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CDC Science Clips: Volume 15, Issue 5, January 31, 2023

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention score to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. A new era in cardiac rehabilitation delivery: Research gaps, questions, strategies, and priorities
        Beatty AL, Beckie TM, Dodson J, Goldstein CM, Hughes JW, Kraus WE, Martin SS, Olson TP, Pack QR, Stolp H, Thomas RJ, Wu WC, Franklin BA.
        Circulation. 2023;147(3):254-266.
        Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a guideline-recommended, multidisciplinary program of exercise training, risk factor management, and psychosocial counseling for people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is beneficial but underused and with substantial disparities in referral, access, and participation. The emergence of new virtual and remote delivery models has the potential to improve access to and participation in CR and ultimately improve outcomes for people with CVD. Although data suggest that new delivery models for CR have safety and efficacy similar to traditional in-person CR, questions remain regarding which participants are most likely to benefit from these models, how and where such programs should be delivered, and their effect on outcomes in diverse populations. In this review, we describe important gaps in evidence, identify relevant research questions, and propose strategies for addressing them. We highlight 4 research priorities: (1) including diverse populations in all CR research; (2) leveraging implementation methodologies to enhance equitable delivery of CR; (3) clarifying which populations are most likely to benefit from virtual and remote CR; and (4) comparing traditional in-person CR with virtual and remote CR in diverse populations using multicenter studies of important clinical, psychosocial, and cost-effectiveness outcomes that are relevant to patients, caregivers, providers, health systems, and payors. By framing these important questions, we hope to advance toward a goal of delivering high-quality CR to as many people as possible to improve outcomes in those with CVD.

        Stolp, H.

      2. OBJECTIVE: Examine the 10-year trend in the prevalence and treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among commercially insured adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the 10-year trend (2009-2018) in health care claims for adults aged 18-64 years using the IBM MarketScan Database, a national convenience sample of employer-sponsored health insurance. We included patients continuously enrolled in commercial fee-for-service health insurance for 24 months who had a diabetes ICD-9/10-CM code on one or more inpatient or two or more different-day outpatient claims in the index year or previous calendar year. We used diagnosis and procedure codes to calculate the annual prevalence of patients with one or more claims for 1) any DME, 2) either DME or VTDR, and 3) antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections and laser photocoagulation treatment, stratified by any DME, VTDR with DME, and VTDR without DME. We calculated the average annual percent change (AAPC). RESULTS: From 2009 to 2018, there was an increase in the annual prevalence of patients with DME or VTDR (2.1% to 3.4%; AAPC 7.5%; P < 0.001) and any DME (0.7% to 2.6%; AAPC 19.8%; P < 0.001). There were sex differences in the annual prevalence of DME or VTDR and any DME, with men having a higher prevalence than women. Annual claims for anti-VEGF injections increased among patients with any DME (327%) and VTDR with DME (206%); laser photocoagulation decreased among patients with any DME (-68%), VTDR with DME (-54%), and VTDR without DME (-62%). CONCLUSIONS: Annual claims for DME or VTDR and anti-VEGF injections increased whereas those for laser photocoagulation decreased among commercially insured adults with diabetes.

        Lundeen, E. A. Saaddine, J. Holliday, C. S.

      3. Surveillance for the rare condition of sickle cell disease in Wisconsin
        Singh A, Dasgupta M, Retherford D, Baker M, Hulihan M, Brandow AM.
        Wmj. 2022 ;121(4):297-300.
        INTRODUCTION: Despite universal newborn screening, there is no comprehensive surveillance system to understand the sickle cell disease population in Wisconsin. METHODS: We initiated the development of a sickle cell disease surveillance system by linking newborn screening data and electronic health records from 2 large tertiary health care institutions in Wisconsin: Children's Wisconsin and Froedtert Hospital. RESULTS: There were 1478 individuals within the 3 data sources. One hundred thirty-two (82%) of 159 identified by newborn screening from 2013 through 2019 received care at Children's Wisconsin. The majority of individuals with sickle cell disease at Children's Wisconsin and Froedtert Hospital resided in Milwaukee County. DISCUSSION: The new surveillance program will increase our understanding of the sickle cell disease population in Wisconsin and help improve quality of care and health outcomes.

        Hulihan, M.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Accelerating HIV self-testing in the United States: A call to action
        Ma S, MacGowan RJ, Mermin JH, Owen SM, Manabe YC.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2023 .
        HIV self-testing has emerged as a tool to increase the proportion of people to know their status. Since the first HIV self-test was approved in 2012 by the FDA, global access to HIV self-tests has been bolstered by public-private partnerships to ensure equitable access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, no company has applied for FDA clearance in a decade. We highlight the potential benefits to reclassifying HIV self-tests from class III to class II.

        MacGowan, R. J. Mermin, J. H. Owen, S. M.

      2. Antiviral approaches against influenza virus
        Kumari R, Sharma SD, Kumar A, Ende Z, Mishina M, Wang Y, Falls Z, Samudrala R, Pohl J, Knight PR, Sambhara S.
        Clin Microbiol Rev. 2023:e0004022.
        Preventing and controlling influenza virus infection remains a global public health challenge, as it causes seasonal epidemics to unexpected pandemics. These infections are responsible for high morbidity, mortality, and substantial economic impact. Vaccines are the prophylaxis mainstay in the fight against influenza. However, vaccination fails to confer complete protection due to inadequate vaccination coverages, vaccine shortages, and mismatches with circulating strains. Antivirals represent an important prophylactic and therapeutic measure to reduce influenza-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Here, we review current FDA-approved influenza antivirals with their mechanisms of action, and different viral- and host-directed influenza antiviral approaches, including immunomodulatory interventions in clinical development. Furthermore, we also illustrate the potential utility of machine learning in developing next-generation antivirals against influenza.

        Kumari, R. Sharma, S. D. Kumar, A. Ende, Z. Mishina, M. Wang, Y. Pohl, J. Sambhara, S.

      3. Environmental persistence of monkeypox virus on surfaces in household of person with travel-associated infection, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2021
        Morgan CN, Whitehill F, Doty JB, Schulte J, Matheny A, Stringer J, Delaney LJ, Esparza R, Rao AK, McCollum AM.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 ;28(10):1982-1989.
        In July 2021, we conducted environmental sampling at the residence of a person in Dallas, Texas, USA, who had travel-associated human West African monkeypox virus (MPXV-WA). Targeted environmental swab sampling was conducted 15 days after the person who had monkeypox left the household. Results indicate extensive MPXV-WA DNA contamination, and viable virus from 7 samples was successfully isolated in cell culture. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.94) between MPXV-WA PCR positivity of porous (9/10, 90%) vs. nonporous (19/21, 90.5%) surfaces, but there was a significant difference (p<0.01) between viable virus detected in cultures of porous (6/10, 60%) vs. nonporous (1/21, 5%) surfaces. These findings indicate that porous surfaces (e.g., bedding, clothing) may pose more of a MPXV exposure risk than nonporous surfaces (e.g., metal, plastic). Viable MPXV was detected on household surfaces after at least 15 days. However, low titers (<10(2) PFU) indicate a limited potential for indirect transmission.

        Morgan, C. N. Whitehill, F. Doty, J. B. Matheny, A. Delaney, L. J. Rao, A. K. McCollum, A. M.

      4. Preexposure prophylaxis among pregnant and lactating people in 18 PEPFAR-supported countries: a review of HIV strategies and guidelines
        Abadan SS, Hawryluk L, Montandon M, Flowers N, Schueller J, Eakle R, Patel P, Chevalier MS, Rana S, Amzel A.
        Glob Health Sci Pract. 2022 ;10(6).
        Introduction: Pregnant and lactating people (PLP) experience heightened risk of acquiring HIV, which adversely impacts their health and increases the risk for vertical HIV transmission. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as part of a combination prevention package, including condoms, sexually transmitted infection prevention, and regular HIV testing, is a safe, efficacious method to prevent HIV infections among PLP and their infants. This article examines the evolution of strategies and guidance on PrEP services for PLP from 18 countries supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

        Montandon, M. Flowers, N. Patel, P.

