Current Issue

CDC Science Clips: Volume 11, Issue 46, November 19, 2019

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. CDC Public Health Grand Rounds
    • Environmental Health – PFAS
      1. BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a chemical class widely used in industrial and commercial applications because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Between 2013 and 2016 PFAS were detected in public water systems and private wells in El Paso County, Colorado. The contamination was likely due to aqueous film forming foams used at a nearby Air Force base. OBJECTIVE: To cross-sectionally describe the serum concentrations of PFAS in a highly exposed community, estimate associations with drinking water source, and explore potential demographic and behavioral predictors. METHODS: In June 2018, serum PFAS concentrations were quantified and questionnaires administered in 213 non-smoking adult (ages 19-93) participants residing in three affected water districts. Twenty PFAS were quantified and those detected in >50% of participants were analyzed: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS). Unadjusted associations were estimated between serum PFAS concentrations and several predictors, including water consumption, demographics, personal behaviors and employment. A multiple linear regression model estimated adjusted associations with smoking history. RESULTS: Study participants’ median PFHxS serum concentration (14.8ng/mL) was approximately 12 times as high as the U.S. national average. Median serum concentrations for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHpS were 9.7ng/mL, 3.0ng/mL, 0.4ng/mL and 0.2ng/mL, respectively. Determinants of PFHxS serum concentrations were water district of residence, frequency of bottled water consumption, age, race/ethnicity, and smoking history. Determinants of serum concentrations for the other four PFAS evaluated included: water district of residence, bottled water consumption, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking history, and firefighter or military employment. CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of serum concentrations for multiple PFAS, including PFHxS, included water district of residence and frequency of bottled water consumption. Participants’ dominant PFAS exposure route was likely consumption of PFAS-contaminated water, but certain demographic and behavioral characteristics also predicted serum concentrations.

      2. The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)external icon
        Blum A, Balan SA, Scheringer M, Trier X, Goldenman G, Cousins IT, Diamond M, Fletcher T, Higgins C, Lindeman AE, Peaslee G, de Voogt P, Wang Z, Weber R.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2015 May;123(5):A107-11.

        [No abstract]

      3. Concerns are heightened from detecting environmentally persistent man-made per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking water systems around the world. Many PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), remain in the human body for years. Since 1999-2000, assessment of exposure to PFOS, PFOA, and other select PFAS in the U.S. general population has relied on measuring PFAS serum concentrations in participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Manufacturers have replaced select chemistries (“legacy” PFAS) with PFAS with shorter biological half-lives (e.g., GenX, perfluorobutanoate [PFBA]) which may efficiently eliminate in urine. However, knowledge regarding exposure to these compounds is limited. We analyzed 2682 urine samples for 17 legacy and alternative PFAS in 2013-2014 NHANES participants >/=6years of age. Concentrations of some of these PFAS, measured previously in paired serum samples from the same NHANES participants, suggested universal exposure to PFOS and PFOA, and infrequent or no exposure to two short-chain PFAS, perfluorobutane sulfonate and perfluoroheptanoate. Yet, in urine, PFAS were seldom detected; the frequency of not having detectable concentrations of any of the 17 PFAS was 67.5%. Only two were detected in >1.5% of the population: PFBA (13.3%) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA, 22.6%); the 90th percentile urine concentrations were 0.1mug/L (PFBA), and 0.3mug/L (PFHxA). These results suggest that exposures to short-chain PFAS are infrequent or at levels below those that would result in detectable concentrations in urine. As such, these findings do not support biomonitoring of short-chain PFAS or fluorinated alternatives in the general population using urine, and highlight the importance of selecting the adequate biomonitoring matrix.

      4. BACKGROUND: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003-2004 sample of the general U.S. population >or= 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003-2004 participants. RESULTS: We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999-2000 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the general U.S. population in 2003-2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003-2004 were lower than in 1999-2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds.

      5. Evaluation and Management Strategies for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Drinking Water Aquifers: Perspectives from Impacted U.S. Northeast Communitiesexternal icon
        Guelfo JL, Marlow T, Klein DM, Savitz DA, Frickel S, Crimi M, Suuberg EM.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Jun;126(6):065001.
        BACKGROUND: Multiple Northeast U.S. communities have discovered per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water aquifers in excess of health-based regulatory levels or advisories. Regional stakeholders (consultants, regulators, and others) need technical background and tools to mitigate risks associated with exposure to PFAS-affected groundwater. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to identify challenges faced by stakeholders to extend best practices to other regions experiencing PFAS releases and to establish a framework for research strategies and best management practices. METHODS AND APPROACH: Management challenges were identified during stakeholder engagement events connecting attendees with PFAS experts in focus areas, including fate/transport, toxicology, and regulation. Review of the literature provided perspective on challenges in all focus areas. Publicly available data were used to characterize sources of PFAS impacts in groundwater and conduct a geospatial case study of potential source locations relative to drinking water aquifers in Rhode Island. DISCUSSION: Challenges in managing PFAS impacts in drinking water arise from the large number of relevant PFASs, unconsolidated information regarding sources, and limited studies on some PFASs. In particular, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding human health impacts of PFASs. Frameworks sequentially evaluating exposure, persistence, and treatability can prioritize PFASs for evaluation of potential human health impacts. A regional case study illustrates how risk-based, geospatial methods can help address knowledge gaps regarding potential sources of PFASs in drinking water aquifers and evaluate risk of exposure. CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from stakeholder engagement can assist in developing strategies for management of PFASs in other regions. However, current management practices primarily target a subset of PFASs for which in-depth studies are available. Exposure to less-studied, co-occurring PFASs remains largely unaddressed. Frameworks leveraging the current state of science can be applied toward accelerating this process and reducing exposure to total PFASs in drinking water, even as research regarding health effects continues.

      6. Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plantsexternal icon
        Hu XC, Andrews DQ, Lindstrom AB, Bruton TA, Schaider LA, Grandjean P, Lohmann R, Carignan CC, Blum A, Balan SA, Higgins CP, Sunderland EM.
        Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2016 Oct 11;3(10):344-350.
        Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013-2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies. Among samples with detectable PFAS levels, each additional military site within a watershed’s eight-digit hydrologic unit is associated with a 20% increase in PFHxS, a 10% increase in both PFHpA and PFOA, and a 35% increase in PFOS. The number of civilian airports with personnel trained in the use of aqueous film-forming foams is significantly associated with the detection of PFASs above the minimal reporting level. We find drinking water supplies for 6 million U.S. residents exceed US EPA’s lifetime health advisory (70 ng/L) for PFOS and PFOA. Lower analytical reporting limits and additional sampling of smaller utilities serving <10000 individuals and private wells would greatly assist in further identifying PFAS contamination sources.

      7. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are extremely persistent chemicals that are widely distributed in the environment as a result of high chemical stability under normal environmental conditions and extensive use over the last 50 years in commercial and industrial applications including fluoropolymer manufacturing, food packaging, lubricants, water-resistant coating, and fire-fighting foams. PFOS was phased out of production and use in 2002, and U.S. manufacturers eliminated PFOA emissions and product content at the end of 2015. Although emissions have been dramatically reduced in the United Status and Western Europe, it is not clear if global production has changed as there has been a shift in productions to Asia. Some published studies of PFOA and PFOS raised concerns about potential immune system health effects and NTP received nominations to conduct a review of immune effects for these chemicals. NTP conducted a systematic review to evaluate the evidence on exposure to PFOA or PFOS and immune-related health effects to determine whether exposure to either chemical is associated with immunotoxicity for humans. NTP concludes that both PFOA and PFOS are presumed to be an immune hazard to humans based on a high level of evidence from animal studies that PFOA and PFOS suppressed the antibody response and a moderate level of evidence from studies in humans. The evidence that these chemicals affect multiple aspects of the immune system supports the overall conclusion that both PFOA and PFOS alter immune functions in humans.

      8. Zurich Statement on Future Actions on Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)external icon
        Ritscher A, Wang Z, Scheringer M, Boucher JM, Ahrens L, Berger U, Bintein S, Bopp SK, Borg D, Buser AM, Cousins I, DeWitt J, Fletcher T, Green C, Herzke D, Higgins C, Huang J, Hung H, Knepper T, Lau CS, Leinala E, Lindstrom AB, Liu J, Miller M, Ohno K, Perkola N, Shi Y, Smastuen Haug L, Trier X, Valsecchi S, van der Jagt K, Vierke L.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Aug;126(8):84502.
        Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, [Formula: see text]. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) have been investigated extensively and thus regulated, but for many other PFASs, knowledge about their current uses and hazards is still very limited or missing entirely. To address this problem and prepare an action plan for the assessment and management of PFASs in the coming years, a group of more than 50 international scientists and regulators held a two-day workshop in November, 2017. The group identified both the respective needs of and common goals shared by the scientific and the policy communities, made recommendations for cooperative actions, and outlined how the science-policy interface regarding PFASs can be strengthened using new approaches for assessing and managing highly persistent chemicals such as PFASs.

      9. A review of the pathways of human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and present understanding of health effectsexternal icon
        Sunderland EM, Hu XC, Dassuncao C, Tokranov AK, Wagner CC, Allen JG.
        J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2019 Mar;29(2):131-147.
        Here, we review present understanding of sources and trends in human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and epidemiologic evidence for impacts on cancer, immune function, metabolic outcomes, and neurodevelopment. More than 4000 PFASs have been manufactured by humans and hundreds have been detected in environmental samples. Direct exposures due to use in products can be quickly phased out by shifts in chemical production but exposures driven by PFAS accumulation in the ocean and marine food chains and contamination of groundwater persist over long timescales. Serum concentrations of legacy PFASs in humans are declining globally but total exposures to newer PFASs and precursor compounds have not been well characterized. Human exposures to legacy PFASs from seafood and drinking water are stable or increasing in many regions, suggesting observed declines reflect phase-outs in legacy PFAS use in consumer products. Many regions globally are continuing to discover PFAS contaminated sites from aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) use, particularly next to airports and military bases. Exposures from food packaging and indoor environments are uncertain due to a rapidly changing chemical landscape where legacy PFASs have been replaced by diverse precursors and custom molecules that are difficult to detect. Multiple studies find significant associations between PFAS exposure and adverse immune outcomes in children. Dyslipidemia is the strongest metabolic outcome associated with PFAS exposure. Evidence for cancer is limited to manufacturing locations with extremely high exposures and insufficient data are available to characterize impacts of PFAS exposures on neurodevelopment. Preliminary evidence suggests significant health effects associated with exposures to emerging PFASs. Lessons learned from legacy PFASs indicate that limited data should not be used as a justification to delay risk mitigation actions for replacement PFASs.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Metformin was recently found to increase fetal hemoglobin, which is protective in sickle cell disease (SCD). We tested the hypothesis that, among adults with SCD and diabetes mellitus (DM), metformin use is associated with fewer adverse SCD clinical outcomes and lower health care utilization. This is a retrospective cohort study using the MarketScan Medicaid claims database for 2006 to 2016, comparing metformin users and nonusers. Patients on hydroxyurea, insulin, or iron chelation were excluded. Main outcomes included annual rates of all-cause inpatient encounters, all-cause emergency department (ED) encounters, inpatient and ED encounters with SCD codes, vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs), strokes, acute chest syndrome (ACS), avascular necrosis (AVN), and gallstones. Of 457 adults (median age [interquartile range], 43 years [33-52 years]; 72% female), 142 (31%) were treated with metformin. Adjusted for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, metformin users had significantly lower rate ratios of all-cause inpatient encounters (0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.88; P < .01), inpatient encounters with SCD codes (0.45; 95% CI, 0.30-0.66; P < .01), ED encounters with SCD codes (0.34; 95% CI, 0.21-0.54; P < .01), VOE (0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.41; P < .01), ACS (0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.60; P = .01), and AVN (0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.87; P = .03). A subgroup analysis of 54 enrollees preinitiation and postinitiation of metformin did not indicate significant changes in rates of clinical events. Metformin was associated with significantly fewer inpatient and ED SCD encounters in adults with SCD and DM; however, confounding of underlying SCD severity cannot be excluded.

      2. National rates of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications among insured adults with hypertension, 2015external icon
        Chang TE, Ritchey MD, Park S, Chang A, Odom EC, Durthaler J, Jackson SL, Loustalot F.
        Hypertension. 2019 Nov 4:Hypertensionaha11913616.
        Despite the importance of antihypertensive medication therapy for blood pressure control, no single data system provides estimates of medication nonadherence rates across age groups and health insurance plans types. Using multiple administrative datasets and national survey data, we determined health insurance plan-specific and overall weighted national rates of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications among insured hypertensive US adults in 2015. We used 2015 prescription claims data from Medicare Part D and 3 IBM MarketScan databases (Commercial, Medicaid, Medicare Supplemental) to calculate medication nonadherence rates among hypertensive adults aged >/=18 years with public or private health insurance using the proportion of days covered algorithm. These findings, in combination with National Health Interview Survey findings, were used to project national weighted estimates of nonadherence. We included 23.8 million hypertensive adults who filled 265.8 million prescriptions for antihypertensive medications. Nonadherence differed by health insurance plan type (highest for Medicaid members, 55.4%; lowest for Medicare Part D members, 25.2%). The overall weighted national nonadherence rate was 31.0%, with greater nonadherence among women versus men, younger versus older adults (aged 18-34 years, 58.1%; aged 65-74 years, 24.4%), fixed-dose combination medication nonusers (31.2%) versus users (29.4%), and by pharmacy outlet type (retail only, 30.7%; any mail order, 19.8%). In 2015, almost one-third ( approximately 16.3 million) of insured US adults with diagnosed hypertension were considered nonadherent to their antihypertensive medication regimen, and considerable disparities were evident. Public health and healthcare professionals can use available evidence-based interventions to address nonadherence and improve blood pressure control.

