    • Vital Statistics
      1. The Leading Causes of Death in the US for 2020external icon
        Ahmad FB, Anderson RN.
        Jama. 2021 Mar 31.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. A mathematical model of contact tracing during the 2014–2016 West African Ebola outbreakexternal icon
        Burton D, Lenhart S, Edholm CJ, Levy B, Washington ML, Greening BR, Jane White KA, Lungu E, Chimbola O, Kgosimore M, Chirove F, Ronoh M, Helen Machingauta M.
        Mathematics. 2021 ;9(6).
        The 2014–2016 West African outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was the largest and most deadly to date. Contact tracing, following up those who may have been infected through contact with an infected individual to prevent secondary spread, plays a vital role in controlling such outbreaks. Our aim in this work was to mechanistically represent the contact tracing process to illustrate potential areas of improvement in managing contact tracing efforts. We also explored the role contact tracing played in eventually ending the outbreak. We present a system of ordinary differential equations to model contact tracing in Sierra Leonne during the outbreak. Using data on cumulative cases and deaths, we estimate most of the parameters in our model. We include the novel features of counting the total number of people being traced and tying this directly to the number of tracers doing this work. Our work highlights the importance of incorporating changing behavior into one’s model as needed when indicated by the data and reported trends. Our results show that a larger contact tracing program would have reduced the death toll of the outbreak. Counting the total number of people being traced and including changes in behavior in our model led to better understanding of disease management.

      2. Findings from the initial Stepwise Approach to Rabies Elimination (SARE) Assessment in China, 2019external icon
        Chen Q, Ma X, Rainey JJ, Li Y, Mu D, Tao X, Feng Y, Yin W, Li Z, Ma S, Petersen B.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Mar;15(3):e0009274.
        In 2015, China and other member states of the United Nations adopted the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies by 2030. China has made substantial progress in reducing dog-mediated human rabies since peaking with more than 3,300 reported cases in 2007. To further improve coordination and planning, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) assessment in March 2019. Assessment goals included outlining progress and identifying activities critical for eliminating dog-mediated rabies. Participants representing national, provincial and local human and animal health sectors in China used the SARE assessment tool to answer 115 questions about the current dog-mediated rabies control and prevention programs in China. The established surveillance system for human rabies cases and availability of post-exposure prophylaxis were identified as strengths. Low dog vaccination coverage and limited laboratory confirmation of rabid dogs were identified gaps, resulting in an overall score of 1.5 on a scale of 0 to 5. Participants outlined steps to increase cross-sectoral information sharing, improve surveillance for dog rabies, increase dog vaccination coverage, and increase laboratory capacity to diagnose rabies at the provincial level. All assessment participants committed to strengthening cross-sector collaboration using a One Health approach to achieve dog-mediated human rabies elimination by 2030.

      3. Low-Level Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus among Camel Handlers, Kenya, 2019external icon
        Munyua PM, Ngere I, Hunsperger E, Kochi A, Amoth P, Mwasi L, Tong S, Mwatondo A, Thornburg N, Widdowson MA, Njenga MK.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 ;27(4):1201-1205.
        Although seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory coronavirus syndrome is high among camels in Africa, researchers have not detected zoonotic transmission in Kenya. We followed a cohort of 262 camel handlers in Kenya during April 2018-March 2020. We report PCR-confirmed Middle East respiratory coronavirus syndrome in 3 asymptomatic handlers.

      4. Estimating incidence of infection from diverse data sources: Zika virus in Puerto Rico, 2016external icon
        Quandelacy TM, Healy JM, Greening B, Rodriguez DM, Chung KW, Kuehnert MJ, Biggerstaff BJ, Dirlikov E, Mier YT, Sharp TM, Waterman S, Johansson MA.
        PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Mar 30;17(3):e1008812.
        Emerging epidemics are challenging to track. Only a subset of cases is recognized and reported, as seen with the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic where large proportions of infection were asymptomatic. However, multiple imperfect indicators of infection provide an opportunity to estimate the underlying incidence of infection. We developed a modeling approach that integrates a generic Time-series Susceptible-Infected-Recovered epidemic model with assumptions about reporting biases in a Bayesian framework and applied it to the 2016 Zika epidemic in Puerto Rico using three indicators: suspected arboviral cases, suspected Zika-associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome cases, and blood bank data. Using this combination of surveillance data, we estimated the peak of the epidemic occurred during the week of August 15, 2016 (the 33rd week of year), and 120 to 140 (50% credible interval [CrI], 95% CrI: 97 to 170) weekly infections per 10,000 population occurred at the peak. By the end of 2016, we estimated that approximately 890,000 (95% CrI: 660,000 to 1,100,000) individuals were infected in 2016 (26%, 95% CrI: 19% to 33%, of the population infected). Utilizing multiple indicators offers the opportunity for real-time and retrospective situational awareness to support epidemic preparedness and response.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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