      5. Predicted effects of the introduction of long-acting injectable cabotegravir pre-exposure prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study
        Smith J, Bansi-Matharu L, Cambiano V, Dimitrov D, Bershteyn A, van de Vijver D, Kripke K, Revill P, Boily MC, Meyer-Rath G, Taramusi I, Lundgren JD, van Oosterhout JJ, Kuritzkes D, Schaefer R, Siedner MJ, Schapiro J, Delany-Moretlwe S, Landovitz RJ, Flexner C, Jordan M, Venter F, Radebe M, Ripin D, Jenkins S, Resar D, Amole C, Shahmanesh M, Gupta RK, Raizes E, Johnson C, Inzaule S, Shafer R, Warren M, Stansfield S, Paredes R, Phillips AN.
        Lancet HIV. 2023 .
        BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable cabotegravir pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended by WHO as an additional option for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is concern that its introduction could lead to an increase in integrase-inhibitor resistance undermining treatment programmes that rely on dolutegravir. We aimed to project the health benefits and risks of cabotegravir-PrEP introduction in settings in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: With HIV Synthesis, an individual-based HIV model, we simulated 1000 setting-scenarios reflecting both variability and uncertainty about HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and compared outcomes for each with and without cabotegravir-PrEP introduction. PrEP use is assumed to be risk-informed and to be used only in 3-month periods (the time step for the model) when having condomless sex. We consider three groups at risk of integrase-inhibitor resistance emergence: people who start cabotegravir-PrEP after (unknowingly) being infected with HIV, those who seroconvert while on PrEP, and those with HIV who have residual cabotegravir drugs concentrations during the early tail period after recently stopping PrEP. We projected the outcomes of policies of cabotegravir-PrEP introduction and of no introduction in 2022 across 50 years. In 50% of setting-scenarios we considered that more sensitive nucleic-acid-based HIV diagnostic testing (NAT), rather than regular antibody-based HIV rapid testing, might be used to reduce resistance risk. For cost-effectiveness analysis we assumed in our base case a cost of cabotegravir-PrEP drug to be similar to oral PrEP, resulting in a total annual cost of USD$144 per year ($114 per year and $264 per year considered in sensitivity analyses), a cost-effectiveness threshold of $500 per disability-adjusted life years averted, and a discount rate of 3% per year. FINDINGS: Reflecting our assumptions on the appeal of cabotegravir-PrEP, its introduction is predicted to lead to a substantial increase in PrEP use with approximately 2·6% of the adult population (and 46% of those with a current indication for PrEP) receiving PrEP compared with 1·5% (28%) without cabotegravir-PrEP introduction across 20 years. As a result, HIV incidence is expected to be lower by 29% (90% range across setting-scenarios 6-52%) across the same period compared with no introduction of cabotegravir-PrEP. In people initiating antiretroviral therapy, the proportion with integrase-inhibitor resistance after 20 years is projected to be 1·7% (0-6·4%) without cabotegravir-PrEP introduction but 13·1% (4·1-30·9%) with. Cabotegravir-PrEP introduction is predicted to lower the proportion of all people on antiretroviral therapy with viral loads less than 1000 copies per mL by 0·9% (-2·5% to 0·3%) at 20 years. For an adult population of 10 million an overall decrease in number of AIDS deaths of about 4540 per year (-13 000 to -300) across 50 years is predicted, with little discernible benefit with NAT when compared with standard antibody-based rapid testing. AIDS deaths are predicted to be averted with cabotegravir-PrEP introduction in 99% of setting-scenarios. Across the 50-year time horizon, overall HIV programme costs are predicted to be similar regardless of whether cabotegravir-PrEP is introduced (total mean discounted annual HIV programme costs per year across 50 years is $151·3 million vs $150·7 million), assuming the use of standard antibody testing. With antibody-based rapid HIV testing, the introduction of cabotegravir-PrEP is predicted to be cost-effective under an assumed threshold of $500 per disability-adjusted life year averted in 82% of setting-scenarios at the cost of $144 per year, in 52% at $264, and in 87% at $114. INTERPRETATION: Despite leading to increases in integrase-inhibitor drug resistance, cabotegravir-PrEP introduction is likely to reduce AIDS deaths in addition to HIV incidence. Long-acting cabotegravir-PrEP is predicted to be cost-effective if delivered at similar cost to oral PrEP with antibody-based rapid HIV testing. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.

        Raizes, E.

      6. Rapidly shifting immunologic landscape and severity of SARS-CoV-2 in the Omicron era in South Africa
        Sun K, Tempia S, Kleynhans J, von Gottberg A, McMorrow ML, Wolter N, Bhiman JN, Moyes J, Carrim M, Martinson NA, Kahn K, Lebina L, du Toit JD, Mkhencele T, Viboud C, Cohen C.
        Nat Commun. 2023 ;14(1):246.
        South Africa was among the first countries to detect the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. However, the size of its Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 subvariants (BA.1/2) wave remains poorly understood. We analyzed sequential serum samples collected through a prospective cohort study before, during, and after the Omicron BA.1/2 wave to infer infection rates and monitor changes in the immune histories of participants over time. We found that the Omicron BA.1/2 wave infected more than half of the cohort population, with reinfections and vaccine breakthroughs accounting for > 60% of all infections in both rural and urban sites. After the Omicron BA.1/2 wave, we found few (< 6%) remained naïve to SARS-CoV-2 and the population immunologic landscape is fragmented with diverse infection/immunization histories. Prior infection with the ancestral strain, Beta, and Delta variants provided 13%, 34%, and 51% protection against Omicron BA.1/2 infection, respectively. Hybrid immunity and repeated prior infections reduced the risks of Omicron BA.1/2 infection by 60% and 85% respectively. Our study sheds light on a rapidly shifting landscape of population immunity in the Omicron era and provides context for anticipating the long-term circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in populations no longer naïve to the virus.

        Tempia, S. McMorrow, M. L.

      7. Considerations to improve pediatric HIV testing and close the treatment gap in 16 African countries
        Gross J, Medley A, Rivadeneira E, Battey K, Srivastava M, Grillo M, Wolf H, Simmons P, Hast M, Patel M.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2023 ;42(2):110-118.
        BACKGROUND: In 2019, South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya, South Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire accounted for 80% of children living with HIV (CLHIV) not receiving HIV treatment. This manuscript describes pediatric HIV testing to inform case-finding strategies. METHODS: We analyzed US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief monitoring, evaluation, and reporting data (October 1, 2018 to September 30, 2019) for these 16 countries. Number of HIV tests and positive results were reported by age band, country, treatment coverage and testing modality. The number needed to test (NNT) to identify 1 new CLHIV 1-14 years was measured by testing modality and country. The pediatric testing gap was estimated by multiplying the estimated number of CLHIV unaware of their status by NNT per country. RESULTS: Among children, 6,961,225 HIV tests were conducted, and 101,762 CLHIV were identified (NNT 68), meeting 17.6% of the pediatric testing need. Index testing accounted for 13.0% of HIV tests (29.7% of positive results, NNT 30), provider-initiated testing and counseling 65.9% of tests (43.6% of positives, NNT 103), and universal testing at sick entry points 5.3% of tests (6.5% of positives, NNT 58). CONCLUSIONS: As countries near HIV epidemic control for adults, the need to increase pediatric testing continues. Each testing modality - PITC, universal testing at sick entry points, and index testing - offers unique benefits. These results illustrate the comparative advantages of including a strategic mix of testing modalities in national programs to increase pediatric HIV case finding.

        Gross, J. Medley, A. Rivadeneira, E. Battey, K. Hast, M. Patel, M.

      8. Mpox virus and transmission through sexual contact: Defining the research agenda
        Low N, Bachmann LH, Ogoina D, McDonald R, Ipekci AM, Quilter LA, Cevik M.
        PLoS Med. 2023;20(1):e1004163.
        In a Policy Forum piece, Dr. Nicola Low and colleagues define the research agenda for Mpox virus and transmission through sexual contact.

        Bachmann, L. H. McDonald, R.

      9. High HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers and sexually exploited adolescents in Nimule town at the border of South Sudan and Uganda
        Okiria AG, Achut V, McKeever E, Bolo A, Katoro J, Arkangelo GC, Ismail Michael AT, Hakim AJ.
        PLoS One. 2023;18(1):e0266795.
        HIV prevalence among the general population in South Sudan, the world's newest country, is estimated at 2.9% and in Nimule, a town at the border with Uganda, it is estimated at 7.5%. However, there is limited data describing the HIV epidemic among female sex workers and sexually exploited adolescents (FSW/SEA) in the country. This study was conducted using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) among FSW/SEA aged ≥15 years in January-February 2017 who sold or exchanged sex in the last six months in Nimule. Consenting participants were administered a questionnaire and tested for HIV according to the national algorithm. Syphilis testing was conducted using SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 and Rapid Plasma Reagin for confirmation. Data were analyzed in SAS and RDS-Analyst and weighted results are presented. The 409 FSW/SEA participants with a median age of 28 years (IQR 23-35) and a median age of 23 years (IQR 18-28) when they entered the world of sex work, were enrolled in the Eagle survey. Nearly all (99.2%) FSW/SEA lacked comprehensive knowledge of HIV though almost half (48.5%) talked to a peer educator or outreach worker about HIV in the last 30 days. More than half (55.3%) were previously tested for HIV. Only 46.4% used a condom during their last vaginal or anal sexual act with a client. One in five (19.8%) FSW/SEA experienced a condom breaking during vaginal or anal sex in the last six months HIV prevalence was 24.0% (95% CI: 19.4-28.5) and 9.2% (95% CI: 6.5-11.9) had active syphilis. The multivariable analysis revealed the association between HIV and active syphilis (aOR: 6.99, 95% CI: 2.23-21.89). HIV and syphilis prevalence were higher among FSW/SEA in Nimule than the general population in the country and Nimule. Specifically, the HIV prevalence was eight times higher than the general population. Our findings underscore the importance of providing HIV and syphilis testing for FSW/SEA in conjunction with comprehensive combination prevention, including comprehensive HIV information, promotion of condom use, and availing treatment services for both HIV and syphilis.

        McKeever, E. Bolo, A. Katoro, J. Arkangelo, G. C. Hakim, A. J.