      3. Assessing the implementation of a patient navigation intervention for colonoscopy screeningexternal icon
        DeGroff A, Gressard L, Glover-Kudon R, Rice K, Tharpe FS, Escoffery C, Gersten J, Butterly L.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Nov 6;19(1):803.
        BACKGROUND: A recent study demonstrated the effectiveness of the New Hampshire Colorectal Cancer Screening Program’s (NHCRCSP) patient navigation (PN) program. The PN intervention was delivered by telephone with navigators following a rigorous, six-topic protocol to support low-income patients to complete colonoscopy screening. We applied the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework to examine implementation processes and consider potential scalability of this intervention. METHODS: A mixed-methods evaluation study was conducted including 1) a quasi-experimental, retrospective, comparison group study examining program effectiveness, 2) secondary analysis of NHCRCSP program data, and 3) a case study. Data for all navigated patients scheduled and notified of their colonoscopy test date between July 1, 2012 and September 30, 2013 (N = 443) were analyzed. Researchers were provided in-depth call details for 50 patients randomly selected from the group of 443. The case study included review of program documents, observations of navigators, and interviews with 27 individuals including staff, patients, and other stakeholders. RESULTS: Program reach was state-wide, with navigators serving patients from across the state. The program successfully recruited patients from the intended priority population who met the established age, income, and insurance eligibility guidelines. Analysis of the 443 NHCRCSP patients navigated during the study period demonstrated effectiveness with 97.3% completing colonoscopy, zero missed appointments (no-shows), and 0.7% late cancellations. Trained and supervised nurse navigators spent an average of 124.3 min delivering the six-topic PN protocol to patients. Navigators benefited from a real-time data system that allowed for patient tracking, communication across team members, and documentation of service delivery. Evaluators identified several factors supporting program maintenance including consistent funding support from CDC, a strong program infrastructure, and partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Factors supporting implementation included funding for colonoscopies, use of registered nurses, a clinical champion, strong partnerships with primary care and endoscopy sites, fidelity to the PN protocol, significant intervention dose, and a real-time data system. Further study is needed to assess scalability to other locations.

      4. Stagnating national declines in stroke mortality mask widespread county-level increases, 2010-2016external icon
        Hall EW, Vaughan AS, Ritchey MD, Schieb L, Casper M.
        Stroke. 2019 Nov 7:Strokeaha119026695.
        Background and Purpose- Recent national and state-level trends show a stalling or reversal of previously declining stroke death rates. These national trends may mask local geographic variation and changes in stroke mortality. We assessed county-level trends in stroke mortality among adults aged 35 to 64 and >/=65 years. Methods- We used data from National Vital Statistics Systems and a Bayesian multivariate space-time conditional autoregressive model to estimate age-standardized annual stroke death rates for 2010 through 2016 among middle-aged adults (35-64 years) and older adults (>/=65 years) in US counties. We used log-linear regression models to estimate average annual and total percent change in stroke mortality during the period. Results- Nationally, the annual percent change in stroke mortality from 2010 to 2016 was -0.7% (95% CI, -4.2% to 3.0%) among middle-aged adults and -3.5% (95% CI, -10.7% to 4.3%) among older adults, resulting in 2016 rates of 15.0 per 100 000 and 259.8 per 100 000, respectively. Increasing county-level stroke mortality was more prevalent among middle-aged adults (56.6% of counties) compared with among older adults (26.1% of counties). About half (48.3%) of middle-aged adults, representing 60.2 million individuals, lived in counties in which stroke mortality increased. Conclusions- County-level increases in stroke mortality clarify previously reported national and state-level trends, particularly among middle-aged adults. Roughly 3xas many counties experienced increases in stroke death rates for middle-aged adults compared with older adults. This highlights a need to address stroke prevention and treatment for middle-aged adults while continuing efforts to reduce stroke mortality among the more highly burdened older adults. Efforts to reverse these troubling local trends will likely require joint public health and clinical efforts to develop innovative and integrated approaches for stroke prevention and care, with a focus on community-level characteristics that support stroke-free living for all.

      5. Lung cancer incidence in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties – United States, 2007-2016external icon
        O’Neil ME, Henley SJ, Rohan EA, Ellington TD, Gallaway MS.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 8;68(44):993-998.
        Lung and bronchus (lung) cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States (1). In 2016, 148,869 lung cancer deaths were reported.* Most lung cancers can be attributed to modifiable exposures, such as tobacco use, secondhand smoke, radon, and asbestos (1). Exposure to lung cancer risk factors vary over time and by characteristics such as sex, age, and nonmetropolitan or metropolitan residence that might affect lung cancer rates (1,2). A recent report found that lung cancer incidence rates were higher and decreased more slowly in nonmetropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties (3). To examine whether lung cancer incidence trends among nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties differed by age and sex, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics during 2007-2016, the most recent years for which data are available. During the 10-year study period, lung cancer incidence rates were stable among females aged <35, 45-64, and >/=75 years in nonmetropolitan counties, were stable among females aged <35 years in metropolitan counties, and decreased in all other groups. Overall, among males, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 99 to 82 per 100,000 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 83 to 63 in metropolitan areas; among females, lung cancer incidence rates decreased from 61 to 58 in nonmetropolitan areas and from 57 to 50 in metropolitan areas. A comprehensive approach to lung cancer prevention and control includes such population-based strategies as screening for tobacco dependence, promoting tobacco cessation, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, testing all homes for radon and using proven methods to lower high radon levels, and reducing exposure to lung carcinogens such as asbestos (1). Increasing the implementation of these strategies, particularly among persons living in nonmetropolitan counties, might help to reduce disparities in the decline of lung cancer incidence.

      6. Screening for colorectal cancer in asymptomatic average-risk adults: A guidance statement from the American College of Physiciansexternal icon
        Qaseem A, Crandall CJ, Mustafa RA, Hicks LA, Wilt TJ.
        Ann Intern Med. 2019 Nov 5;171(9):643-654.
        Description: The purpose of this guidance statement is to guide clinicians on colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults. Methods: This guidance statement is derived from a critical appraisal of guidelines on screening for colorectal cancer in average-risk adults and the evidence presented in these guidelines. National guidelines published in English between 1 June 2014 and 28 May 2018 in the National Guideline Clearinghouse or Guidelines International Network library were included. The authors also included 3 guidelines commonly used in clinical practice. Web sites were searched for guideline updates in December 2018. The AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II) instrument was used to evaluate the quality of guidelines. Target Audience and Patient Population: The target audience is all clinicians, and the target patient population is adults at average risk for colorectal cancer. Guidance Statement 1: Clinicians should screen for colorectal cancer in average-risk adults between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Guidance Statement 2: Clinicians should select the colorectal cancer screening test with the patient on the basis of a discussion of benefits, harms, costs, availability, frequency, and patient preferences. Suggested screening tests and intervals are fecal immunochemical testing or high-sensitivity guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing every 2 years, colonoscopy every 10 years, or flexible sigmoidoscopy every 10 years plus fecal immunochemical testing every 2 years. Guidance Statement 3: Clinicians should discontinue screening for colorectal cancer in average-risk adults older than 75 years or in adults with a life expectancy of 10 years or less.

      7. Characteristics associated with school health services for the management of chronic health conditionsexternal icon
        Tiu GF, Leroy ZC, Lee SM, Maughan ED, Brener ND.
        J Sch Nurs. 2019 Nov 3:1059840519884626.
        It is unknown how health services staff (school nurse or school physician) or school characteristics are associated with the number of services provided for chronic health conditions in schools. Using data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study, four services (identification or school-based management, tracking, case management, and referrals) were analyzed using a multivariable ordered logistic regression. Approximately 57.2% of schools provided all four, 17.5% provided three, 10.1% provided two, 5.8% provided one, and 9.4% did not provide any such services. Schools with a school nurse were 51.5% (p < .001) more likely to provide all four, and schools with access to consult with a school physician were 15.4% (p < .05) more likely, compared to schools without one. Schools comprised of mostly racial/ethnic minority students (less than or equal to 50% non-Hispanic White) were 14.7% (p < .05) less likely to provide all four, compared to schools with greater than 50% White students.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Better outcomes among HIV-infected Rwandan children 18-60 months of age after the implementation of “Treat All”external icon
        Arpadi S, Lamb M, Nzeyimana IN, Vandebriel G, Anyalechi G, Wong M, Smith R, Rivadeneira ED, Kayirangwa E, Malamba SS, Musoni C, Koumans EH, Braaten M, Nsanzimana S.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Mar 1;80(3):e74-e83.
        BACKGROUND: In 2012, Rwanda introduced a Treat All approach for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, outcomes, and retention, before and after this change. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children enrolled into care between June 2009 and December 2011 [Before Treat All (BTA) cohort] and between July 2012 and April 2015 [Treat All (TA) cohort]. SETTING: Medical records of a nationally representative sample were abstracted for all eligible aged 18-60 months from 100 Rwandan public health facilities. RESULTS: We abstracted 374 medical records: 227 in the BTA and 147 in the TA cohorts. Mean (SD) age at enrollment was [3 years (1.1)]. Among BTA, 59% initiated ART within 1 year, vs. 89% in the TA cohort. Median time to ART initiation was 68 days (interquartile range 14-494) for BTA and 9 days (interquartile range 0-28) for TA (P < 0.0001), with 9 (5%) undergoing same-day initiation in BTA compared with 50 (37%) in TA (P < 0.0001). Before ART initiation, 59% in the BTA reported at least one health condition compared with 35% in the TA cohort (P < 0.0001). Although overall loss to follow-up was similar between cohorts (BTA: 13%, TA: 8%, P = 0.18), loss to follow-up before ART was significantly higher in the BTA (8%) compared with the TA cohort (2%) (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 90% of Rwandan children started on ART within 1 year of enrollment, most within 1 month, with greater than 90% retention after implementation of TA. TA was also associated with fewer morbidities.

      2. Drivers of the reduction in childhood diarrhea mortality 1980-2015 and interventions to eliminate preventable diarrhea deaths by 2030external icon
        Black R, Fontaine O, Lamberti L, Bhan M, Huicho L, El Arifeen S, Masanja H, Walker CF, Mengestu TK, Pearson L, Young M, Orobaton N, Chu Y, Jackson B, Bateman M, Walker N, Merson M.
        J Glob Health. 2019 Dec;9(2):020801.
        Background: Childhood diarrhea deaths have declined more than 80% from 1980 to 2015, in spite of an increase in the number of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Possible drivers of this remarkable accomplishment can guide the further reduction of the half million annual child deaths from diarrhea that still occur. Methods: We used the Lives Saved Tool, which models effects on mortality due to changes in coverage of preventive or therapeutic interventions or risk factors, for 50 LMIC to determine the proximal drivers of the diarrhea mortality reduction. Results: Diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery and management of persistent diarrhea) and use of rotavirus vaccine accounted for 49.7% of the diarrhea mortality reduction from 1980 to 2015. Improvements in nutrition (stunting, wasting, breastfeeding practices, vitamin A) accounted for 38.8% and improvements in water, sanitation and handwashing for 11.5%. The contribution of ORS was greater from 1980 to 2000 (58.0% of the reduction) than from 2000 to 2015 (30.7%); coverage of ORS increased from zero in 1980 to 29.5% in 2000 and more slowly to 44.1% by 2015. To eliminate the remaining childhood diarrhea deaths globally, all these interventions will be needed. Scaling up diarrhea treatment and rotavirus vaccine, to 90% coverage could reduce global child diarrhea mortality by 74.1% from 2015 levels by 2030. Adding improved nutrition could increase that to 89.1%. Finally, adding increased use of improved water sources, sanitation and handwashing could result in a 92.8% reduction from the 2015 level. Conclusions: Employing the interventions that have resulted in such a large reduction in diarrhea mortality in the last 35 years can virtually eliminate remaining childhood diarrhea deaths by 2030.

      3. Acceptability of using geosocial networking applications for HIV/STD partner notification and sexual health servicesexternal icon
        Contesse MG, Fredericksen RJ, Wohlfeiler D, Hecht J, Kachur R, Strona FV, Katz DA.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Oct 30.
        BACKGROUND: Geosocial networking (GSN) app use among men who have sex with men (MSM) has presented new opportunities for increasing the reach and efficiency of sexual health interventions but also poses challenges to HIV/STD partner notification. Understanding MSM’s attitudes towards app-based preventive sexual health services can help inform their development and delivery. METHODS: We recruited U.S. MSM who had met a sex partner on GSN apps in the last year to participate in an online survey assessing acceptability and preferences regarding app-based partner notification, health department presence, and sexual health services. Three app-based notification strategies were presented: sending notification messages through participant’s/partner’s app profile, health department app profile, or in-app anonymous messaging. RESULTS: Of 791 respondents, a majority (70%) preferred to be notified by their partner directly; however, most would get tested if notified by health department profile (95%) or anonymous in-app message (85%). Given the options provided, 50% preferred notifying a partner using their own profile, 26% with health department assistance, and 24% via in-app anonymous message. A majority (71%) were comfortable notifying a partner through a health department profile, and 74% were comfortable using in-app anonymous messaging. Most participants (82%) were comfortable with health departments having app profiles to provide sexual health services. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GSN app-based partner notification and sexual health services would be used by and are acceptable to U.S. MSM. Partnering with app companies to integrate these services and increase access to public health programs has potential to improve MSM sexual health.

      4. INTRODUCTION: Access to healthcare services such as screening, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is vital for those who engage in high-risk behaviors. Studies examining the relationship between high-risk behaviors and healthcare access and utilization are crucial for determining whether persons at risk are receiving appropriate health services. METHODS: We examined 2016 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Our study population included persons aged 18-65 years. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between high-risk behaviors including drug use and high risk sexual behaviors, and access to and utilization of healthcare services. RESULTS: Among our study population, 6.2% engaged in a high-risk behavior in the past year. Those engaging in high risk behaviors were more likely to have no health insurance coverage (1.23 OR; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.34), no personal health care provider (1.14 OR; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.21), have foregone care because of cost (1.54 OR; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.65), or have had no routine check-up in the past two years (1.16 OR; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Those who engaged in high risk behaviors had poorer healthcare access and utilization outcomes. Future studies should incorporate the relationships between changes in behaviors, healthcare access and utilization, and resulting STD morbidity.