    • Community Health Services
      1. Recruiting, facilitating, and retaining a youth community advisory board to inform an HIV prevention research project with sexual and gender minority youth
        Geffen SR, Wang T, Cahill S, Fontenot HB, Conron K, Wilson JM, Avripas SA, Michaels S, Johns MM, Dunville R.
        LGBT Health. 2023.
        Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk of acquiring HIV, and as such, SGM youth should be meaningfully engaged in research aimed at developing effective, tailored HIV interventions. Youth Community Advisory Boards (YCABs) are an important element of community-engaged research and support the development of community-informed interventions. This article describes recruitment, facilitation, and retention of a YCAB composed of SGM youth in Greater Boston, to inform a national HIV prevention research project. These lessons can serve as a guide to future researchers who want to form YCABs as part of community-engaged research.

        Johns, M. M. Dunville, R.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Developing the role of earth observation in spatio-temporal mosquito modelling to identify malaria hot-spots
        Marston C, Rowland C, O’Neil A, Irish S, Wat’senga F, Martín-Gallego P, Aplin P, Giraudoux P, Strode C.
        Remote Sens. 2023;15(1).
        Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for a significant burden of global disease and over half a million deaths in 2020. Here, methods using a time series of cost-free Earth Observation (EO) data, 45,844 in situ mosquito monitoring captures, and the cloud processing platform Google Earth Engine are developed to identify the biogeographical variables driving the abundance and distribution of three malaria vectors—Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus, and An. paludis—in two highly endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. EO-derived topographical and time series land surface temperature and rainfall data sets are analysed using Random Forests (RFs) to identify their relative importance in relation to the abundance of the three mosquito species, and they show how spatial and temporal distributions vary by site, by mosquito species, and by month. The observed relationships differed between species and study areas, with the overall number of biogeographical variables identified as important in relation to species abundance, being 30 for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus and 26 for An. paludis. Results indicate rainfall and land surface temperature to consistently be the variables of highest importance, with higher rainfall resulting in greater mosquito abundance through the creation of pools acting as mosquito larval habitats; however, proportional coverage of forest and grassland, as well as proximity to forests, are also consistently identified as important. Predictive application of the RF models generated monthly abundance maps for each species, identifying both spatial and temporal hot-spots of high abundance and, by proxy, increased malaria infection risk. Results indicate greater temporal variability in An. gambiae s.l. and An. paludis abundances in response to seasonal rainfall, whereas An. funestus is generally more temporally stable, with maximum predicted abundances of 122 for An. gambiae s.l., 283 for An. funestus, and 120 for An. paludis. Model validation produced R2 values of 0.717 for An. gambiae s.l., 0.861 for An. funestus, and 0.448 for An. paludis. Monthly abundance values were extracted for 248,089 individual buildings, demonstrating how species abundance, and therefore biting pressure, varies spatially and seasonally on a building-to-building basis. These methods advance previous broader regional mosquito mapping and can provide a crucial tool for designing bespoke control programs and for improving the targeting of resource-constrained disease control activities to reduce malaria transmission and subsequent mortality in endemic regions, in line with the WHO’s ‘High Burden to High Impact’ initiative. The developed method was designed to be widely applicable to other areas, where suitable in situ mosquito monitoring data are available. Training materials were also made freely available in multiple languages, enabling wider uptake and implementation of the methods by users without requiring prior expertise in EO. © 2022 by the authors.

        Irish, S.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Cholera outbreak - Haiti, September 2022-January 2023
        Vega Ocasio D, Juin S, Berendes D, Heitzinger K, Prentice-Mott G, Desormeaux AM, Jn Charles PD, Rigodon J, Pelletier V, Louis RJ, Vertefeuille J, Boncy J, Joseph G, Compère V, Lafontant D, Andrecy LL, Michel E, Pierre K, Thermidor E, Fitter D, Grant-Greene Y, Lozier M, Marseille S.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 ;72(2):21-25.
        On September 30, 2022, after >3 years with no confirmed cholera cases (1), the Directorate of Epidemiology, Laboratories and Research (DELR) of the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [MSPP]) was notified of two patients with acute, watery diarrhea in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. Within 2 days, Haiti's National Public Health Laboratory confirmed the bacterium Vibrio cholerae O1 in specimens from the two patients with suspected cholera infection, and an outbreak investigation began immediately. As of January 3, 2023, >20,000 suspected cholera cases had been reported throughout the country, and 79% of patients have been hospitalized. The moving 14-day case fatality ratio (CFR) was 3.0%. Cholera, which is transmitted through ingestion of water or food contaminated with fecal matter, can cause acute, severe, watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration, shock, and death if not treated promptly (2). Haiti is currently facing ongoing worsening of gang violence, population displacement, social unrest, and insecurity, particularly in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, including Belair, Bas-Delmas, Centre-Ville, Martissant, Cité Soleil, Croix-des Bouquets, and Tabarre, creating an environment that has facilitated the current resurgence of cholera (3). This report describes the initial investigation, ongoing outbreak, and public health response to cholera in Haiti. Cholera outbreak responses require a multipronged, multisectoral approach including surveillance; case management; access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services; targeted oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaigns; risk communication; and community engagement. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.

        Vega Ocasio, D. Berendes, D. Heitzinger, K. Prentice-Mott, G. Vertefeuille, J. Compère, V. Fitter, D. Lozier, M.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Use of wastewater for mpox outbreak surveillance in California
        Wolfe MK, Yu AT, Duong D, Rane MS, Hughes B, Chan-Herur V, Donnelly M, Chai S, White BJ, Vugia DJ, Boehm AB.
        N Engl J Med. 2023.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Genomic epidemiology linking nonendemic coccidioidomycosis to travel
        Monroy-Nieto J, Gade L, Benedict K, Etienne KA, Litvintseva AP, Bowers JR, Engelthaler DM, Chow NA.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(1):110-117.
        Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to hot, arid regions of the western United States, northern Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Sporadic cases outside these regions are likely travel-associated; alternatively, an infection could be acquired in as-yet unidentified newly endemic locales. A previous study of cases in nonendemic regions with patient self-reported travel history suggested that infections were acquired during travel to endemic regions. We sequenced 19 Coccidioides isolates from patients with known travel histories from that earlier investigation and performed phylogenetic analysis to identify the locations of potential source populations. Our results show that those isolates were phylogenetically linked to Coccidioides subpopulations naturally occurring in 1 of the reported travel locales, confirming that these cases were likely acquired during travel to endemic regions. Our findings demonstrate that genomic analysis is a useful tool for investigating travel-related coccidioidomycosis.

        Gade, L. Benedict, K. Etienne, K. A. Litvintseva, A. P. Chow, N. A.

    • Global Health
      1. Health care seeking during travel: an analysis by the GeoSentinel surveillance network of travel medicine providers
        Piyaphane W, Stoney RJ, Asgeirsson H, Appiah GD, Díaz-Menéndez M, Barnett ED, Gautret P, Libman M, Schlagenhauf P, Leder K, Plewes K, Grobusch MP, Huits R, Mavunda K, Hamer DH, Chen LH.
        J Travel Med. 2023.
        BACKGROUND: International travellers may seek care abroad to address health problems that arise during their trip or plan healthcare outside their country of residence as medical tourists. METHODS: Data were collected on travellers evaluated at GeoSentinel Network sites who reported healthcare during travel. Both unplanned and planned healthcare were analysed, including the reason and nature of healthcare sought, characteristics of the treatment provided, and outcomes. Travellers that presented for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis were described elsewhere and were excluded from detailed analysis. RESULTS: From May 2017 through June 2020, after excluding travellers obtaining rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (n = 415), 1093 travellers reported care for a medical or dental issue that was an unanticipated part of the travellers' planned itinerary (unplanned healthcare). Travellers who sought unplanned healthcare abroad had frequent diagnoses of acute diarrhoea, dengue, falciparum malaria, and unspecified viral syndrome, and obtained care in 131 countries. Thirty-four (3%) reported subsequent deterioration and 230 (21%) reported no change in condition; a third (n = 405; 37%) had a pre-travel health encounter. Forty-one travellers had sufficient data on planned healthcare abroad for analysis. The most common destinations were the US, France, Dominican Republic, Belgium, and Mexico. The top reasons for their planned healthcare abroad were unavailability of procedure at home (n = 9; 19%), expertise abroad (n = 9; 19%), lower cost (n = 8; 17%), and convenience (n = 7; 15%); a third (n = 13; 32%) reported cosmetic or surgical procedures. Early and late complications occurred in 14 (33%) and 4 (10%) travellers, respectively. Four travellers (10%) had a pre-travel health encounter. CONCLUSIONS: International travellers encounter health problems during travel that often could be prevented by pre-travel consultation. Travellers obtaining planned healthcare abroad can experience negative health consequences associated with treatments abroad, for which pre-travel consultations could provide advice and potentially help to prevent complications.

        Stoney, R. J.