      5. Self-reported STD-related health services among men who have sex with men in the United States, 2011-17external icon
        Haderxhanaj LT, Leichliter JS, Dittus PJ, Spicknall IH, Aral SO.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Oct 31.
        From a nationally representative survey, 2011-17, we found that 80.7% of sexually active men who have sex with men were insured and 82.0% had a usual place for care but only 39.8% received sexual risk assessment and 45.8% received STD screening, of whom 58.0% received extragenital STD screening.

      6. Recurrent herpes zoster in the Shingles Prevention Study: Are second episodes caused by the same varicella-zoster virus strain?external icon
        Harbecke R, Jensen NJ, Depledge DP, Johnson GR, Ashbaugh ME, Schmid DS, Breuer J, Levin MJ, Oxman MN.
        Vaccine. 2019 Oct 31.
        Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that established latency in sensory and autonomic neurons during primary infection. In the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS), a large efficacy trial of live attenuated Oka/Merck zoster vaccine (ZVL), PCR-confirmed second episodes of HZ occurred in two of 660 placebo and one of 321 ZVL recipients with documented HZ during a mean follow-up of 3.13years. An additional two ZVL recipients experienced a second episode of HZ in the Long-Term Persistence Substudy. All episodes of HZ were caused by wild-type VZV. The first and second episodes of HZ occurred in different dermatomes in each of these five participants, with contralateral recurrences in two. Time between first and second episodes ranged from 12 to 28months. One of the five participants, who was immunocompetent on study enrollment, was immunocompromised at the onset of his first and second episodes of HZ. VZV DNA isolated from rash lesions from the first and second episodes of HZ was used to sequence the full-length VZV genomes. For the unique-sequence regions of the VZV genome, we employed target enrichment of VZV DNA, followed by deep sequencing. For the reiteration regions, we used PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. Our analysis and comparison of the VZV genomes from the first and second episodes of HZ in each of the five participants indicate that both episodes were caused by the same VZV strain. This is consistent with the extraordinary stability of VZV during the replication phase of varicella and the subsequent establishment of latency in sensory ganglia throughout the body. Our observations also indicate that VZV is stable during the persistence of latency and the subsequent reactivation and replication that results in HZ.

      7. Nonparticipation reasons in a randomized international trial of a new latent tuberculosis infection regimenexternal icon
        Hedges KN, Borisov AS, Saukkonen JJ, Scott NA, Hecker EJ, Bozeman L, Dukes Hamilton C, Kerrigan A, Bessler P, Moreno-Martinez A, Arevalo B, Goldberg SV.
        Clin Trials. 2019 Nov 6:1740774519885380.
        BACKGROUND/AIMS: Efficient recruitment of eligible participants, optimizing time and sample size, is a crucial component in conducting a successful clinical trial. Inefficient participant recruitment can impede study progress, consume staff time and resources, and limit quality and generalizability or the power to assess outcomes. Recruitment for disease prevention trials poses additional challenges because patients are asymptomatic. We evaluated candidates for a disease prevention trial to determine reasons for nonparticipation and to identify factors that can be addressed to improve recruitment efficiency. METHODS: During 2001-2009, the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium conducted Study 26 (PREVENT TB), a randomized clinical trial at 26 sites in four countries, among persons with latent tuberculosis infection at high risk for tuberculosis disease progression, comparing 3 months of directly observed once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid with 9 months of self-administered daily isoniazid. During March 2005-February 2008, non-identifying demographic information, risk factors for experiencing active tuberculosis disease, and reasons for not enrolling were collected from screened patients to facilitate interpretation of trial data, to meet Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials standards, and to evaluate reasons for nonparticipation. RESULTS: Of the 7452 candidates screened in Brazil, Canada, Spain, and the United States, 3584 (48%) were not enrolled, because of ineligibility (41%), site decision (10%), or patient choice (49%). Among those who did not enroll by own choice, and for whom responses were recorded on whether they would accept treatment outside of the study (n = 1430), 68% reported that they planned to accept non-study latent tuberculosis infection treatment. Among 1305 patients with one or more reported reasons for nonparticipation, study staff recorded a total of 1886 individual reasons (reason count: median = 1/patient; range = 1-9) for why patients chose not to enroll, including grouped concerns about research (24% of 1886), work or school conflicts (20%), medication or health beliefs (16%), latent tuberculosis infection beliefs (11%), and patient lifestyle and family concerns (10%). CONCLUSION: Educational efforts addressing clinical research concerns and beliefs about medication and health, as well as study protocols that accommodate patient-related concerns (e.g. work, school, and lifestyle) might increase willingness to enter clinical trials. Findings from this evaluation can support development of communication and education materials for clinical trial sites at the beginning of a trial to allow study staff to address potential participant concerns during study screening.

      8. HIV disproportionately affects persons in Southeast United States. Primary care providers (PCPs) are vital for HIV prevention. Data are limited about their prescribing of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention, including non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined these practices to assess gaps. During April-August 2017, we conducted an online survey of PCPs in Atlanta, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Miami, New Orleans, and Washington, DC to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate correlates of nPEP, PrEP and ART prescribing practices. Adjusting for MSA and specialty, the weighted sample (n=820, 29.6% adjusted response rate) comprised 60.2% white and 59.4% females. PCPs reported ever prescribing nPEP (31.0%), PrEP (18.1%), and ART (27.2%). Prescribing nPEP was associated with nPEP familiarity (aPR=2.63, 95% CI 1.59, 4.35) and prescribing PrEP (aPR=3.57, 95% CI 2.78, 4.55). Prescribing PrEP was associated with PrEP familiarity (aPR=4.35, 95% CI 2.63, 7.14), prescribing nPEP (aPR=5.00, 95% CI 2.00, 12.50), and providing care for persons with HIV (aPR=1.56, 95% CI 1.06, 2.27). Prescribing ART was associated with nPEP familiarity (aPR=1.89, 95% CI 1.27, 2.78) and practicing in outpatient public practice versus hospital-based facilities (aPR=2.14 95% CI 1.51, 3.04), and inversely associated with collaborations involving specialists (aPR=0.60, 95% CI 0.42, 0.86). A minority of PCPs surveyed from the Southeast report ever prescribing ARVs for prevention. Future efforts should include enhancing HIV care coordination and developing strategies to increase use of biomedical tools.

      9. Risk factors for and trends in isoniazid monoresistance at diagnosis of tuberculosis – United States, 1993-2016external icon
        Iqbal SA, Armstrong LR, Kammerer JS, Truman BI.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Oct 31.
        CONTEXT: Resistance to isoniazid (INH) only (monoresistance), with drug susceptibility to rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol at diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) disease, can increase the length of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe US trends in INH monoresistance and associated patient characteristics. DESIGN: We performed trend and cross-sectional analyses of US National Tuberculosis Surveillance System surveillance data. We used Joinpoint regression to analyze annual trends in INH monoresistance and logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with INH monoresistance. PARTICIPANTS: Culture-positive cases reported to National Tuberculosis Surveillance System during 1993-2016 with drug susceptibility test results to INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Trends in INH monoresistance; (2) odds ratios for factors associated with INH monoresistance. RESULTS: Isoniazid monoresistance increased significantly from 4.1% of all TB cases in 1993 to 4.9% in 2016. Among US-born patients, INH monoresistance increased significantly from 2003 onward (annual percentage change = 2.8%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-4.2). During 2003-2016, US-born persons with INH-monoresistant TB were more likely to be younger than 65 years; to be Asian; to be human immunodeficiency virus-infected; or to be a correctional facility resident at the time of diagnosis. Among non-US-born persons, INH resistance did not change significantly during 1993-2016 (annual percentage change = -0.3%; 95% confidence interval: -0.7 to 0.2) and was associated with being aged 15 to 64 years; being Asian, black, or Hispanic; or having a previous history of TB. CONCLUSIONS: INH-monoresistant TB has been stable since 1993 among non-US-born persons; it has increased 2.8% annually among US-born persons during 2003-2016. Reasons for this increase should be further investigated.

      10. CONTEXT: Approximately 80% of US tuberculosis (TB) cases verified during 2015-2016 were attributed to untreated latent TB infection (LTBI). Identifying factors associated with LTBI treatment failure might improve treatment effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with indicators of isoniazid (INH) LTBI treatment initiation, completion, and failure. METHODS: We searched inpatient and outpatient claims for International Classification of Diseases (Ninth and Tenth Revisions), National Drug, and Current Procedural Terminology codes. We defined treatment completion as 180 days or more of INH therapy during a 9-month period. We defined LTBI treatment failure as an active TB disease diagnosis more than 1 year after starting LTBI treatment among completers and used exact logistic regression to model possible differences between groups. Among treatment completers, we matched 1 patient who failed treatment with 2 control subjects and fit regression models with covariates documented on medical claims paid 6 months or less before INH treatment initiation. PARTICIPANTS: Commercially insured US patients in a large commercial database with insurance claims paid during 2005-2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Trends in treatment completion; (2) odds ratios (ORs) for factors associated with treatment completion and treatment failure. RESULTS: Of 21 510 persons who began LTBI therapy during 2005-2016, 10 725 (49.9%) completed therapy. Treatment noncompletion is associated with those younger than 45 years, living in the Northeast or South Census regions, and women. Among persons who completed treatment, 30 (0.3%) progressed to TB disease. Diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis during the 6 months before treatment initiation and being aged 65 years or older (reference: ages 0-24 years) were significantly associated with INH LTBI treatment failure (adjusted exact OR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.2-28.2; and adjusted exact OR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.2-25.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Approximately 50% of persons completed INH LTBI therapy, and of those, treatment failure was associated with rheumatoid arthritis and persons 65 years or older among a cohort of US LTBI patients with commercial health insurance.

      11. Trends in HIV prevention, treatment, and incidence in a hyperendemic area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africaexternal icon
        Kharsany AB, Cawood C, Lewis L, Yende-Zuma N, Khanyile D, Puren A, Madurai S, Baxter C, George G, Govender K, Beckett S, Samsunder N, Toledo C, Ayalew KA, Diallo K, Glenshaw M, Herman-Roloff A, Wilkinson E, de Oliveira T, Abdool Karim SS, Abdool Karim Q.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Nov 1;2(11):e1914378.
        Importance: In Africa, the persistently high HIV incidence rate among young women is the major obstacle to achieving the goal of epidemic control. Objective: To determine trends in coverage of HIV prevention and treatment programs and HIV incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study consisted of 2 sequential, community-based longitudinal studies performed in the Vulindlela and Greater Edendale area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants enrolled from June 11, 2014, to June 22, 2015 (2014 survey), with a single follow-up visit from June 24, 2016, to April 3, 2017 (2016 cohort), or enrolled from July 8, 2015, to June 7, 2016 (2015 survey), with a single follow-up visit from November 7, 2016, to August 30, 2017 (2017 cohort). Men and women aged 15 to 49 years were enrolled in the 2014 and 2015 surveys, and HIV-seronegative participants aged 15 to 35 years were followed up in the 2016 and 2017 cohorts. Analysis was conducted from January 1 through December 31, 2018. Exposures: HIV prevention and treatment programs in a real-world, nontrial setting. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in sex- and age-specific HIV incidence rates, condom use, voluntary medical male circumcision, knowledge of HIV-seropositive status, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and viral suppression. Results: A total of 9812 participants (6265 women [63.9%]; median age, 27 years [interquartile range, 20-36 years]) from 11 289 households were enrolled in the 2014 survey, and 10 236 participants (6341 women [61.9%]; median age, 27 years [interquartile range, 20-36 years]) from 12 247 households were enrolled in the 2015 survey. Of these, 3536 of 4539 (annual retention rate of 86.7%) completed follow-up in the 2016 cohort, and 3907 of 5307 (annual retention rate of 81.4%) completed follow-up in the 2017 cohort. From 2014 to 2015, condom use with last sex partner decreased by 10% from 24.0% (n = 644 of 3547) to 21.6% (n = 728 of 3895; P = .12) in men and by 17% from 19.6% (n = 1039 of 6265) to 16.2% (n = 871 of 6341; P = .002) in women. Voluntary medical male circumcision increased by 13% from 31.9% (1102 of 3547) to 36.1% (n = 1472 of 3895); P = .007) in men, and the proportion of women reporting that their partner was circumcised increased by 35% from 35.7% (n = 1695 of 4766) to 48.2% (n = 2519 of 5207; P < .001). Knowledge of HIV-seropositive status increased by 21% from 51.8% (n = 504 of 3547) to 62.9% (n = 570 of 3895; P < .001) in men and by 14% from 64.6% (n = 1833 of 6265) to 73.4% (n = 2182 of 6341; P < .001) in women. Use of antiretroviral therapy increased by 32% from 36.7% (n = 341 of 3547) to 48.6% (n = 432 of 3895; P < .001) in men and by 29% from 45.6% (n = 1251 of 6265) to 58.8% (n = 1743 of 6341; P < .001) in women; HIV viral suppression increased by 20% from 41.9% (n = 401 of 3547) to 50.3% (n = 456 of 3895; P = .005) in men and by 13% from 54.8% (n = 1547 of 6265) to 61.9% (n = 1828 of 6341; P < .001) in women. Incidence of HIV declined in women aged 15 to 19 years from 4.63 (95% CI, 3.29-6.52) to 2.74 (95% CI, 1.84-4.09) per 100 person-years (P = .04) but declined marginally or remained unchanged among men and women in other age groups. Conclusions and Relevance: This study showed a significant decline in HIV incidence in young women; however, to further reduce HIV incidence, HIV prevention and treatment program coverage must be intensified and scaled up.

      12. Chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence and testing among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study, 2007-2017external icon
        Li J, Armon C, Palella FJ, Novak RM, Ward D, Purinton S, Durham M, Buchacz K.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 6.
        BACKGROUND: Although chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infections are increasing in the United States, there are limited data on their incidence, testing rates and associated risk factors among persons with HIV (PWH), including by anatomic site among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We analyzed 2007-2017 medical record data from HIV Outpatient Study participants in care at nine HIV clinics. We calculated CT (and GC) incidence and testing rates and assessed associations with sociodemographic and clinical factors using log-linear regression. RESULTS: Among 4,727 PWH, 397 had 881 CT infections and 331 had 861 GC infections, with incidence of 2.95 and 2.88 per 100 person-years, respectively. From 2007-2017, incidence and testing rates increased by approximately 3.0- and 1.9-fold for CT and GC, respectively. Multivariable factors associated with incident CT (GC) included younger age, MSM, and prior diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Among 1,159 MSM, 583 (50.3%) had 844 CT and 843 GC tests during 2016-2017, and 26.6% of tests were 3-site (urethra, rectum, and pharynx), yielding the highest rates of CT (GC) detection. Multivariable factors associated with CT (GC) testing included younger age, non-Hispanic/Latino black race, and having prior STDs. CONCLUSIONS: Recent CT and GC incidence and testing increased among PWH; however, only half of MSM were tested for CT or GC during 2016-2017 and < 1/3 of tests were 3-site. To promote sexual health and STD prevention among PWH, including MSM, research regarding the added value of CT and GC testing across three anatomic sites is needed.

      13. BACKGROUND: The primary reported risk factors for herpes zoster (HZ) are increasing age and immunodeficiency yet estimates of HZ risk by immunocompromising condition have not been well characterized. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to estimate HZ risk in five categories of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies examining risk of HZ and its complications in adult patients with hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT), cancer (hematologic and solid tumor), HIV, and solid organ transplant (SOT; kidney and other). We identified studies in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and that presented original data from studies in the United States published after 1992 (1996 for HIV). We assessed risk of bias with Cochrane or GRADE methods. RESULTS: We identified and screened 3,765 records and synthesized 34 studies with low or moderate risk of bias. The majority of studies included (32/34) reported at least one estimate of HZ cumulative incidence (range=0%-41%). Twelve studies reported HZ incidence, which varied widely within and between immunocompromised populations. Incidence estimates ranged between 9 and 92 HZ cases/1,000 patient-years and were highest in HCT, followed by hematologic malignancies, SOT, solid tumor malignancies, and lowest in HIV patients. Among 17 studies of HCT patients, absent or <1 year of post-transplant antiviral prophylaxis were associated with higher HZ cumulative incidence. CONCLUSIONS: HZ is common among all immunocompromised populations studied-exceeding expected HZ incidence among immunocompetent adults >/=60 years. Better evidence of incidence of HZ complications and severity in immunocompromised populations are needed to inform economic and HZ vaccine policy analyses.

      14. Treatment outcomes in global systematic review and patient meta-analysis of children with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosisexternal icon
        Osman M, Harausz EP, Garcia-Prats AJ, Schaaf HS, Moore BK, Hicks RM, Achar J, Amanullah F, Barry P, Becerra M, Chiotan DI, Drobac PC, Flood J, Furin J, Gegia M, Isaakidis P, Mariandyshev A, Ozere I, Shah NS, Skrahina A, Yablokova E, Seddon JA, Hesseling AC.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;25(3):441-450.
        Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has extremely poor treatment outcomes in adults. Limited data are available for children. We report on clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes for 37 children (<15 years of age) with bacteriologically confirmed XDR TB in 11 countries. These patients were managed during 1999-2013. For the 37 children, median age was 11 years, 32 (87%) had pulmonary TB, and 29 had a recorded HIV status; 7 (24%) were infected with HIV. Median treatment duration was 7.0 months for the intensive phase and 12.2 months for the continuation phase. Thirty (81%) children had favorable treatment outcomes. Four (11%) died, 1 (3%) failed treatment, and 2 (5%) did not complete treatment. We found a high proportion of favorable treatment outcomes among children, with mortality rates markedly lower than for adults. Regimens and duration of treatment varied considerably. Evaluation of new regimens in children is required.

      15. PURPOSE: To identify and examine the correlates of multiple bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) hot spot counties in the United States. METHODS: We assembled and analyzed five years (2008-2012) of cross-sectional STI morbidity data to identify multiple bacterial STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis) hot spot counties using hot spot analysis. Then, we examined the association between the multi-STI-hotspots and select multi-year (2008-2012) sociodemographic factors (data obtained from the American Community Survey) using ordered spatial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 2,935 counties, the results indicated that 85 counties were hot spots for all three STIs [three-STI-hotspot counties], 177 were hot spots for two STIs [two-STI-hotspot counties], and 145 were hot spots for only one STI [one-STI-hotspot counties]. Approximately 93% (79/85) of the counties determined to be three-STI-hotspots were found in four Southern states–Mississippi (n=25), Arkansas (n=22), Louisiana (n=19), and Alabama (n=13). Counties determined to be two-STI-hotspots were found in seven Southern states–Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, North and South Carolina had at least 10 two-STI-hotspot counties each. The multi-STI-hotspot classes were significantly (p<0.05) associated with percent Black (non-Hispanic), percent Hispanics, percent American Indians, population density, male-female sex ratio, percent aged 25-44 and violent crime rate. CONCLUSION: This study provides information on multiple STI hot spot counties in the United States and the associated sociodemographic factors. Such information can be used to assist planning, designing and implementing effective integrated bacterial STI prevention and control programs/interventions.

      16. Global mortality associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: New burden estimates and predictors from the GLaMOR Projectexternal icon
        Paget J, Spreeuwenberg P, Charu V, Taylor RJ, Iuliano AD, Bresee J, Simonsen L, Viboud C.
        J Glob Health. 2019 Dec;9(2):020421.
        Background: Until recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the annual mortality burden of influenza to be 250 000 to 500 000 all-cause deaths globally; however, a 2017 study indicated a substantially higher mortality burden, at 290 000-650 000 influenza-associated deaths from respiratory causes alone, and a 2019 study estimated 99 000-200 000 deaths from lower respiratory tract infections directly caused by influenza. Here we revisit global and regional estimates of influenza mortality burden and explore mortality trends over time and geography. Methods: We compiled influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality estimates for 31 countries representing 5 WHO regions during 2002-2011. From these we extrapolated the influenza burden for all 193 countries of the world using a multiple imputation approach. We then used mixed linear regression models to identify factors associated with high seasonal influenza mortality burden, including influenza types and subtypes, health care and socio-demographic development indicators, and baseline mortality levels. Results: We estimated an average of 389 000 (uncertainty range 294 000-518 000) respiratory deaths were associated with influenza globally each year during the study period, corresponding to ~ 2% of all annual respiratory deaths. Of these, 67% were among people 65 years and older. Global burden estimates were robust to the choice of countries included in the extrapolation model. For people <65 years, higher baseline respiratory mortality, lower level of access to health care and seasons dominated by the A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype were associated with higher influenza-associated mortality, while lower level of socio-demographic development and A(H3N2) dominance was associated with higher influenza mortality in adults >/=65 years. Conclusions: Our global estimate of influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality is consistent with the 2017 estimate, despite a different modelling strategy, and the lower 2019 estimate which only captured deaths directly caused by influenza. Our finding that baseline respiratory mortality and access to health care are associated with influenza-related mortality in persons <65 years suggests that health care improvements in low and middle-income countries might substantially reduce seasonal influenza mortality. Our estimates add to the body of evidence on the variation in influenza burden over time and geography, and begin to address the relationship between influenza-associated mortality, health and development.

      17. Acceptability and willingness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis amongst female sex workers in Chinaexternal icon
        Poon AN, Han L, Li Z, Zhou C, Li Y, Huang L, Liao M, Shepard C, Bulterys M.
        AIDS Care. 2019 Dec;31(12):1555-1564.
        HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective prevention method. It is an attractive self-initiated approach to reduce the spread of HIV amongst female sex workers (FSW). PrEP, however, has not yet achieved its potential to reduce HIV infections partially due to a general lack of awareness from women who may benefit. Aims of this cross-sectional study of 1,466 FSW in China were to understand: levels of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP among female sex workers (FSW) in China, and factors contributing to willingness to use PrEP. We found that awareness (10.2%) and willingness (35.5%) to use PrEP were low in our survey areas. Low PrEP willingness is likely reflective of the overall poor knowledge and understanding of HIV risk and prevention. FSW that demonstrated greater HIV knowledge through having been tested or having greater decision-making involvement in condom use were more willing to use PrEP. Study findings may be used to inform future HIV prevention activities, including possible use of PrEP among FSW at higher risk of incident HIV infection in China.

      18. OBJECTIVE: Build a dynamic model system to assess the effects of HIV intervention and prevention strategies on future annual numbers of new HIV infections, newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection, and deaths among persons infected with HIV. DESIGN AND SETTING: Model parameters are defined to quantify the putative effects of HIV prevention strategies that would increase HIV testing, thereby diagnosing infection earlier; increase linkage to care and viral suppression, thereby reducing infectiousness; and increase the use of preexposure prophylaxis, thereby protecting persons at risk of infection. Surveillance data are used to determine the initial values of the model system’s variables and parameters, and the impact on the future course of various outcome measures of achieving either specified target values or specified rates of change for the model parameters is examined. PARTICIPANTS: A hypothetical population of persons with HIV infection and persons at risk of acquiring HIV infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, proportion of persons infected with HIV whose infection is diagnosed, and proportion of persons with diagnosed HIV infection who are virally suppressed. RESULTS: A model system based on the basic year-to-year algebraic relationships among the model variables and relying almost exclusively on HIV surveillance data was developed to project the course of HIV disease over a specified time period. Based on the most recent HIV surveillance data in the United States-which show a relatively high proportion of infections having been diagnosed but a relatively low proportion of diagnosed persons being virally suppressed-increasing the proportion of diagnosed persons who are virally suppressed and increasing preexposure prophylaxis use appear to be the most effective ways of reducing new HIV infections and accomplishing national HIV prevention and care goals. CONCLUSIONS: Both having current and accurate information regarding the epidemiologic dynamics of HIV infection and knowing the potential impact of prevention strategies are critical in order for limited HIV prevention resources to be optimally allocated.

      19. Risk of severe influenza among adults with chronic medical conditionsexternal icon
        Walker TA, Waite B, Thompson MG, McArthur C, Wong C, Baker MG, Wood T, Haubrock J, Roberts S, Gross DK, Huang QS, Newbern EC.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 4.
        BACKGROUND: Severe influenza illness is presumed more common in adults with chronic medical conditions (CMC), but evidence is sparse and often combined into broad CMC categories. METHODS: Residents (aged 18-80 years) of Central and South Auckland hospitalized for WHO-defined severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) (2012-2015) underwent influenza virus PCR testing. CMC statuses for Auckland residents were modelled using hospitalization ICD-10 codes, pharmaceutical claims, and laboratory results. Population-level influenza rates in adults with congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes mellitus (DM), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated by Poisson regression stratified by age and adjusted for ethnicity. RESULTS: Among 891,276 adults, 2,435 influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations occurred. Rates were significantly higher in those with CMCs compared with those without the respective CMC except older adults with DM or those aged <65 years with CVA. The largest effects occurred with CHF (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] range: 4.84-13.4 across age strata), ESRD (IRR range: 3.30-9.02), CAD (IRR range= 2.77-10.7), and COPD (IRR range: 5.89-8.78) and tapered with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the increased risk of severe, laboratory-confirmed influenza disease among adults with specific CMCs compared those without these conditions.

      20. Burden of viral gastroenteritis in children living in rural China: population-based surveillanceexternal icon
        Wang JX, Zhou HL, Mo ZJ, Wang SM, Hao ZY, Li Y, Zhen SS, Zhang CJ, Zhang XJ, Ma JC, Qiu C, Zhao G, Jiang B, Jiang X, Li RC, Zhao YL, Wang XY.
        Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 28.
        BACKGROUND: Despite the considerable disease burden caused by the disease, rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced into routine national immunization schedule, and norovirus vaccines are being developed without a comprehensive understanding of gastroenteritis epidemiology. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigated the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis in rural China. METHODS: Between October 2011 and December 2013, population-based surveillance was conducted in Zhengding and Sanjiang counties in China. Stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age with diarrhea. All specimens were tested for rotaviruses, noroviruses, sapoviruses, enteric adenoviruses, and astroviruses. RESULTS: The most common pathogen causing diarrhea was rotavirus (54.7 vs 45.6 cases/1,000 children/year in Zhengding and Sanjiang, respectively), followed by norovirus (28.4 vs 19.3 cases/1,000 children/year in Zhengding and Sanjiang, respectively). The highest incidence of these viruses was observed in children 6-18 months of age. Among the 5 viral pathogens, rotaviruses caused the most severe illness, followed by noroviruses. CONCLUSION: Rotavirus and norovirus are the 2 most important viral pathogens causing childhood diarrhea in both northern and southern China; they should be the major targets for viral gastroenteritis prevention strategies among children in China.