    • Health Behavior and Risk
      1. Adherence to and experiences of K-12 students in modified and standard home quarantine during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Missouri
        Worrell MC, Malone S, Dawson P, Fritz SA, Thomas E, Peeler B, Rains C, Tinker SC, Neatherlin JC, Barrios L, Mooney J, Towns K, Newland J, Salzer JS.
        PLoS One. 2023;18(1):e0275404.
        BACKGROUND: In November 2020, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Missouri allowed local public health jurisdictions the option to implement a modified quarantine policy allowing kindergarten through 12 (K-12) students with low-risk exposures to continue in-person learning. We assessed adherence to quarantine among participants in modified quarantine and standard home quarantine and the psychosocial impacts of quarantine on students and families. METHODS: In January-March 2021, as part of an investigation of in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2, parents of 586 participating K-12 students identified as a close contact with a person with SARS-CoV-2 were sent a survey to assess their activities and psychosocial impacts to the child and family. RESULTS: Among the 227 (39%) survey respondents, 26 (11%) participated in modified quarantine and 201 (89%) participated in standard home quarantine. Forty-six percent of students in modified quarantine and 72% of students in standard home quarantine reported abstaining from non-school activities during quarantine. Parents of 17 (65%) students in modified quarantine and 80 (40%) in standard home quarantine reported low or neutral levels of stress in their children. Parents of students in standard home quarantine described greater stress, negative impacts to family functioning, and interruptions to educational opportunities for students. CONCLUSIONS: Students in modified quarantine reported lower adherence to quarantine recommendations but lower daily impact and stressors than those in standard home quarantine. Because in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be low when layered prevention strategies are in place regardless of the use of modified or standard home quarantine, this modified quarantine approach provides a reasonable option for balancing the needs of students and families with SARS-CoV-2 prevention measures.

        Worrell, M. C. Dawson, P. Thomas, E. Tinker, S. C. Neatherlin, J. C. Barrios, L. Salzer, J. S.

    • Health Equity and Health Disparities
      1. Neighborhood deprivation and privilege: An examination of racialized-economic segregation and preterm birth, Florida 2019
        Phillips-Bell GS, Mohamoud YA, Kirby RS, Parks SE, Cozier YC, Shapiro-Mendoza CK.
        J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2023.
        The Black-White disparity in preterm birth persists and is not fully explained by individual-level social, behavioral, or clinical risk factors. Consequently, there is increasing emphasis on understanding the role of structural and area-level factors. Racialized-economic segregation measured as the index of concentration at the extremes (ICE) simultaneously captures extremes of deprivation and privilege. Our objective was to examine associations between preterm birth (PTB) and the index of concentration at the extremes (ICE). In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 193,957 Florida birth records from 2019 linked to 2015-2019 census tract data from the American Community Survey. We assessed PTB (< 37 weeks gestation) by subtypes: (1) early (< 34 weeks) and late (34-36 weeks) and (2) spontaneous and indicated (i.e., provider-initiated) deliveries. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three ICE measures: (1) ICE_INC: income, (2) INC_INC + WB: income + race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White vs. Black), and (3) INC_INC + WH: income + race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White vs. Hispanic). Results. For ICE_INC and INC_INC + WB, aORs for residing in the worst-off vs. best-off areas were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.46) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37) for early PTB, respectively, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28) to 1.22 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.34) for indicated PTB. In conclusion, deprivation captured by ICE was associated with increased odds of early or indicated PTB. Eliminating PTB disparities may require a multifaceted approach that includes addressing the interplay between income and race/ethnicity in residential areas.

        Phillips-Bell, G. S. Mohamoud, Y. A. Parks, S. E. Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K.

      2. Health-risk behaviors and experiences among Asian American and native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adolescents in the United States, 2011-2019
        Swaminath M, Clayton HB, Lowry R, Hertz M, Underwood JM.
        Public Health Rep. 2023 :333549221137325.
        OBJECTIVES: Understanding the health-risk behaviors of racial and ethnic groups when disaggregated is an important step in improving the health outcomes of racial and ethnic minority groups. We compared national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors and experiences of Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) students with those of non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic students. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of US high school students. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and NHPI students for analyses, we combined data from 5 survey administrations, conducted in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 (N = 73 074). We calculated the prevalence and 95% CIs; we analyzed data on Asian American and NHPI adolescents separately to unmask important differences. RESULTS: Compared with students of other races and ethnicities, Asian American students had the lowest prevalence of alcohol use (16.7%) and marijuana use (10.3%). In contrast, NHPI students were more likely than Asian American students to participate in several health-risk behaviors and experiences, such as substance use (ranging from 4.8% for ever injecting an illegal drug to 31.5% for current alcohol use), having been in a physical fight (15.4%), and having been threatened or injured with a weapon (11.6%). Differential patterns in the prevalence of ever having missed school due to feeling unsafe among NHPI and Asian American students were observed among male and female students. CONCLUSION: Further disaggregating racial subgroups within broad categories of Asian American and NHPI populations may reveal differences from overall group prevalence, and additional strategies to identify these differences should be investigated.

        Swaminath, M. Clayton, H. B. Lowry, R. Hertz, M. Underwood, J. M.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in nursing homes involving residents who had completed a primary coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine series-13 US jurisdictions, July-November 2021
        Wyatt Wilson W, Keaton AA, Ochoa LG, Hatfield KM, Gable P, Walblay KA, Teran RA, Shea M, Khan U, Stringer G, Colletti JG, Grogan EM, Calabrese C, Hennenfent A, Perlmutter R, Janiszewski KA, Kamal-Ahmed I, Strand K, Berns E, MacFarquhar J, Linder M, Tran DJ, Kopp P, Walker RM, Ess R, Read JS, Yingst C, Baggs J, Jernigan JA, Kallen A, Hunter JC.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2023 :1-5.
        Among nursing home outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ≥3 breakthrough infections when the predominant severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant circulating was the SARS-CoV-2 δ (delta) variant, fully vaccinated residents were 28% less likely to be infected than were unvaccinated residents. Once infected, they had approximately half the risk for all-cause hospitalization and all-cause death compared with unvaccinated infected residents.

        Wyatt Wilson, W. Keaton, A. A. Ochoa, L. G. Hatfield, K. M. Gable, P. Baggs, J. Jernigan, J. A. Kallen, A. Hunter, J. C.

      2. Safety monitoring of bivalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccine booster doses among children aged 5-11 years - United States, October 12-January 1, 2023
        Hause AM, Marquez P, Zhang B, Su JR, Myers TR, Gee J, Panchanathan SS, Thompson D, Shimabukuro TT, Shay DK.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 ;72(2):39-43.
        On October 12, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for bivalent (mRNA encoding the spike protein from the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain and BA.4/BA.5 Omicron variants) formulations of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines for use as a single booster dose ≥2 months after completion of primary series or monovalent booster vaccination for children aged 5-11 years (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 6-17 years (Moderna); on December 8, 2022, FDA amended the EUAs to include children aged ≥6 months (1,2). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all persons aged ≥6 months receive an age-appropriate bivalent mRNA booster dose (3). The safety of bivalent mRNA booster doses among persons aged ≥12 years has previously been described (4). To characterize the safety of bivalent mRNA booster doses among children aged 5-11 years after receipt of bivalent Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna booster doses, CDC reviewed adverse events and health impacts reported to v-safe,* a voluntary, smartphone-based U.S. safety surveillance system established by CDC to monitor adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, and to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a U.S. passive vaccine safety surveillance system co-managed by CDC and FDA(†) (5). During October 12-January 1, 2023, a total of 861,251 children aged 5-11 years received a bivalent Pfizer-BioNTech booster, and 92,108 children aged 6-11 years received a bivalent Moderna booster.(§) Among 3,259 children aged 5-11 years registered in v-safe who received a bivalent booster dose, local (68.7%) and systemic reactions (49.5%) were commonly reported in the week after vaccination. Approximately 99.8% of reports to VAERS for children aged 5-11 years after bivalent booster vaccination were nonserious. There were no reports of myocarditis or death after bivalent booster vaccination. Eighty-four percent of VAERS reports were related to vaccination errors, 90.5% of which did not list an adverse health event. Local and systemic reactions reported after receipt of a bivalent booster dose are consistent with those reported after a monovalent booster dose; serious adverse events are rare. Vaccine providers should provide this information when counseling parents or guardians about bivalent booster vaccination. Preliminary safety findings from the first 11 weeks of bivalent booster vaccination among children aged 5-11 years are reassuring. Compared with the low risk of serious health effects after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, the health effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection include death and serious long-term sequalae (6). ACIP recommends that all persons aged ≥6 months receive an age-appropriate bivalent mRNA booster dose ≥2 months after completion of a COVID-19 primary series or receipt of a monovalent booster dose.(¶).

        Hause, A. M. Marquez, P. Zhang, B. Su, J. R. Myers, T. R. Gee, J. Shimabukuro, T. T. Shay, D. K.

      3. Vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born during 2018-2019 - National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2019-2021
        Hill HA, Chen M, Elam-Evans LD, Yankey D, Singleton JA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 ;72(2):33-38.
        Millions of young children are vaccinated safely in the United States each year against a variety of potentially dangerous infectious diseases (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination against 14 diseases during the first 24 months of life* (2). This report describes vaccination coverage by age 24 months using data from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child).(†) Compared with coverage among children born during 2016-2017, coverage among children born during 2018-2019 increased for a majority of recommended vaccines. Coverage was >90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.4%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (92.7%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR) (91.1%); coverage was lowest for ≥2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (47.3%). Vaccination coverage overall was similar or higher among children reaching age 24 months during March 2020 or later (during the COVID-19 pandemic) than among those reaching age 24 months before March 2020 (prepandemic); however, coverage with the combined 7-vaccine series(§) among children living below the federal poverty level or in rural areas decreased by 4-5 percentage points during the pandemic (3). Among children born during 2018-2019, coverage disparities were observed by race and ethnicity, poverty status, health insurance status, and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) residence. Coverage was typically higher among privately insured children than among children with other insurance or no insurance. Persistent disparities by health insurance status indicate the need to improve access to vaccines through the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program.(¶) Providers should review children's histories and recommend needed vaccinations during every clinical encounter and address parental hesitancy to help reduce disparities and ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

        Hill, H. A. Chen, M. Elam-Evans, L. D. Yankey, D. Singleton, J. A.

      4. Vaccination coverage with selected vaccines and exemption rates among children in kindergarten - United States, 2021-22 school year
        Seither R, Calhoun K, Yusuf OB, Dramann D, Mugerwa-Kasujja A, Knighton CL, Black CL.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 ;72(2):26-32.
        State and local school vaccination requirements protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage and exemptions to vaccination among children in kindergarten in 49 states(†) and the District of Columbia and provisional enrollment or grace period status for kindergartners in 27 states(§) for the 2021-22 school year. Nationwide, vaccination coverage with 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) was 93.5%(¶); with the state-required number of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) doses was 93.1%**; with poliovirus vaccine (polio) was 93.5%(††); and with the state-required number of varicella vaccine doses was 92.8%.(§§) Compared with the 2020-21 school year, vaccination coverage decreased 0.4-0.9 percentage points for all vaccines. Although 2.6% of kindergartners had an exemption for at least one vaccine,(¶¶) an additional 3.9% who did not have an exemption were not up to date with MMR. Although there has been a nearly complete return to in-person learning after COVID-19 pandemic-associated disruptions, immunization programs continued to report COVID-19-related impacts on vaccination assessment and coverage. Follow-up with undervaccinated students and catch-up campaigns remain important for increasing vaccination coverage to prepandemic levels to protect children and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases.

        Seither, R. Calhoun, K. Yusuf, O. B. Dramann, D. Mugerwa-Kasujja, A. Knighton, C. L. Black, C. L.

    • Informatics
      1. Implementation of data triangulation and dashboard development for COVID-19 vaccine adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) data in Nigeria
        Shragai T, Adegoke OJ, Ikwe H, Sorungbe T, Haruna A, Williams I, Okonkwo R, Onu K, Asekun A, Gberikon M, Iwara E, Abimiku A, Rufai A, Okposen B, Gidudu J, Lam E, Bolu O.
        BMJ Glob Health. 2023;8(1).
        Nigeria began administering COVID-19 vaccines on 5 March 2021 and is working towards the WHO's African regional goal to fully vaccinate 70% of their eligible population by December 2022. Nigeria's COVID-19 vaccination information system includes a surveillance system for COVID-19 adverse events following immunisation (AEFI), but as of April 2021, AEFI data were being collected and managed by multiple groups and lacked routine analysis and use for action. To fill this gap in COVID-19 vaccine safety monitoring, between April 2021 and June 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with other implementing partners led by the Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, supported the Government of Nigeria to triangulate existing COVID-19 AEFI data. This paper describes the process of implementing published draft guidelines for data triangulation for COVID-19 AEFI data in Nigeria. Here, we focus on the process of implementing data triangulation rather than analysing the results and impacts of triangulation. Work began by mapping the flow of COVID-19 AEFI data, engaging stakeholders and building a data management system to intake and store all shared data. These datasets were used to create an online dashboard with key indicators selected based on existing WHO guidelines and national guidance. The dashboard went through an iterative review before dissemination to stakeholders. This case study highlights a successful example of implementing data triangulation for rapid use of AEFI data for decision-making and emphasises the importance of stakeholder engagement and strong data governance structures to make data triangulation successful.

        Shragai, T. Adegoke, O. J. Ikwe, H. Gidudu, J. Lam, E. Bolu, O.

      2. Commutability assessment of candidate reference materials for lipoprotein(a) by comparison of a ms-based candidate reference measurement procedure with immunoassays
        Dikaios I, Althaus H, Angles-Cano E, Ceglarek U, Coassin S, Cobbaert CM, Delatour V, Dieplinger B, Grimmler M, Hoofnagle AN, Kostner GM, Kronenberg F, Kuklenyik Z, Lyle AN, Prinzing U, Ruhaak LR, Scharnagl H, Vesper HW, Deprez L.
        Clin Chem. 2023.
        BACKGROUND: Elevated concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are directly related to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, making it a relevant biomarker for clinical risk assessment. However, the lack of global standardization of current Lp(a) measurement procedures (MPs) leads to inconsistent patient care. The International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine working group on quantitating apolipoproteins by mass spectrometry (MS) aims to develop a next-generation SI (International system of units)-traceable reference measurement system consisting of a MS-based, peptide-calibrated reference measurement procedure (RMP) and secondary serum-based reference materials (RMs) certified for their apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] content. To reach measurement standardization through this new measurement system, 2 essential requirements need to be fulfilled: a sufficient correlation among the MPs and appropriate commutability of future serum-based RMs. METHODS: The correlation among the candidate RMP (cRMP) and immunoassay-based MPs was assessed by measuring a panel of 39 clinical samples (CS). In addition, the commutability of 14 different candidate RMs was investigated. RESULTS: Results of the immunoassay-based MPs and the cRMPs demonstrated good linear correlations for the CS but some significant sample-specific differences were also observed. The results of the commutability study show that RMs based on unspiked human serum pools can be commutable with CS, whereas human pools spiked with recombinant apo(a) show different behavior compared to CS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that unspiked human serum pools are the preferred candidate secondary RMs in the future SI-traceable Lp(a) Reference Measurement System.

        Kuklenyik, Z. Lyle, A. N. Vesper, H. W.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Sports-related concussions and adverse health behaviors among middle and high school students
        Sarmiento K, Miller GF, Jones SE.
        Am J Sports Med. 2023:3635465221141440.
        BACKGROUND: Concussions affect millions of youths in the United States each year, and there is concern about long-term health effects from this injury. PURPOSE: To examine the association between sports- or physical activity-related concussion and health risk behaviors among middle and high school students in 9 states. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Data from the 2019 middle school and high school Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used for this analysis. Nine states were identified that included the same question on concussion and similar questions on health risk behaviors in their 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students were asked to self-report whether they had ≥1 sports- or physical activity-related concussions during the 12 months preceding the survey. Self-reported concussion was the primary outcome of interest. Other variables included sex, race/ethnicity, played on a sports team, were physically active 5 or more days/week, ever tried cigarette smoking, ever used an electronic vapor product, academic grades, drank alcohol, were in a physical fight, seriously considered attempting suicide, made a suicide plan, and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Among the 9 states, 18.2% of middle school students and 14.3% of high school students self-reported ≥1 sports- or physical activity-related concussions. Among both middle school and high school students, the prevalence of ≥1 sports- or physical activity-related concussions was higher among students who played on a sports team, were physically active 5 or more days per week, had ever tried cigarette smoking, had ever used an electronic vapor product, had seriously considered attempting suicide, had made a suicide plan, and had attempted suicide compared with those who had not engaged in those behaviors. The prevalence of sports- or physical activity-related concussion was consistently higher among middle school students than high school students across sex, race/ethnicity, and adverse health behaviors. CONCLUSION: Middle school students with a history of concussion warrant attention as an at-risk population for concussions and adverse health behaviors. Health care providers may consider screening students for adverse health behaviors during preparticipation examinations and concussion evaluations.

        Sarmiento, K. Miller, G. F. Jones, S. E.

      2. Coaches play an important role in concussion safety and their views on concussion influence those of their athletes and athletes' reporting behaviors. This 2021 survey of youth examined how often coaches provide concussion safety information to their athletes and the association between the presence of athletic trainers (ATs) at a team's games and practices and coaches' provision of concussion information to athletes. More than 4 in 10 youth who played sports reported that their coaches did not provide any sort of concussion education/information to them in the past 12 months. Among those youth who always/sometimes had ATs at practices or games, 76.3% received some type of coach education on concussion in the past 12 months, compared to 31.9% of those who rarely/never had ATs at practices or games (p<0.0001). Increasing access to ATs and adapting current concussion trainings and educational materials for coaches to increase coach-athlete communication may be beneficial.

        Daugherty, J. Waltzman, D. Sarmiento, K.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. The number of testing sites receiving their first Certificate of Waiver (CoW) under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) increased significantly after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the first-time CoWs in 2020-2021 to those in 2018-2019. The total number of first-time CoWs during 2020-2021 was more than twice what it was in 2018-2019, corresponding to population testing needs during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in assisted living facility, pharmacy, physician office, and school/student health service settings. This study highlighted the need to strengthen clinical testing strategies to be better prepared for future public health emergencies.

        Xia, Y. Anderson, N.