      21. The changing epidemiology of candidemia in the United States: Injection drug use as an increasingly common risk factor – active surveillance in selected sites, United States, 2014-17external icon
        Zhang AY, Shrum S, Williams S, Petnic S, Nadle J, Johnston H, Barter D, VonBank B, Bonner L, Hollick R, Marceaux K, Harrison L, Schaffner W, Tesini BL, Farley MM, Pierce RA, Phipps E, Mody RK, Chiller TM, Jackson BR, Vallabhaneni S.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 2.
        BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) is a known, but infrequent risk factor on candidemia, however, the opioid epidemic and increases in IDU may be changing the epidemiology of candidemia. METHODS: Active population-based surveillance for candidemia was conducted in selected US counties. Cases of candidemia were categorized as IDU cases if IDU was indicated in the medical records in the 12 months prior to the date of initial culture. RESULTS: During 2017, 1191 candidemia cases were identified in patients over the age of 12 years (incidence: 6.9 per 100,000 population); 128 (10.7%) had IDU history and this proportion was especially high (34.6%) in patients with candidemia aged 19-44 years. Candidemia patients with IDU history were younger than those without (median age: 35 vs 63 years, p<0.001). Candidemia cases involving recent IDU were less likely to have typical risk factors including malignancy (7.0% vs 29.4%, Relative Risk (RR): 0.2; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.1-0.5), abdominal surgery (3.9% vs 17.5%, RR: 0.2, CI: 0.09-0.5), and total parenteral nutrition (3.9% vs 22.5%, RR: 0.2, CI: 0.07-0.4). Candidemia cases with IDU occurred more commonly in smokers (68.8% vs 18.5%, RR: 3.7, CI: 3.1-4.4), those with hepatitis C (54.7% vs 6.4%, RR: 8.5, CI: 6.5-11.3), and in people who were homeless (13.3% vs 0.8%, RR: 15.7; CI: 7.1-34.5). CONCLUSION: Clinicians should consider screening for candidemia in people who inject drugs and IDU in patients with candidemia who lack typical candidemia risk factors, especially in those with who are 19-44 years, and have community-associated candidemia.

      22. Feasibility of the bag-mediated filtration system for environmental surveillance of poliovirus in Kenyaexternal icon
        Zhou NA, Fagnant-Sperati CS, Komen E, Mwangi B, Mukubi J, Nyangao J, Hassan J, Chepkurui A, Maina C, van Zyl WB, Matsapola PN, Wolfaardt M, Ngwana FB, Jeffries-Miles S, Coulliette-Salmond A, Penaranda S, Shirai JH, Kossik AL, Beck NK, Wilmouth R, Boyle DS, Burns CC, Taylor MB, Borus P, Meschke JS.
        Food Environ Virol. 2019 Nov 2.
        The bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) was developed to facilitate poliovirus (PV) environmental surveillance, a supplement to acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in PV eradication efforts. From April to September 2015, environmental samples were collected from four sites in Nairobi, Kenya, and processed using two collection/concentration methodologies: BMFS (> 3 L filtered) and grab sample (1 L collected; 0.5 L concentrated) with two-phase separation. BMFS and two-phase samples were analyzed for PV by the standard World Health Organization poliovirus isolation algorithm followed by intratypic differentiation. BMFS samples were also analyzed by a cell culture independent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and an alternative cell culture method (integrated cell culture-rRT-PCR with PLC/PRF/5, L20B, and BGM cell lines). Sabin polioviruses were detected in a majority of samples using BMFS (37/42) and two-phase separation (32/42). There was statistically more frequent detection of Sabin-like PV type 3 in samples concentrated with BMFS (22/42) than by two-phase separation (14/42, p = 0.035), possibly due to greater effective volume assayed (870 mL vs. 150 mL). Despite this effective volume assayed, there was no statistical difference in Sabin-like PV type 1 and Sabin-like PV type 2 detection between these methods (9/42 vs. 8/42, p = 0.80 and 27/42 vs. 32/42, p = 0.18, respectively). This study demonstrated that BMFS can be used for PV environmental surveillance and established a feasible study design for future research.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Rabies surveillance identifies potential risk corridors and enables management evaluationexternal icon
        Davis AJ, Nelson KM, Kirby JD, Wallace R, Ma X, Pepin KM, Chipman RB, Gilbert AT.
        Viruses. 2019 Oct 31;11(11).
        Intensive efforts are being made to eliminate the raccoon variant of rabies virus (RABV) from the eastern United States and Canada. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services National Rabies Management Program has implemented enhanced rabies surveillance (ERS) to improve case detection across the extent of the raccoon oral rabies vaccination (ORV) management area. We evaluated ERS and public health surveillance data from 2006 to 2017 in three northeastern USA states using a dynamic occupancy modeling approach. Our objectives were to examine potential risk corridors for RABV incursion from the U.S. into Canada, evaluate the effectiveness of ORV management strategies, and identify surveillance gaps. ORV management has resulted in a decrease in RABV cases over time within vaccination zones (from occupancy ( psi ) of 0.60 standard error (SE) = 0.03 in the spring of 2006 to psi of 0.33 SE = 0.10 in the spring 2017). RABV cases also reduced in the enzootic area (from psi of 0.60 SE = 0.03 in the spring of 2006 to psi of 0.45 SE = 0.05 in the spring 2017). Although RABV occurrence was related to habitat type, greater impacts were associated with ORV and trap-vaccinate-release (TVR) campaigns, in addition to seasonal and yearly trends. Reductions in RABV occupancy were more pronounced in areas treated with Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) compared to RABORAL V-RG((R)). Our approach tracked changes in RABV occurrence across space and time, identified risk corridors for potential incursions into Canada, and highlighted surveillance gaps, while evaluating the impacts of management actions. Using this approach, we are able to provide guidance for future RABV management.

      2. It has been reported that starving ticks do not transmit spotted fever group Rickettsia immediately upon attachment because pathogenic bacteria exist in a dormant, uninfectious state and require time for ‘reactivation’ before transmission to a susceptible host. To clarify the length of reactivation period, we exposed guinea pigs to bites of Rickettsia rickettsii-infected Dermacentor variabilis (Say) and allowed ticks to remain attached for predetermined time periods from 0 to 48 h. Following removal of attached ticks, salivary glands were immediately tested by PCR, while guinea pigs were observed for 10-12 d post-exposure. Guinea pigs in a control group were subcutaneously inoculated with salivary glands from unfed D. variabilis from the same cohort. In a parallel experiment, skin at the location of tick bite was also excised at the time of tick removal to ascertain dissemination of pathogen from the inoculation site. Animals in every exposure group developed clinical and pathological signs of infection. The severity of rickettsial infection in animals increased with the length of tick attachment, but even attachments for less than 8 h resulted in clinically identifiable infection in some guinea pigs. Guinea pigs inoculated with salivary glands from unfed ticks also became severely ill. Results of our study indicate that R. rickettsii residing in salivary glands of unfed questing ticks does not necessarily require a period of reactivation to precede the salivary transmission and ticks can transmit infectious Rickettsia virtually as soon as they attach to the host.

      3. Identification of Bartonella rochalimae in Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and fleas collected from rural Peruvian householdsexternal icon
        Rizzo MF, Osikowicz L, Caceres AG, LunaCaipo VD, Suarez-Puyen SM, Bai Y, Kosoy M.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Oct 28.
        In the present study, we tested 391 fleas collected from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (241 Pulex species, 110 Ctenocephalides felis, and 40 Tiamastus cavicola) and 194 fleas collected from human bedding and clothing (142 Pulex species, 43 C. felis, five T. cavicola, and four Ctenocephalides canis) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. We also tested 83 blood spots collected on FTA cards from guinea pigs inhabiting 338 Peruvian households. Bartonella DNA was detected in 81 (20.7%) of 391 guinea pig fleas, in five (2.6%) of 194 human fleas, and in 16 (19.3%) of 83 guinea pig blood spots. Among identified Bartonella species, B. rochalimae was the most prevalent in fleas (89.5%) and the only species found in the blood spots from guinea pigs. Other Bartonella species detected in fleas included B. henselae (3.5%), B. clarridgeiae (2.3%), and an undescribed Bartonella species (4.7%). Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of zoonotic B. rochalimae in households in rural areas where the research was conducted and suggested a potential role of guinea pigs as a reservoir of this bacterium.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Associations between PM2.5 and risk of preterm birth among liveborn infantsexternal icon
        Alman BL, Stingone JA, Yazdy M, Botto LD, Desrosiers TA, Pruitt S, Herring AH, Langlois PH, Nembhard WN, Shaw GM, Olshan AF, Luben TJ.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2019 Oct 9.
        PURPOSE: Studies suggest exposure to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 mug/m(3) in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) may be associated with preterm birth (PTB), but few have evaluated how this is modified by ambient temperature. We investigated the relationship between PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and PTB in infants without birth defects (1999-2006) and enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and how it is modified by concurrent temperature. METHODS: PTB was defined as spontaneous or iatrogenic delivery before 37 weeks. Exposure was assigned using inverse distance weighting with up to four monitors within 50 kilometers of maternal residence. To account for state-level variations, a Bayesian two-level hierarchal model was developed. RESULTS: PTB was associated with PM2.5 during the third and fourth months of pregnancy (range: (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.00 (0.35, 2.15) to 1.49 (0.82, 2.68) and 1.31 (0.56, 2.91) to 1.62 (0.7, 3.32), respectively); no week of exposure conveyed greater risk. Temperature may modify this relationship; higher local average temperatures during pregnancy yielded stronger positive relationships between PM2.5 and PTB compared to nonstratified results. CONCLUSIONS: Results add to literature on associations between PM2.5 and PTB, underscoring the importance of considering co-exposures when estimating effects of PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy.

      2. Association of prenatal pesticide exposures with adverse pregnancy outcomes and stunting in rural Bangladeshexternal icon
        Jaacks LM, Diao N, Calafat AM, Ospina M, Mazumdar M, Ibne Hasan MO, Wright R, Quamruzzaman Q, Christiani DC.
        Environ Int. 2019 Oct 29;133(Pt B):105243.
        BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure during pregnancy is thought to adversely affect fetal growth, which in turn may impact child growth, but results have been inconsistent across studies and few have explored these effects in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To quantify urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers in early pregnancy (<16weeks’ gestation), and to estimate the association of these concentrations with preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and stunting at ~1 and 2years of age. METHODS: Eight pesticide biomarkers were quantified in urine collected from 289 pregnant women (aged 18-40years) participating in a birth cohort study in Bangladesh. Anthropometry measurements were conducted on the index child at birth and approximately 1 and 2years of age. A directed acyclic graph was used to identify minimal sufficient adjustment sets. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl, and 4-nitrophenol, a metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion, were detected in nearly all women with geometric mean (95% CI) values of 3.17 (2.82-3.56) and 18.66 (17.03-20.46) microg/g creatinine, respectively. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a non-specific metabolite of several pyrethroids, and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY), a diazinon metabolite, were detected in 19.8% and 16.1% of women, respectively. The remaining four pesticide biomarkers were detected in <10% of women. Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were more than 3 times more likely to deliver preterm than women in the lowest quartile: unadjusted RR (95% CI), 3.57 (1.65, 7.73). Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were also at increased risk of having a child born small for gestational age: RR (95% CI) adjusted for household income, maternal education, and maternal total energy and meat intake, 3.81 (1.10, 13.21). Women with detectable concentrations of IMPY were at increased risk of having a child born with low birth weight compared to women with non-detectable concentrations: adjusted RR (95% CI), 2.13 (1.12, 4.08). We observed no association between any of the pesticide biomarkers and stunting at 1 or 2years of age. DISCUSSION: Exposure to the insecticides parathion and diazinon during early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties – United States, 2010-2017external icon
        Garcia MC, Rossen LM, Bastian B, Faul M, Dowling NF, Thomas CC, Schieb L, Hong Y, Yoon PW, Iademarco MF.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2019 Nov 8;68(10):1-11.
        PROBLEM/CONDITION: A 2017 report quantified the higher percentage of potentially excess (or preventable) deaths in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas. In that report, CDC compared national, regional, and state estimates of potentially excess deaths among the five leading causes of death in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties for 2010 and 2014. This report enhances the geographic detail by using the six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme for counties and extending estimates of potentially excess deaths by annual percent change (APC) and for additional years (2010-2017). Trends were tested both with linear and quadratic terms. PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2017. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death among persons aged <80 years. CDC’s NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties was used to categorize the deaths according to the urban-rural county classification level of the decedent’s county of residence (1: large central metropolitan [most urban], 2: large fringe metropolitan, 3: medium metropolitan, 4: small metropolitan, 5: micropolitan, and 6: noncore [most rural]). Potentially excess deaths were defined as deaths among persons aged <80 years that exceeded the number expected if the death rates for each cause in all states were equivalent to those in the benchmark states (i.e., the three states with the lowest rates). Potentially excess deaths were calculated separately for the six urban-rural county categories nationally, the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions, and the 50 states and District of Columbia. RESULTS: The number of potentially excess deaths among persons aged <80 years in the United States increased during 2010-2017 for unintentional injuries (APC: 11.2%), decreased for cancer (APC: -9.1%), and remained stable for heart disease (APC: 1.1%), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (APC: 1.7%), and stroke (APC: 0.3). Across the United States, percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan counties in all years during 2010-2017. When assessed by the six urban-rural county classifications, percentages of potentially excess deaths in the most rural counties (noncore) were consistently higher than in the most urban counties (large central metropolitan) for the study period. Potentially excess deaths from heart disease increased most in micropolitan counties (APC: 2.5%) and decreased most in large fringe metropolitan counties (APC: -1.1%). Potentially excess deaths from cancer decreased in all county categories, with the largest decreases in large central metropolitan (APC: -16.1%) and large fringe metropolitan (APC: -15.1%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes increased, with the largest increases occurring in large central metropolitan (APC: 18.3%), large fringe metropolitan (APC: 17.1%), and medium metropolitan (APC: 11.1%) counties. Potentially excess deaths from CLRD decreased most in large central metropolitan counties (APC: -5.6%) and increased most in micropolitan (APC: 3.7%) and noncore (APC: 3.6%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from stroke exhibited a quadratic trend (i.e., decreased then increased), except in micropolitan counties, where no change occurred. Percentages of potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions and across states by urban-rural county classification during 2010-2017. INTERPRETATION: Nonmetropolitan counties had higher percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes than metropolitan counties during 2010-2017 nationwide, across public health regions, and in the majority of states. The gap between the most rural and most urban counties for potentially excess deaths increased during 2010-2017 for three causes of death (cancer, heart disease, and CLRD), decreased for unintentional injury, and remained relatively stable for stroke. Urban and suburban counties (large central metropolitan and large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) experienced increases in potentially excess deaths from unintentional injury during 2010-2017, leading to a narrower gap between the already high (approximately 55%) percentage of excess deaths in noncore and micropolitan counties. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths by urban-rural county classification might help public health departments and decision-makers identify and monitor public health problems and focus interventions to reduce potentially excess deaths in these areas.