      2. A stable dried tube specimen for quality assurance and training programs for HIV rapid test for recent infection
        Di Germanio C, Yufenyuy EL, Hampton DC, Thorbrogger C, Parekh BS, Norris PJ.
        Microbiol Spectr. 2023 :e0339822.
        The HIV epidemic is still one of the world's most serious public health challenges, affecting about 38 million people worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian countries. In recent years, tests have been developed to discriminate recent from long-term infection in HIV-infected populations, and these tools can help identify new outbreaks and networks of transmission and target prevention and treatment plans. New rapid tests for recent infection are being deployed in point-of-care settings; however, quality assurance programs need to be implemented to ensure consistency and reliability of the results. We have developed a dried tube specimen (DTS) stabilized with disaccharide trehalose as a quality control reagent for rapid recency testing that can be stored unrefrigerated prior to reconstitution at temperatures up to 37°C for up to 12 weeks. Analysis of 10 trehalose-stabilized DTSs showed that they maintained the same recency classification in all of the samples stored at 4°C and 37°C up to 12 weeks and at 56°C for 2 weeks, while the DTSs prepared without trehalose changed their classification from long-term to recent or recent to negative after storage at 37°C for 12 weeks. Development of DTS quality control reagents will facilitate proficiency and training programs, particularly in settings without cold chain capability in field environments. IMPORTANCE Implementation of stabilized dried tube specimens (DTSs) for quality control and training would facilitate HIV recency programs, especially in point-of-care settings without cold chain availability. This study shows that addition of the disaccharide trehalose to DTSs prior to drying the samples increased stability of the samples across a range of temperatures. This finding provides an affordable way to increase the availability of these key reagents for quality control in resource-constrained settings.

        Yufenyuy, E. L. Parekh, B. S.

      3. The HPV Serology Laboratory in the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research is working in partnership with the scientific community with the goal of standardizing and harmonizing current HPV serology assay platforms in response to the increasing number of immunobridging trials relying on serology data for approval of new vaccine dosing schedules and new formulations. A virtual meeting was held on June 29-30, 2021, to review the progress of the standardization initiative thus far and to bridge scientific gaps and outstanding questions. The main aims and outcomes of the meeting were to discuss: 1) standardization of assays and reagents; 2) International Standard calibration procedures; 3) assay cut-off values; 4) current immunobridging clinical trials; and 5) gaps and challenges in standardization of HPV serology.

        Unger, E. R.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Adverse maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection: an individual participant data meta-analysis
        Smith ER, Oakley E, Grandner GW, Ferguson K, Farooq F, Afshar Y, Ahlberg M, Ahmadzia H, Akelo V, Aldrovandi G, Tippett Barr BA, Bevilacqua E, Brandt JS, Broutet N, Fernández Buhigas I, Carrillo J, Clifton R, Conry J, Cosmi E, Crispi F, Crovetto F, Delgado-López C, Divakar H, Driscoll AJ, Favre G, Flaherman VJ, Gale C, Gil MM, Gottlieb SL, Gratacós E, Hernandez O, Jones S, Kalafat E, Khagayi S, Knight M, Kotloff K, Lanzone A, Le Doare K, Lees C, Litman E, Lokken EM, Laurita Longo V, Madhi SA, Magee LA, Martinez-Portilla RJ, McClure EM, Metz TD, Miller ES, Money D, Moungmaithong S, Mullins E, Nachega JB, Nunes MC, Onyango D, Panchaud A, Poon LC, Raiten D, Regan L, Rukundo G, Sahota D, Sakowicz A, Sanin-Blair J, Söderling J, Stephansson O, Temmerman M, Thorson A, Tolosa JE, Townson J, Valencia-Prado M, Visentin S, von Dadelszen P, Adams Waldorf K, Whitehead C, Yassa M, Tielsch JM.
        BMJ Glob Health. 2023;8(1).
        INTRODUCTION: Despite a growing body of research on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, there is continued controversy given heterogeneity in the quality and design of published studies. METHODS: We screened ongoing studies in our sequential, prospective meta-analysis. We pooled individual participant data to estimate the absolute and relative risk (RR) of adverse outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with confirmed negative pregnancies. We evaluated the risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We screened 137 studies and included 12 studies in 12 countries involving 13 136 pregnant women.Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection-as compared with uninfected pregnant women-were at significantly increased risk of maternal mortality (10 studies; n=1490; RR 7.68, 95% CI 1.70 to 34.61); admission to intensive care unit (8 studies; n=6660; RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.03 to 7.17); receiving mechanical ventilation (7 studies; n=4887; RR 15.23, 95% CI 4.32 to 53.71); receiving any critical care (7 studies; n=4735; RR 5.48, 95% CI 2.57 to 11.72); and being diagnosed with pneumonia (6 studies; n=4573; RR 23.46, 95% CI 3.03 to 181.39) and thromboembolic disease (8 studies; n=5146; RR 5.50, 95% CI 1.12 to 27.12).Neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be admitted to a neonatal care unit after birth (7 studies; n=7637; RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.08); be born preterm (7 studies; n=6233; RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.29) or moderately preterm (7 studies; n=6071; RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.88 to 4.54); and to be born low birth weight (12 studies; n=11 930; RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.40). Infection was not linked to stillbirth. Studies were generally at low or moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection at any time during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal death, severe maternal morbidities and neonatal morbidity, but not stillbirth or intrauterine growth restriction. As more data become available, we will update these findings per the published protocol.

        Tippett Barr, B. A.

      2. Maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation and DNA methylation patterns in adolescent offspring
        Crider KS, Wang A, Ling H, Potischman N, Bailey RL, Lichen Y, Pfeiffer CM, Killian JK, Rose C, Sampson J, Zhu L, Berry RJ, Linet M, Yu W, Su LJ.
        J Nutr. 2023;152(12):2669-2676.
        BACKGROUND: Folate, including the folic acid form, is a key component of the one-carbon metabolic pathway used for DNA methylation. Changes in DNA methylation patterns during critical development periods are associated with disease outcomes and are associated with changes in nutritional status in pregnancy. The long-term impact of periconceptional folic acid supplementation on DNA methylation patterns is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term impact of periconceptional folic acid supplementation on DNA methylation patterns, we examined the association of the recommended dosage (400 μg/d) and time period (periconceptional before pregnancy through first trimester) of folic acid supplementation with the DNA methylation patterns in the offspring at age 14-17 y compared with offspring with no supplementation. METHODS: Two geographic sites in China from the 1993-1995 Community Intervention Program of folic acid supplementation were selected for the follow-up study. DNA methylation at 402,730 CpG sites was assessed using saliva samples from 89 mothers and 179 adolescents (89 male). The mean age at saliva collection was 40 y among mothers (range: 35-54 y) and 15 y among adolescents (range: 14-17 y). Epigenome-wide analyses were conducted to assess the interactions of periconceptional folic acid exposure, the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T genotype, and epigenome-wide DNA methylation controlling for offspring sex, geographic region, and background cell composition in the saliva. RESULTS: In the primary outcome, no significant differences were observed in epigenome-wide methylation patterns between adolescents exposed and those non-exposed to maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation after adjustment for potential confounders [false discovery rate (FDR) P values < 0.05]. The MTHFR-C677T genotype did not modify this lack of association (FDR P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there were no differences in DNA methylation between adolescents who were exposed during the critical developmental window and those not exposed to the recommended periconceptional/first-trimester dosage of folic acid.

        Pfeiffer, C. M.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. CDC-supported National Network of Farmworker-serving organizations to mitigate COVID-19
        Boggess B, Prager S, Lincoln JM, Foss NE, Kissam E, Partida S, Lainz AR.
        Am J Public Health. 2023;113(2):166-169.
        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has partnered with the National Center for Farmworker Health to respond to the impact of COVID-19 on US farmworker communities. Immigrant farmworkers are often isolated from public health infrastructure. This partnership built the capacity of a national network of organizations to connect farmworkers to COVID-19 education and vaccinations in 20 states through training and resource sharing. The partnership funded 194 network member staff, trained 1130 individuals, and supported COVID-19 outreach to more than 600 000 farmworkers. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(2):166-169. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307159).

        Lincoln, J. M. Lainz, A. R.

      2. Increased odds of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer are highest among US coal miners born after 1939
        Almberg KS, Halldin CN, Friedman LS, Go LH, Rose CS, Hall NB, Cohen RA.
        Occup Environ Med. 2023 .
        OBJECTIVES: Coal miners suffer increased mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases (NMRD), including pneumoconioses and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, compared with the US population. We characterised mortality trends from NMRD, lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) using data from the Federal Black Lung Program, National Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program and the National Death Index. METHODS: We compared mortality ORs (MORs) for NMRD, lung cancer and IHD in former US coal miners to US white males. MORs were computed for the study period 1979-2017 by birth cohort (<1920, 1920-1929, 1930-1939, ≥1940), with a subanalysis restricted to Central Appalachia. RESULTS: The study population totalled 235 550 deceased miners, aged >45 years. Odds of death from NMRD and lung cancer across all miner birth cohorts averaged twice those of US males. In Central Appalachia, MORs significantly increased across birth cohorts. There was an eightfold increase in odds of death from NMRD among miners born after 1940 (MOR(BC≥1940) 8.25; 95% CI 7.67 to 8.87). Miners with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) were younger at death than those without PMF (74 vs 78 years; p<0.0001). We observed a pattern of reduced MORs from IHD in coal miners compared with national and regional counterparts. CONCLUSION: US coal miners have excess mortality from NMRD and lung cancer compared with total US and Appalachian populations. Mortality is highest in the most recent birth cohorts, perhaps reflecting increased rates of severe pneumoconiosis.

        Halldin, C. N. Rose, C. S.