    • Food Safety
      1. Notes from the field: Botulism type E after consumption of salt-cured fish – New Jersey, 2018external icon
        Ganapathiraju PV, Gharpure R, Thomas D, Millet N, Gurrieri D, Chatham-Stephens K, Dykes J, Luquez C, Dinavahi P, Ganapathiraju S, Roger S, Abbasi D, Higgins N, Loftus F, Trivedi M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 8;68(44):1008-1009.

        [No abstract]

      2. PulseNet and the changing paradigm of laboratory-based surveillance for foodborne diseasesexternal icon
        Kubota KA, Wolfgang WJ, Baker DJ, Boxrud D, Turner L, Trees E, Carleton HA, Gerner-Smidt P.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 Nov/Dec;134(2_suppl):22s-28s.
        PulseNet, the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance, was established in 1996 through a collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service; the US Food and Drug Administration; 4 state public health laboratories; and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. The network has since expanded to include 83 state, local, and food regulatory public health laboratories. In 2016, PulseNet was estimated to be helping prevent an estimated 270 000 foodborne illnesses annually. PulseNet is undergoing a transformation toward whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which provides better discriminatory power and precision than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). WGS improves the detection of outbreak clusters and could replace many traditional reference identification and characterization methods. This article highlights the contributions made by public health laboratories in transforming PulseNet’s surveillance and describes how the transformation is changing local and national surveillance practices. Our data show that WGS is better at identifying clusters than PFGE, especially for clonal organisms such as Salmonella Enteritidis. The need to develop prioritization schemes for cluster follow-up and additional resources for both public health laboratory and epidemiology departments will be critical as PulseNet implements WGS for foodborne disease surveillance in the United States.

    • Health Economics
      1. BACKGROUND: In the United States, persons >/=11 years are recommended to receive one dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, followed by decennial tetanus- and diphtheria-toxoid (Td) boosters. Many providers use Tdap instead of Td. We evaluated epidemiologic and economic impacts of replacing Td boosters with Tdap. METHODS: We used a static cohort model to examine replacing Td with Tdap over the lifetime of 4,386,854 adults >/=21 years. Because pertussis is underdiagnosed and true incidence is unknown, we varied incidence from 2.5 cases/100,000 person-years to 500 cases/100,000 person-years. We calculated vaccine and medical costs from claims data. We estimated cost per case prevented and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved; sensitivity analyses were conducted on vaccine effectiveness (VE), protection duration, vaccine cost, disease duration, hospitalization rates, productivity loss and missed work. We did not include programmatic advantages resulting from use of a single tetanus-toxoid containing vaccine. RESULTS: At lowest incidence estimates, administering Tdap resulted in high costs per averted case ($111,540) and QALY saved ($8,972,848). As incidence increased, cases averted increased and cost per QALY saved decreased rapidly. With incidence estimates of 250 cases/100,000 person-years, cost per averted case and QALY saved were $984 and $81,678 respectively; at 500 cases/100,000 person-years, these values were $427 and $35,474. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, assuming 250 cases/100,000 person-years, estimated cost per QALY saved ranged from $971 (most favorable) to $217,370 (least favorable). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that replacing Td with Tdap for the decennial booster would result in high cost per QALY saved based on reported cases. However, programmatic considerations were not accounted for, and if pertussis incidence, which is incompletely measured, is assumed to be higher than reported through national surveillance, substituting Tdap for Td may lead to moderate decreases in pertussis cases and cost per QALY.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. A collaborative multicenter QI initiative to improve antibiotic stewardship in newbornsexternal icon
        Dukhovny D, Buus-Frank ME, Edwards EM, Ho T, Morrow KA, Srinivasan A, Pollock DA, Zupancic JA, Pursley DM, Goldmann D, Puopolo KM, Soll RF, Horbar JD.
        Pediatrics. 2019 Nov 1.
        OBJECTIVES: To determine if NICU teams participating in a multicenter quality improvement (QI) collaborative achieve increased compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) core elements for antibiotic stewardship and demonstrate reductions in antibiotic use (AU) among newborns. METHODS: From January 2016 to December 2017, multidisciplinary teams from 146 NICUs participated in Choosing Antibiotics Wisely, an Internet-based national QI collaborative conducted by the Vermont Oxford Network consisting of interactive Web sessions, a series of 4 point-prevalence audits, and expert coaching designed to help teams test and implement the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship. The audits assessed unit-level adherence to the CDC core elements and collected patient-level data about AU. The AU rate was defined as the percentage of infants in the NICU receiving 1 or more antibiotics on the day of the audit. RESULTS: The percentage of NICUs implementing the CDC core elements increased in each of the 7 domains (leadership: 15.4%-68.8%; accountability: 54.5%-95%; drug expertise: 61.5%-85.1%; actions: 21.7%-72.3%; tracking: 14.7%-78%; reporting: 6.3%-17.7%; education: 32.9%-87.2%; P < .005 for all measures). The median AU rate decreased from 16.7% to 12.1% (P for trend < .0013), a 34% relative risk reduction. CONCLUSIONS: NICU teams participating in this QI collaborative increased adherence to the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship and achieved significant reductions in AU.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. What is the evidence to support a correlate of protection for measles? A systematic reviewexternal icon
        Bolotin S, Hughes SL, Gul N, Khan S, Rota PA, Severini A, Hahne S, Tricco A, Moss WJ, Orenstein W, Turner N, Durrheim D, Heffernan JM, Crowcroft N.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 1.
        BACKGROUND: Many studies assume that the serologic correlate of protection from measles disease is 120 mIU/mL. We systematically reviewed the literature to examine the evidence supporting this correlate of protection. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed and gray literature for articles reporting a measles correlate of protection. We excluded studies focusing on special populations, infants aged <9 months, and those using animal models or nonstandard vaccines or administration routes. We extracted and synthesized data from full-text articles that met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: We screened 14 778 articles and included 5 studies in our review. The studies reported either preexposure antibody concentrations of individuals along with a description of symptoms postexposure, or the proportion of measles cases that had preexposure antibody concentrations above a threshold of immunity specified by the authors. Some studies also described secondary antibody responses upon exposure. The variation in laboratory methods between studies made comparisons difficult. Some of the studies that assumed 120 mIU/mL as a correlate of protection identified symptomatic individuals with preexposure titers exceeding this threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the scant data upon which the commonly used 120 mIU/mL measles threshold of protection is based, suggesting that further work is required to characterize the measles immunity threshold.

      2. School-based vaccination (SBV) and checking students’ vaccination records at school have the potential to optimize vaccination coverage among school-aged children. The primary aim of this paper is to describe adoption of SBV by countries from 2008 to 2017, including target age groups and vaccines delivered in 2017, as reported annually through the World Health Organization (WHO)-United Nations Children’s fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form (JRF). Expanding upon previous analyses, country-specific rates of primary school enrollment and home-based record (HBR) ownership were linked to the WHO-UNICEF JRF data, to identify countries with high potential to implement vaccination record checks at school. The proportion of countries reporting delivery of at least one routinely recommended vaccine dose in school settings increased from 95 (of 163 reporting; 58%) in 2008 to 108 (of 181 reporting; 60%) in 2017. The 13 additional countries that reported using SBV in 2017 were among 31 countries for which SBV data from the JRF were unavailable in 2017. The most common antigens delivered through SBV in 2017 were tetanus (94 countries), diphtheria (89 countries), and human papillomavirus (52 countries). Among 93 countries with data available for net primary school enrollment and HBR ownership, 52 (56%) countries had both >/=80% net primary school enrollment and >/=80% of children aged 12-23months ever owning an HBR; 33 (63%) of these used SBV. If not already doing so, these 33 countries represent an opportunity to introduce routine checking of vaccination status at entry to, or during primary school. With the growing number of new vaccines and booster doses of childhood vaccines targeting school-age children, implementation of SBV and checking of student vaccination records at school may help improve vaccination coverage; however, additional data are needed to assess global prevalence of checking vaccination status at school and to identify factors facilitating optimal implementation of this strategy.

      3. Effectiveness of 1, 2, AND 3 human papillomavirus vaccine doses against HPV-16/18 positive high-grade cervical lesionsexternal icon
        Johnson Jones ML, Gargano JW, Powell M, Park IU, Niccolai LM, Bennett NM, Griffin MR, Querec T, Unger ER, Markowitz LE.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Nov 4.
        Before 2016, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was recommended in a three-dose schedule; however, many vaccine-eligible U.S. females received <3 doses, providing an opportunity to evaluate real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 1, 2, and 3 doses. We analyzed data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) from the HPV Vaccine Impact Monitoring Project (HPV-IMPACT), 2008-2014. Archived tissue from CIN2+ lesions was tested for 37 HPV types. Women were classified by number of doses received >/=24 months before CIN2+ detection. Using a test-negative design, VE was estimated as 1-adjusted odds ratio from a logistic regression model that compared vaccination history for women whose lesions tested positive for HPV-16/18 (vaccine-type cases) with all other CIN2+ (controls). Among 3,300 women with CIN2+, typing results, and vaccine history available, 1,561 (47%) were HPV-16/18 positive, 136 received (4%) 1 dose, 108 (3%) 2 doses, and 325 (10%) 3 doses. Adjusted odds ratios for vaccination with 1, 2, and 3 doses were 0.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.37, 0.76; VE=47%), 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.69; VE=55%), and 0.26 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.35; VE=74%). We found significant VE against vaccine-type CIN2+ after 3 doses of HPV vaccine and lower but significant VE with 1 or 2 doses.

      4. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the inpatient setting; evaluation of potential bias in the test negative design by use of alternate control groupsexternal icon
        Segaloff HE, Cheng B, Miller AV, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Cheng C, Lauring AS, Lamerato L, Ferdinands JM, Monto AS, Martin ET.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Nov 1.
        The test negative design is validated in outpatient but not inpatient studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary disease among inpatients may lead to nonrepresentative controls. Test negative design estimates are biased if vaccine administration is associated with incidence of non-influenza viruses. We evaluated whether control group selection and effects of vaccination on non-influenza viruses biased vaccine effectiveness in our study. Subjects were enrolled at the University of Michigan and Henry Ford hospitals during the 2014-15 and 2015-16 seasons. Patients presenting with acute respiratory infection were enrolled and tested for respiratory viruses. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using three control groups: influenza negative, other respiratory virus positive, and pan-negative individuals; it was also estimated for other common respiratory viruses. In 2014-15, vaccine effectiveness was 41.1% (95% CI: 1.7%, 64.7%) using influenza negative, 24.5% (95% CI: -42.6%, 60.1%) using other-virus positive, and 45.8% (95% CI: 5.7%, 68.9%) using pan-negative controls. In 2015-16, vaccine effectiveness was 68.7% (95% CI: 44.6%, 82.5%) using influenza negative, 63.1% (95% CI: 25.0%, 82.2%) using other-virus positive, and 71.1% (46.2%, 84.8%) using pan-negative controls. Vaccination did not alter odds of other respiratory viruses. Results support use of the test negative design among inpatients.

    • Informatics
      1. The goal of this study was to determine whether cluster analysis could be used to identify distinct subgroups of text message users based on behavioral economic indices of demand for text messaging. Cluster analysis is an analytic technique that attempts to categorize cases based on similarities across selected variables. Participants completed a questionnaire about mobile phone usage and a hypothetical texting demand task in which they indicated their likelihood of paying an extra charge to continue to send text messages. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on behavioral economic indices, such as demand intensity, demand elasticity, breakpoint, and the maximum expenditure. With the cluster analysis, we identified 3 subgroups of text message users. The groups were characterized by (a) high intensity and low elasticity, (b) high intensity and medium elasticity, and (c) low intensity and high elasticity. In a demonstration of convergent validity, there were statistically significant and conceptually meaningful differences across the subgroups in various measures of mobile phone use and text messaging. Cluster analysis is a useful tool for identifying and profiling distinct, practically meaningful groups based on behavioral indices and could provide a framework for targeting interventions more efficiently.

      2. Life in data sets: Locating and accessing data on the health of Americans across the life spanexternal icon
        King JH, Hall MA, Goodman RA, Posner SF.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Oct 31.
        CONTEXT: The US government manages a large number of data sets, including federally funded data collection activities that examine infectious and chronic conditions, as well as risk and protective factors for adverse health outcomes. Although there currently is no mature, comprehensive metadata repository of existing data sets, US federal agencies are working to develop and make metadata repositories available that will improve discoverability. However, because these repositories are not yet operating at full capacity, researchers must rely on their own knowledge of the field to identify available data sets. PROGRAM OR POLICY: We sought to identify and consolidate a practical and annotated listing of those data sets. IMPLEMENTATION AND/OR DISSEMINATION: Creative use of data resources to address novel questions is an important research skill in a wide range of fields including public health. This report identifies, promotes, and encourages the use of a range of data sources for health, behavior, economic, and policy research efforts across the life span. EVALUATION: We identified and organized 28 federal data sets by the age-group of primary focus; not all groups are mutually exclusive. These data sets collectively represent a rich source of information that can be used to conduct descriptive epidemiologic studies. DISCUSSION: The data sets identified in this article are not intended to represent an exhaustive list of all available data sets. Rather, we present an introduction/overview of the current federal data collection landscape and some of its largest and most frequently utilized data sets.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. [No abstract]

      2. [No abstract]

      3. Vital Signs: Estimated proportion of adult health problems attributable to adverse childhood experiences and implications for prevention – 25 states, 2015-2017external icon
        Merrick MT, Ford DC, Ports KA, Guinn AS, Chen J, Klevens J, Metzler M, Jones CM, Simon TR, Daniel VM, Ottley P, Mercy JA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 8;68(44):999-1005.
        INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences, such as violence victimization, substance misuse in the household, or witnessing intimate partner violence, have been linked to leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reducing adverse childhood experiences is critical to avoiding multiple negative health and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were collected from 25 states that included state-added adverse childhood experience items during 2015-2017. Outcomes were self-reported status for coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer (excluding skin cancer), kidney disease, diabetes, depression, overweight or obesity, current smoking, heavy drinking, less than high school completion, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. Logistic regression modeling adjusting for age group, race/ethnicity, and sex was used to calculate population attributable fractions representing the potential reduction in outcomes associated with preventing adverse childhood experiences. RESULTS: Nearly one in six adults in the study population (15.6%) reported four or more types of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes, health risk behaviors, and socioeconomic challenges. Potential percentage reductions in the number of observed cases as indicated by population attributable fractions ranged from 1.7% for overweight or obesity to 23.9% for heavy drinking, 27.0% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 44.1% for depression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Efforts that prevent adverse childhood experiences could also potentially prevent adult chronic conditions, depression, health risk behaviors, and negative socioeconomic outcomes. States can use comprehensive public health approaches derived from the best available evidence to prevent childhood adversity before it begins. By creating the conditions for healthy communities and focusing on primary prevention, it is possible to reduce risk for adverse childhood experiences while also mitigating consequences for those already affected by these experiences.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Brucella exposure risk events in ten clinical laboratories, New York City, 2015 – 2017external icon
        Ackelsberg J, Liddicoat A, Burke T, Szymczak WA, Levi MH, Ostrowsky B, Hamula C, Patel G, Kopetz V, Saverimuttu J, Sordillo EM, D’Souza D, Mitchell EA, Lowe W, Khare R, Tang YW, Bianchi AL, Egan C, Perry MJ, Hughes S, Rakeman JL, Adams E, Kharod GA, Tiller R, Saile E, Lee S, Gonzalez E, Hoppe B, Leviton IM, Hacker S, Ni KF, Orsini RL, Jhaveri S, Mazariegos I, Dingle T, Koll B, Stoddard RA, Galloway R, Hoffmaster A, Fine A, Lee E, Dentinger C, Harrison E, Layton M.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2019 Nov 6.
        During 2015-2017, 11 confirmed brucellosis cases were reported in New York City, leading to 10 Brucella exposure risk events (“Brucella events”) in 7 clinical laboratories (CLs). Most patients traveled to endemic countries and presented with histories and findings consistent with brucellosis. CLs were not notified that specimens might yield a hazardous organism, as clinicians did not consider brucellosis until notified that bacteremia with Brucella was suspected.In 3 Brucella events, CLs did not suspect that slow-growing, small Gram-negative bacteria might be harmful. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), with limited capacity to identify biological threat agents (BTAs), was used during 4 Brucella events that accounted for 84% of exposures. In 3 of these incidents, initial staining of liquid media showed Gram-positive rods or cocci, including some cocci in chains, suggesting streptococci. Over 200 occupational exposures occurred when the unknown isolates were manipulated and/or tested on open benches, including procedures that could generate infectious aerosols. During 3 Brucella events, CLs examined and/or manipulated isolates in a biological safety cabinet (BSC); in each, CLs had isolated Brucella previously.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations to prevent laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) were followed; no seroconversions or LAB cases occurred.Laboratory assessments were conducted after Brucella events to identify facility-specific risks and mitigations. With increasing MALDI-TOF MS use, CLs are well-advised to adhere strictly to safe work practices, such as handling and manipulating all slow-growing organisms in BSCs and not using MALDI-TOF for identification until BTAs have been ruled out.

      2. Robotic direct reading device with spatial, temporal, and PID sensors for laboratory VOC exposure assessmentexternal icon
        Brown KK, Norton AE, Neu DT, Shaw PB.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2019 Nov;16(11):717-726.
        This study evaluated a novel robotic direct reading method that used a real-time location system to measure the spatial-concentration distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a chemistry laboratory. The CEMWIP II is a custom-made sensor that measures VOCs, temperature, humidity, and location, sending data wirelessly in real time to a remote location for display and storage. In this study, the CEMWIP II device was mounted on a robotic platform to create a CEMWIP II-mobile platform. The autonomous mobile platform was released from a corner of the room and allowed to travel randomly along an open floor with the goal of characterizing the spatial distribution of VOCs and identifying their sources in the laboratory. The experiment consisted of 12 runs made of permutations of four corner release sites and four beaker locations, with two beakers containing water and two containing the solvent acetone. The autonomous mobile platform was tasked with locating the two beakers of acetone. The sensor had a detection limit of 100 ppb and the confidence of detecting a source within a 1.46 m(2) area was p = 0.0005 by ANOVA. The CEMWIP II-mobile platform was able to measure the spatial distribution of VOCs within a laboratory that were associated with open solvent containers.

      3. Unraveling oxidative stress response in the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosusexternal icon
        Cancela M, Paes JA, Moura H, Barr JR, Zaha A, Ferreira HB.
        Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 4;9(1):15876.
        Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a worldwide neglected zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The parasite is well adapted to its host by producing protective molecules that modulate host immune response. An unexplored issue associated with the parasite’s persistence in its host is how the organism can survive the oxidative stress resulting from parasite endogenous metabolism and host defenses. Here, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce oxidative stress in E. granulosus protoescoleces (PSCs) to identify molecular pathways and antioxidant responses during H2O2 exposure. Using proteomics, we identified 550 unique proteins; including 474 in H2O2-exposed PSCs (H-PSCs) samples and 515 in non-exposed PSCs (C-PSCs) samples. Larger amounts of antioxidant proteins, including GSTs and novel carbonyl detoxifying enzymes, such as aldo-keto reductase and carbonyl reductase, were detected after H2O2 exposure. Increased concentrations of caspase-3 and cathepsin-D proteases and components of the 26S proteasome were also detected in H-PSCs. Reduction of lamin-B and other caspase-substrate, such as filamin, in H-PSCs suggested that molecular events related to early apoptosis were also induced. We present data that describe proteins expressed in response to oxidative stress in a metazoan parasite, including novel antioxidant enzymes and targets with potential application to treatment and prevention of CHD.

      4. A new solid matrix for preservation of viral nucleic acid from clinical specimens at ambient temperatureexternal icon
        Cromeans T, Jothikumar N, Lee J, Collins N, Burns CC, Hill VR, Vinje J.
        J Virol Methods. 2019 Dec;274:113732.
        Stabilizing paper matrix methods for retaining nucleic acid from inactivated clinical specimens offer a solution for molecular diagnostics when specimens may be stored or shipped at ambient temperature. We developed cellulose disks (UNEXP) saturated with a total nucleic acid extraction buffer (UNEX) modified from a previously developed lysis buffer for multiple enteric pathogens. Infectivity of hepatitis A virus, adenovirus and poliovirus was destroyed after 2-3 h incubation at room temperature on the UNEXP disks. Norovirus RNA could be detected in UNEXP-eluted nucleic acids by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) from 54 stool samples after 2 weeks storage at room temperature on disks; a subset of seven samples were positive after 3 months storage. Genotyping was successful in 76% of 54 samples tested including six of seven samples stored on the UNEXP disks for up to one month. Comparison of UNEXP with the FTA elute card in a subset of 10 samples demonstrated similar detection and genotyping rates after two weeks of storage at room temperature. UNEXP disks could be useful for epidemiologic investigations of disease outbreaks in resource-limited areas by simplifying specimen transport to regional diagnostic laboratories or shipment to international centers without the need to ship samples on dry ice.

      5. Microbial aerosols: New diagnostic specimens for pulmonary infectionsexternal icon
        Fennelly KP, Acuna-Villaorduna C, Jones-Lopez E, Lindsley WG, Milton D.
        Chest. 2019 Oct 31.
        Pulmonary infections are important causes of global morbidity and mortality, but diagnostics are often limited by the ability to collect specimens easily, safely and in a cost-effective manner. We review recent advances in the collection of infectious aerosols from patients with tuberculosis and with influenza. Although this research has been focused on assessing the infectious potential of such patients, we propose that these methods have the potential to lead to the use of patient-generated microbial aerosols as non-invasive diagnostic tests of disease as well as tests of infectiousness.

      6. Nearly complete genome sequence of an echovirus 30 strain from a cluster of aseptic meningitis cases in California, September 2017external icon
        Pan CY, Huynh T, Padilla T, Chen A, Ng TF, Marine RL, Castro CJ, Nix WA, Wadford DA.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2019 Oct 31;8(44).
        We report the nearly complete genome sequence of a human enterovirus, a strain of echovirus 30, obtained from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen from a teenaged patient with aseptic meningitis in September 2017.

      7. Implementation of the US Department of Health and Human Services Zika specimen repository and its effect on Zika diagnostic test development, 2016external icon
        Petway M, Anderson L, Humes R, Sincock S, Kuhnert-Tallman W, Miller J, Wallace RL.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 Nov/Dec;134(2_suppl):53s-57s.
        This study describes the efforts and outcomes associated with the establishment of a clinical sample repository during the 2016 Zika virus epidemic. To overcome the challenge of limited access to clinical samples to support diagnostic test development, multiple US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies formed a partnership to create the HHS Zika Specimen Repository. In 2016-2017, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collected patient specimens (4420 convalescent sera aliquots from 100 donors and 7171 plasma aliquots from 239 donors), confirmed Zika virus test results, assembled 1 panel for molecular testing (n = 25 sets) and 7 panels for serologic testing (n = 92), and distributed the panels to test developers. We manufactured 8 test panels and distributed 74 sets of panels to 32 commercial companies, public health partners, and research institutions. Manufacturers used these panels to generate data that supported 14 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emergency use authorizations and 1 FDA approval. To develop a repository that can respond immediately to future disease outbreaks, we recommend that organizations pre-position procedures, resources, and partnerships to optimize each partner’s contribution.

      8. Advancing the public health laboratory system through partnershipsexternal icon
        St George K, Ned-Sykes R, Salerno R, Pentella MA.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 Nov/Dec;134(2_suppl):3s-5s.

        [No abstract]

      9. Detecting emerging infectious diseases: An overview of the Laboratory Response Network for Biological Threatsexternal icon
        Villanueva J, Schweitzer B, Odle M, Aden T.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 Nov/Dec;134(2_suppl):16s-21s.
        The Laboratory Response Network (LRN) was established in 1999 to ensure an effective laboratory response to high-priority public health threats. The LRN for biological threats (LRN-B) provides a laboratory infrastructure to respond to emerging infectious diseases. Since 2012, the LRN-B has been involved in 3 emerging infectious disease outbreak responses. We evaluated the LRN-B role in these responses and identified areas for improvement. LRN-B laboratories tested 1097 specimens during the 2014 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus outbreak, 180 specimens during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, and 92 686 specimens during the 2016-2017 Zika virus outbreak. During the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, the LRN-B uncovered important gaps in biosafety and biosecurity practices. During the 2016-2017 Zika outbreak, the LRN-B identified the data entry bottleneck as a hindrance to timely reporting of results. Addressing areas for improvement may help LRN-B reference laboratories improve the response to future public health emergencies.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Ensuring the life-span benefits of newborn screeningexternal icon
        Kemper AR, Boyle CA, Brosco JP, Grosse SD.
        Pediatrics. 2019 Nov 6.

        [No abstract]

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Global surveillance of trans-fatty acidsexternal icon
        Li C, Cobb LK, Vesper HW, Asma S.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Oct 31;16:E147.
        Trans-fatty acid (TFA) intake can increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. Industrially produced TFAs and ruminant TFAs are the major sources in foods. TFA intake and TFA-attributed CHD mortality vary widely worldwide. Excessive TFA intake is a health threat in high-income countries; however, it is also a threat in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data on TFA intake are scarce in many LMICs and an urgent need exists to monitor TFAs globally. We reviewed global TFA intake and TFA-attributed CHD mortality and current progress toward policy or regulation on elimination of industrially produced TFAs in foods worldwide. Human biological tissues can be used as biomarkers of TFAs because they reflect actual intake from various foods. Measuring blood TFA levels is a direct and reliable method to quantify TFA intake.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Occupational exposure to disinfectants and asthma incidence in U.S. nurses: A prospective cohort studyexternal icon
        Dumas O, Boggs KM, Quinot C, Varraso R, Zock JP, Henneberger PK, Speizer FE, Le Moual N, Camargo CA.
        Am J Ind Med. 2019 Nov 6.
        BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfectants among healthcare workers has been associated with respiratory health effects, in particular, asthma. However, most studies are cross-sectional and the role of disinfectant exposures in asthma development requires longitudinal studies. We investigated the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants and incident asthma in a large cohort of U.S. female nurses. METHODS: The Nurses’ Health Study II is a prospective cohort of 116 429 female nurses enrolled in 1989. Analyses included 61 539 participants who were still in a nursing job and with no history of asthma in 2009 (baseline; mean age: 55 years). During 277 744 person-years of follow-up (2009-2015), 370 nurses reported incident physician-diagnosed asthma. Occupational exposure was evaluated by questionnaire and a Job-Task-Exposure Matrix (JTEM). We examined the association between disinfectant exposure and subsequent asthma development, adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and body mass index. RESULTS: Weekly use of disinfectants to clean surfaces only (23% exposed) or to clean medical instruments (19% exposed) was not associated with incident asthma (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for surfaces, 1.12 [0.87-1.43]; for instruments, 1.13 [0.87-1.48]). No association was observed between high-level exposure to specific disinfectants/cleaning products evaluated by the JTEM (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol quats, or enzymatic cleaners) and asthma incidence. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of late career nurses, we observed no significant association between exposure to disinfectants and asthma incidence. A potential role of disinfectant exposures in asthma development warrants further study among healthcare workers at earlier career stage to limit the healthy worker effect.