      3. Malignant mesothelioma among US Medicare beneficiaries: incidence, prevalence and therapy, 2016-2019
        Kurth L, Mazurek JM, Blackley DJ.
        Occup Environ Med. 2023;80(2):86-92.
        OBJECTIVES: Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. Mesothelioma patients who receive trimodal therapy (chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiation) survive longer than those who receive two or fewer therapy modalities. This study analyses the 2016-2019 Medicare claims data to estimate the burden of malignant mesothelioma and describe therapy patterns (when available) among continuously enrolled fee-for-service (FFS; Medicare parts A and B) beneficiaries. METHODS: We analysed claims and enrolment information from 42 529 117 FFS Medicare beneficiaries using three mesothelioma case definitions (broad, intermediate and narrow) with varying levels of diagnostic requirements. Results are presented as ranges of values for the three definitions. RESULTS: Among FFS beneficiaries, 8213-19 036 beneficiaries with mesothelioma were identified depending on the case definition. The annual prevalence per 100 000 beneficiaries ranged from 8.8 in 2016 (narrow) to 31.3 in 2019 (broad) and annual incidence per 100 000 beneficiaries ranged from 4.5 in 2019 (narrow) to 12.6 in 2017 (broad). Depending on the mesothelioma case definition, 41.8%-81.5% had available therapy claim information indicating that 7.6%-11.3% received chemotherapy alone, 1.3%-1.5% received radiation alone, and 14.3%-27.0% underwent surgery only, with 4.6%-10.5% receiving all three therapy modalities. CONCLUSIONS: Mesothelioma was a prevalent disease among FFS Medicare beneficiaries during 2016-2019, and a limited proportion of beneficiaries received all three therapy modalities. Medicare data build on findings from cancer registry data to enhance our understanding of the mesothelioma burden and therapy patterns.

        Kurth, L. Mazurek, J. M. Blackley, D. J.

      4. Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a critical public and occupational health issue. Therefore, understanding the process of SUD recovery has become an issue of growing importance among substance use and recovery professionals. Nonetheless, despite the acknowledged importance of employment for SUD recovery, little conceptual or empirical work exists on how the workplace might support or undermine SUD recovery. In this article, we address this limitation in several ways. First, to promote a better understanding of SUD recovery for occupational health researchers, we provide a brief overview of the nature of a SUD, prior definitions of SUD recovery, and general themes associated with the recovery process. Second, we develop a working definition of workplace supported recovery. Third, we present a heuristic conceptual model showing how the workplace might impact the SUD recovery process. Fourth, using this model and research from the substance use and occupational health literatures, we develop a series of general research propositions. These propositions highlight broad directions requiring more detailed conceptualization and empirical research to understand better how work conditions may support or undermine the process of employee SUD recovery. Our overarching goal is to motivate innovative conceptualization and research on workplace supported recovery from SUDs. Such research may inform the development and evaluation of workplace interventions and policies supporting SUD recovery and highlight the benefits of workplace supported SUD recovery for employees, employers, and communities. Research on this issue may allow occupational health researchers to impact a significant societal and occupational health issue.

        Chosewood, L. C. Osborne, J. C. Howard, J. J.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria in Zanzibar, 2015-2020
        Bisanzio D, Lalji S, Abbas FB, Ali MH, Hassan W, Mkali HR, Al-Mafazy AW, Joseph JJ, Nyinondi S, Kitojo C, Serbantez N, Reaves E, Eckert E, Ngondi JM, Reithinger R.
        BMJ Glob Health. 2023;8(1).
        BACKGROUND: Despite high coverage of malaria interventions, malaria elimination in Zanzibar remains elusive, with the annual number of cases increasing gradually over the last 3 years. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to (1) assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria in Zanzibar between 2015 and 2020 and (2) identify malaria hotspots that would allow Zanzibar to develop an epidemiological stratification for more effective and granular intervention targeting. METHODS: In this study, we analysed data routinely collected by Zanzibar's Malaria Case Notification (MCN) system. The system collects sociodemographic and epidemiological data from all malaria cases. Cases are passively detected at health facilities (ie, primary index cases) and through case follow-up and reactive case detection (ie, secondary cases). Analyses were performed to identify the spatial heterogeneity of case reporting at shehia (ward) level during transmission seasons. RESULTS: From 1 January 2015 to 30 April 2020, the MCN system reported 22 686 index cases. Number of cases reported showed a declining trends from 2015 to 2016, followed by an increase from 2017 to 2020. More than 40% of cases had a travel history outside Zanzibar in the month prior to testing positive for malaria. The proportion of followed up index cases was approximately 70% for all years. Out of 387 shehias, 79 (20.4%) were identified as malaria hotspots in any given year; these hotspots reported 52% of all index cases during the study period. Of the 79 hotspot shehias, 12 were hotspots in more than 4 years, that is, considered temporally stable, reporting 14.5% of all index cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that the scale-up of malaria interventions has greatly reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar since 2006. Analyses identified hotspots, some of which were stable across multiple years. Malaria efforts should progress from a universal intervention coverage approach to an approach that is more tailored to a select number of hotspot shehias.

        Reaves, E.

      2. Entomological monitoring data driving decision-making for appropriate and sustainable malaria vector control in Côte d'Ivoire
        Kouassi BL, Edi C, Ouattara AF, Ekra AK, Bellai LG, Gouaméné J, Kacou YA, Kouamé JK, Béké AO, Yokoli FN, Gbalegba CG, Tia E, Yapo RM, Konan LY, N'Tamon RN, Akré MA, Koffi AA, Tanoh AM, Zinzindohoué P, Kouadio B, Yepassis-Zembrou PL, Belemvire A, Irish SR, Cissé NG, Flatley C, Chabi J.
        Malar J. 2023 ;22(1):14.
        BACKGROUND: Entomological surveillance provides critical information on vectors for appropriate malaria vector control and strategic decision-making. The widely documented insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in Côte d'Ivoire requires that any vector control intervention deployment be driven by entomological data to optimize its effectiveness and appropriate resource allocations. To achieve this goal, this study documents the results of monthly vector surveillance and insecticide susceptibility tests conducted in 2019 and a review of all previous entomological monitoring data used to guide vector control decision making. Furthermore, susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl and clothianidin was assessed in addition to chlorfenapyr and pyrethroids (intensity and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergism) tests previously reported. Vector bionomic data were conducted monthly in four sites (Sakassou, Béoumi, Dabakala and Nassian) that were selected based on their reported high malaria incidence. Adult mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches (HLCs), pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs), and human-baited CDC light traps to assess vector density, behaviour, species composition and sporozoite infectivity. RESULTS: Pirimiphos-methyl and clothianidin susceptibility was observed in 8 and 10 sites, respectively, while previous data reported chlorfenapyr (200 µg/bottle) susceptibility in 13 of the sites, high pyrethroid resistance intensity and increased mortality with PBO pre-exposure at all 17 tested sites. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the predominant malaria vector collected in all four bionomic sites. Vector density was relatively higher in Sakassou throughout the year with mean biting rates of 278.2 bites per person per night (b/p/n) compared to Béoumi, Dabakala and Nassian (mean of 48.5, 81.4 and 26.6 b/p/n, respectively). The mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 4.44 infective bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Sakassou, 0.34 ib/p/n in Beoumi, 1.17 ib/p/n in Dabakala and 1.02 ib/p/n in Nassian. The highest EIRs were recorded in October in Béoumi (1.71 ib/p/n) and Nassian (3.22 ib/p/n), in July in Dabakala (4.46 ib/p/n) and in May in Sakassou (15.6 ib/p/n). CONCLUSION: Based on all results and data review, the National Malaria Control Programme developed and implemented a stratified insecticide-treated net (ITN) mass distribution in 2021 considering new generation ITNs. These results also supported the selection of clothianidin-based products and an optimal spraying time for the first indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaign in Sakassou and Nassian in 2020.

        Yepassis-Zembrou, P. L. Irish, S. R.

      3. Anopheles stephensi, an invasive malaria vector native to South Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, was detected in Djibouti's seaport, followed by Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Nigeria. If An. stephensi introduction is facilitated through seatrade, similar to other invasive mosquitoes, the identification of at-risk countries are needed to increase surveillance and response efforts. Bilateral maritime trade data is used to (1) identify coastal African countries which were highly connected to select An. stephensi endemic countries, (2) develop a prioritization list of countries based on the likelihood of An. stephensi introduction through maritime trade index (LASIMTI), and (3) use network analysis of intracontinental maritime trade to determine likely introduction pathways. Sudan and Djibouti were ranked as the top two countries with LASIMTI in 2011, which were the first two coastal African countries where An. stephensi was detected. With Djibouti and Sudan included as source populations, 2020 data identify Egypt, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Morocco as the top countries with LASIMTI. Network analysis highlight South Africa, Mauritius, Ghana, and Togo. These tools can prioritize efforts for An. stephensi surveillance and control in Africa. Surveillance in seaports of identified countries may limit further expansion of An. stephensi by serving as an early warning system.

        Ahn, J. Irish, S. Zohdy, S.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. INTRODUCTION: To characterize and compare opioid-only, cocaine-only, methamphetamine-only, opioid-and-cocaine exposure, and opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure and to examine clinical presentations, leading to a better understanding of overdose effects involving these drug exposures. METHODS: We examined drug exposures in the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Core Registry from January 2010 to December 2021, a case registry of patients presenting to participating healthcare sites that receive a medical toxicology consultation. Demographic and clinical presentations of opioid-only, cocaine-only, methamphetamine-only, and opioid-and-cocaine exposure, and opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure consultations were described; differences between single and polydrug exposure subgroups were calculated to determine statistical significance. Clinical presentations associated with exposures were evaluated through calculated adjusted relative risk. RESULTS: A total of 3,883 consultations involved opioids, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioid-and-cocaine exposure, or opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure. Opioid-only (n = 2,268, 58.4%) and methamphetamine-only (n = 712, 18.3%) comprised most consultations. There were significant differences in clinical presentations between exposure subgroups. Opioid-and-cocaine exposure consultations were 8.15 times as likely to present with a sympathomimetic toxidrome than opioid-only. Conversely, opioid-and-cocaine exposure and opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure were 0.32 and 0.42 times as likely to present with a sympathomimetic toxidrome compared to cocaine-only and methamphetamine-only consultations, respectively. Opioid-and-cocaine exposure was 0.67 and opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure was 0.74 times as likely to present with respiratory depression compared to opioid-only consultations. Similarly, opioid-and-cocaine exposure was 0.71 and opioid-and-methamphetamine exposure was 0.78 times as likely to present with CNS depression compared to opioid-only consultations. CONCLUSIONS: Used in combination, opioids and stimulants may mask typical clinical presentations of one another, misattributing incorrect drugs to overdose in both clinical treatment and public health surveillance.

        Glidden, E. Suen, K. Mustaquim, D. Vivolo-Kantor, A.

      2. Cascade of care for hepatitis C virus infection among young adults who inject drugs in a rural county in New Mexico
        Carmody MD, Wagner K, Bizstray B, Thornton K, Fiuty P, Rosario AD, Teshale E, Page K.
        Public Health Rep. 2023 :333549221143086.
        OBJECTIVE: Treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly effective; however, people who inject drugs (PWID), the population most affected by HCV, may encounter barriers to treatment. We examined the cascade of care for HCV infection among young adult PWID in northern New Mexico, to help identify gaps and opportunities for HCV treatment intervention. METHODS: Young adults (aged 18-29 y) who self-reported injection drug use in the past 90 days were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and HCV RNA. We asked participants with detectable RNA to participate in an HCV education session, prior to a referral to a local health care provider for treatment follow-up, and to return for follow-up HCV testing quarterly for 1 year. We measured the cascade of care milestones ranging from the start of screening to achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR). RESULTS: Among 238 participants, the median age was 26 years and 133 (55.9%) were men. Most (90.3%) identified as Hispanic. Of 109 RNA-positive participants included in the cascade of care assessment, 84 (77.1%) received their results, 82 (75.2%) participated in the HCV education session, 61 (56.0%) were linked to care through a medical appointment, 27 (24.8%) attended the HCV treatment appointment, 13 (11.9%) attended their follow-up appointment, 6 (5.5%) initiated treatment, 3 (2.8%) completed treatment, and 1 (0.9%) achieved SVR. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a steeply declining level of engagement at each milestone step of the cascade of care after detection of HCV infection, resulting in a suboptimal level of HCV treatment and cure. Programs that can streamline testing and expand access to treatment from trusted health care providers are needed to improve the engagement of PWID in HCV treatment.

        Teshale, E.

    • Veterinary Medicine
      1. Prevalence of Platynosomum spp infection and its association with biliary lithiasis and secondary bacterial infections in free-ranging marmosets (Callithrix spp) of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest
        Oliveira AR, Ritter JM, Santos DO, Lucena FP, Carvalho TP, Moreira LG, Vasconcelos IM, Costa FB, Paixão TA, Santos RL.
        J Comp Pathol. 2023;200:59-66.
        Platynosomosis is a parasitic disease caused by a trematode of the genus Platynosomum, a bile duct and gallbladder fluke that has been described in captive neotropical primates (New World primates; NWPs) and causes high morbidity and variable mortality. Although it is a major concern for ex-situ conservation of these animals, there are only a few studies of platynosomosis in free-ranging NWPs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize platynosomosis in a free-ranging population of marmosets (Callithrix spp) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, focusing on the epidemiological and pathological aspects of the disease. A total of 1,001 marmosets were evaluated and on the basis of clinicoepidemiological data, histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we concluded that Platynosomum spp infection has a prevalence of 8.9% (confidence interval: 7.3-10.8%) in free-ranging marmosets, with a higher frequency in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. Infection was associated with fibrosing and proliferative cholangiohepatitis associated with biliary lithiasis (3.0% of cases) and secondary bacterial infections (14.6% of cases).

        Ritter, J. M.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Isolation and characterization of mammalian orthoreovirus from bats in the United States
        Wang L, Zheng B, Shen Z, Nath ND, Li Y, Walsh T, Li Y, Mitchell W, He D, Lee J, Moore S, Tong S, Zhang S, Ma W.
        J Med Virol. 2023 .
        Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infects many mammalian species including humans, bats, and domestic animals. To determine the prevalence of MRV in bats in the United States, we screened more than 900 bats of different species collected during 2015 to 2019 by a real-time RT-PCR assay; 4.4% bats tested MRV-positive and 13 MRVs were isolated. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to four different strains/genotypes of viruses in serotypes 1 or 2, which contain genes similar to those of MRVs detected in humans, bats, bovine, and deer. Further characterization showed that these four MRV strains replicated efficiently on human, canine, monkey, ferret and swine cell lines. The 40/Bat/USA/2018 strain belonging to the serotype 1 demonstrated the ability to infect and transmit in pigs without prior adaptation. Taken together, this is evidence for different genotypes and serotypes of MRVs circulating in U.S. bats, which can be a mixing vessel of MRVs that may spread to other species, including humans, resulting in cross-species infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

        Li, Y. Tong, S.

      2. Rabies diagnosis and response to vaccination in southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla)
        Cushing AC, Sheldon J, Martinelli L, Grome H, Souza M, Dunn J, Craig LE, Carlson A, Niezgoda M, Satheshkumar PS, Wallace R.
        J Zoo Wildl Med. 2023;53(4):797-800.
        Rabies has rarely been described in Xenarthra, and rabies vaccine response has not been documented. A southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) presented with nonspecific clinical signs and was euthanatized. Subsequently, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR confirmed a rabies diagnosis. Following these tests, a group of eight captive tamanduas were vaccinated with a killed rabies vaccine, and titers were measured at the time of vaccination and 23 d later. One animal had day 0 titers suggestive of previous vaccination or exposure. All animals had detectable neutralizing rabies virus antibody titers after vaccination, but one animal failed to meet the World Organization for Animal Health's definition for adequate vaccination (≥0.5 IU/ml), and two other animals had low antibody titers (0.56 and 0.6 IU/ml). Rabies should be considered as a possible cause of illness in tamanduas, and rabies vaccination may be a useful preventative measure when anthropic interaction through medical care or ambassador roles is occurring.

        Niezgoda, M. Satheshkumar, P. S. Wallace, R.

      3. Evaluation of an open forecasting challenge to assess skill of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease prediction
        Holcomb KM, Mathis S, Staples JE, Fischer M, Barker CM, Beard CB, Nett RJ, Keyel AC, Marcantonio M, Childs ML, Gorris ME, Rochlin I, Hamins-Puértolas M, Ray EL, Uelmen JA, DeFelice N, Freedman AS, Hollingsworth BD, Das P, Osthus D, Humphreys JM, Nova N, Mordecai EA, Cohnstaedt LW, Kirk D, Kramer LD, Harris MJ, Kain MP, Reed EM, Johansson MA.
        Parasit Vectors. 2023;16(1):11.
        BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne illness in the continental USA. WNV occurrence has high spatiotemporal variation, and current approaches to targeted control of the virus are limited, making forecasting a public health priority. However, little research has been done to compare strengths and weaknesses of WNV disease forecasting approaches on the national scale. We used forecasts submitted to the 2020 WNV Forecasting Challenge, an open challenge organized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to assess the status of WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) prediction and identify avenues for improvement. METHODS: We performed a multi-model comparative assessment of probabilistic forecasts submitted by 15 teams for annual WNND cases in US counties for 2020 and assessed forecast accuracy, calibration, and discriminatory power. In the evaluation, we included forecasts produced by comparison models of varying complexity as benchmarks of forecast performance. We also used regression analysis to identify modeling approaches and contextual factors that were associated with forecast skill. RESULTS: Simple models based on historical WNND cases generally scored better than more complex models and combined higher discriminatory power with better calibration of uncertainty. Forecast skill improved across updated forecast submissions submitted during the 2020 season. Among models using additional data, inclusion of climate or human demographic data was associated with higher skill, while inclusion of mosquito or land use data was associated with lower skill. We also identified population size, extreme minimum winter temperature, and interannual variation in WNND cases as county-level characteristics associated with variation in forecast skill. CONCLUSIONS: Historical WNND cases were strong predictors of future cases with minimal increase in skill achieved by models that included other factors. Although opportunities might exist to specifically improve predictions for areas with large populations and low or high winter temperatures, areas with high case-count variability are intrinsically more difficult to predict. Also, the prediction of outbreaks, which are outliers relative to typical case numbers, remains difficult. Further improvements to prediction could be obtained with improved calibration of forecast uncertainty and access to real-time data streams (e.g. current weather and preliminary human cases).

        Holcomb, K. M. Mathis, S. Staples, J. E. Fischer, M. Beard, C. B. Nett, R. J.

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