      2. [No abstract]

      3. Notes from the Field: Unexplained dermatologic, respiratory, and ophthalmic symptoms among health care personnel at a hospital – West Virginia, November 2017-January 2018external icon
        Lucas TJ, Holodniy M, de Perio MA, Perkins KM, Benowitz I, Jackson D, Kracalik I, Grant M, Oda G, Powell KM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 8;68(44):1006-1007.

        [No abstract]

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Counter-selection of antimalarial resistance polymorphisms by intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancyexternal icon
        Huijben S, Macete E, Mombo-Ngoma G, Ramharter M, Kariuki S, Desai M, Shi YP, Mwangoka G, Massougbodji A, Cot M, Ndam NT, Uberegui E, Gupta H, Cistero P, Aponte JJ, Gonzalez R, Menendez C, Mayor A.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 2.
        BACKGROUND: Innovative approaches are needed to limit antimalarial resistance evolution. Understanding the role of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) on the selection for resistance and the impact such selection has on pregnancy outcomes can guide future interventions. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n = 914) from 2 randomized clinical trials were screened for pfmdr1 copy number variation and pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps resistance markers. The trials were conducted between 2010 and 2013 in Benin, Gabon, Kenya, and Mozambique to establish the efficacy of IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) compared with IPTp-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and to IPTp-placebo in HIV-infected women. RESULTS: In HIV-uninfected women, the prevalence of pfcrt mutants, pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutants, and pfmdr1 copy number was similar between women receiving IPT-SP and IPTp-MQ. However, prevalence of pfmdr1 polymorphism 86Y was lower in the IPTp-MQ group than in the IPTp-SP group, and within the IPTp-MQ group it was lower at delivery compared with recruitment. No effect of IPTp-MQ on resistance markers was observed among HIV-infected women. The carriage of resistance markers was not associated with pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Selection of wild-type pfmdr1 polymorphism N86 by IPTp-MQ highlights the strong selective pressure IPTp can exert and the opportunity for using negative cross-resistance in drug choice for clinical treatment and IPTp.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. A novel approach for workforce surveillance at the US Department of Health and Human Servicesexternal icon
        Abeysekara P, Coronado F, Glynn MK, Simone PM.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Oct 31.
        BACKGROUND: Expert groups have recommended ongoing monitoring of the public health workforce to determine its ability to execute designated objectives. Resource- and time-intensive surveys have been a primary data source to monitor the workforce. We evaluated an administrative data source containing US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) aggregate federal civil service workforce-related data to determine its potential as a workforce surveillance system for this component of the workforce. METHODS: We accessed FedScope, a publicly available online database containing federal administrative civilian HHS personnel data. Using established guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems and identified workforce characteristics, we evaluated FedScope attributes for workforce surveillance purposes. RESULTS: We determined FedScope to be a simple, highly accepted, flexible, stable, and timely system to support analyses of federal civil service workforce-related data. Data can be easily accessed, analyzed, and monitored for changes across years and draw conclusions about the workforce. FedScope data can be used to calculate demographics (eg, sex, race or ethnicity, age group, and education level), employment characteristics (ie, supervisory status, work schedule, and appointment type), retirement projections, and characterize the federal workforce into standard occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that an administrative data source containing HHS personnel data can function as a workforce surveillance system valuable to researchers, public health leaders, and decision makers interested in the federal civil service public health workforce. Using administrative data for workforce development is a model that can be applicable to federal and nonfederal public health agencies and ultimately support improvements in public health.

      2. Understanding the dynamics of diversity in the public health workforceexternal icon
        Coronado F, Beck AJ, Shah G, Young JL, Sellers K, Leider JP.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Oct 31.

        [No abstract]

      3. Changing leadership behaviors in a public health agency through coaching and multirater feedbackexternal icon
        Dean HD, Myles RL, Porch T, Parris S, Spears-Jones C.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Oct 31.
        CONTEXT: Public health managers’ leadership skills can be improved through multirater feedback and coaching. OBJECTIVE: To explore to what extent participation in a coaching intervention influences leadership behaviors of first- and second-level leaders in a federal public health agency. DESIGN: Team leads and branch chiefs in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) were invited to participate in the Coaching and Leadership Initiative (CaLI), which incorporates the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Leadership 360 assessment, 6 coaching sessions, and 2 in-depth interviews. SETTING: NCHHSTP is one of 16 CDC national centers, institute, and offices. PARTICIPANTS: Staff serving as team leads or branch chiefs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two in-depth interviews explored CaLI’s influence on leadership behaviors regarding the government-wide Leading People executive core qualification. RESULTS: A total of 103 (93%) CaLI participants completed the OPM 360 feedback, 82 (80%) completed leadership coaching; 71 of 82 (87%) completed phase 1 interview, and 46 of 71 (65%) completed phase 2 interview. Eighty unique participants completed 1 or more interviews; all indicated that CaLI helped provide new perspectives, practices, and approaches that led to better communication and relationships, different approaches to conflict resolution, and awareness of individual leadership practices. Of the 71 participants who completed phase 1 evaluation, 66 (93%) said they made changes in developing others, 56 (79%) completed conflict management and team building, and 16 (23%) completed leveraging diversity. Of the 46 participants who completed both phase 1 and phase 2 interviews and among those who made changes post-CaLI, 23 of 26 (88%) sustained those leadership changes in developing others, 21 of 27 (78%) in team building; 24 of 34 (71%) in conflict management; and 5 of 10 (50%) in leveraging diversity. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the benefits and effectiveness of using multirater feedback and leadership coaching for first- and midlevel public health leaders.

    • Statistics as Topic
      1. [No abstract]

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. E-cigarette use among youth in the United States, 2019external icon
        Cullen KA, Gentzke AS, Sawdey MD, Chang JT, Anic GM, Wang TW, Creamer MR, Jamal A, Ambrose BK, King BA.
        Jama. 2019 Nov 5.
        Importance: The prevalence of e-cigarette use among US youth increased from 2011 to 2018. Continued monitoring of the prevalence of e-cigarette and other tobacco product use among youth is important to inform public health policy, planning, and regulatory efforts. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use among US high school and middle school students in 2019 including frequency of use, brands used, and use of flavored products. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analyses of a school-based nationally representative sample of 19018 US students in grades 6 to 12 participating in the 2019 National Youth Tobacco Survey. The survey was conducted from February 15, 2019, to May 24, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported current (past 30-day) e-cigarette use estimates among high school and middle school students; frequent use (>/=20 days in the past 30 days) and usual e-cigarette brand among current e-cigarette users; and use of flavored e-cigarettes and flavor types among current exclusive e-cigarette users (no use of other tobacco products) by school level and usual brand. Prevalence estimates were weighted to account for the complex sampling design. Results: The survey included 10097 high school students (mean [SD] age, 16.1 [3.0] years; 47.5% female) and 8837 middle school students (mean [SD] age, 12.7 [2.8] years; 48.7% female). The response rate was 66.3%. An estimated 27.5% (95% CI, 25.3%-29.7%) of high school students and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.4%-11.8%) of middle school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among current e-cigarette users, an estimated 34.2% (95% CI, 31.2%-37.3%) of high school students and 18.0% (95% CI, 15.2%-21.2%) of middle school students reported frequent use, and an estimated 63.6% (95% CI, 59.3%-67.8%) of high school students and 65.4% (95% CI, 60.6%-69.9%) of middle school students reported exclusive use of e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, an estimated 59.1% (95% CI, 54.8%-63.2%) of high school students and 54.1% (95% CI, 49.1%-59.0%) of middle school students reported JUUL as their usual e-cigarette brand in the past 30 days; among current e-cigarette users, 13.8% (95% CI, 12.0%-15.9%) of high school students and 16.8% (95% CI, 13.6%-20.7%) of middle school students reported not having a usual e-cigarette brand. Among current exclusive e-cigarette users, an estimated 72.2% (95% CI, 69.1%-75.1%) of high school students and 59.2% (95% CI, 54.8%-63.4%) of middle school students used flavored e-cigarettes, with fruit, menthol or mint, and candy, desserts, or other sweets being the most commonly reported flavors. Conclusions and Relevance: In 2019, the prevalence of self-reported e-cigarette use was high among high school and middle school students, with many current e-cigarette users reporting frequent use and most of the exclusive e-cigarette users reporting use of flavored e-cigarettes.

      2. Characteristics and current clinical practices of opioid treatment programs in the United Statesexternal icon
        Jones CM, Byrd DJ, Clarke TJ, Campbell TB, Ohuoha C, McCance-Katz EF.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Oct 17;205:107616.
        BACKGROUND: Given rising rates of opioid use disorder (OUD) and related consequences, opioid treatment programs (OTPs) can play a pivotal role in the U.S. opioid crisis. There is a paucity of recent research to guide how best to leverage OTPs in the opioid response. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of U.S. OTPs using a 46-question electronic survey instrument covering three domains: 1) OTP characteristics; 2) services offered; and 3) current clinical practices. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression examined variables in these domains. RESULTS: Among responding OTPs, 32.4% reported using all three medications for OUD treatment; 95.8% used methadone, 61.8% used buprenorphine, and 43.9% used naltrexone. The mean (SD) number of patients currently receiving methadone was 383 (20.4), buprenorphine 51 (7.0), extended-release naltrexone 6 (1.0). Viral hepatitis testing was provided by 60.9% of OTPs, 15.3% provided hepatitis B vaccination, 14.9% provided hepatitis A vaccination, and 12.6% provided medication treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. HIV testing was provided by 60.7% of OTPs, 9.5% provided pre-exposure prophylaxis, and 8.4% provided medication treatment for HIV. OTP characteristics associated with using all three forms of medications for OUD included: providing medication for alcohol use disorder (aOR=5.24, 95% CI:2.99-9.16), providing telemedicine services (aOR=3.82, 95% CI:2.14-6.84), and directly providing naloxone to patients (aOR=2.57, 95% CI:1.53-4.29). Multiple barriers to providing buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to increase availability of all medications approved to treat OUD in OTPs, integrate infectious disease-related services, and expand the reach of OTPs in the U.S.

      3. PURPOSE: Using cross-sectional data, we measured the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and subsequent initiation and sustained use of cigarettes among U.S. youth. METHODS: Data were pooled from the 2015-2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based survey of U.S. students in grades 6-12. Questions on current age and age of first use of different tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco) were used to ascertain the temporal sequence of tobacco product use. The pooled study population was 52,579 youth who 5 years before the survey had never smoked cigarettes. E-cigarette users were defined as those who used e-cigarettes before or without ever smoking cigarettes. Cigarette smoking was assessed with the following measures: ever smoking a cigarette at any time within the past 5 years and sustained smoking (smoked >/=1 year ago and within past 30 days). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated, controlling for other tobacco product use and sociodemographics. RESULTS: Among never cigarette smokers as of 5 years before the survey, 17.4% used e-cigarettes, and 15.6% first smoked within the past 5 years. Compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes, those who used e-cigarettes had higher odds of ever smoking cigarettes within the past 5 years (AOR = 2.73) and had higher odds of sustained smoking (AOR = 1.55; all p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use is associated with subsequent initiation and sustained use of cigarettes among youth. Efforts are warranted to reduce youth use of all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.

      4. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in relation to family characteristics, stressors and chemical co-exposures in California girlsexternal icon
        Windham GC, Soriano JW, Dobraca D, Sosnoff CS, Hiatt RA, Kushi LH.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 30;16(21).
        Childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes and may disproportionately burden lower socioeconomic status groups, exacerbating health disparities. We explored associations of demographic factors, stressful life events, and chemical co-exposures, with cotinine levels, among girls in the CYGNET Study. Data were collected from families of girls aged 6-8 years old in Northern California, through clinic exams, questionnaires and biospecimens (n = 421). Linear regression and factor analysis were conducted to explore predictors of urinary cotinine and co-exposure body burdens, respectively. In unadjusted models, geometric mean cotinine concentrations were higher among Black (0.59 ug/g creatinine) than non-Hispanic white (0.27), Asian (0.32), or Hispanic (0.34) participants. Following adjustment, living in a rented home, lower primary caregiver education, and lack of two biologic parents in the home were associated with higher cotinine concentrations. Girls who experienced parental separation or unemployment in the family had higher unadjusted cotinine concentrations. Higher cotinine was also associated with higher polybrominated diphenyl ether and metals concentrations. Our findings have environmental justice implications as Black and socio-economically disadvantaged young girls experienced higher ETS exposure, also associated with higher exposure to other chemicals. Efforts to reduce ETS and co-exposures should account for other disparity-related factors.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Partnerships involved in public health testing for Zika virus in Florida, 2016external icon
        Heberlein-Larson L, Gillis LD, Morrison A, Scott B, Cook M, Cannons A, Quaye E, White S, Cone M, Mock V, Schiffer J, Lonsway D, Petway M, Otis A, Stanek D, Hamilton J, Crowe S.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 Nov/Dec;134(2_suppl):43s-52s.
        The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas in 2015 and its association with birth defects and other adverse health outcomes triggered an unprecedented public health response and a demand for testing. In 2016, when Florida exceeded state public health laboratory capacity for diagnostic testing, the state formed partnerships with federal and commercial laboratories. Eighty-two percent of the testing (n = 33 802 of 41 008 specimens) by the laboratory partners, including Florida’s Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL; n = 13 074), a commercial laboratory (n = 19 214), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; n = 1514), occurred from July through November 2016, encompassing the peak period of local transmission. These partnerships allowed BPHL to maintain acceptable test turnaround times of 1 to 4 days for nucleic acid testing and 3 to 7 days for serologic testing. Lessons learned from this response to inform future outbreaks included the need for early planning to establish outside partnerships, adding specimen triage strategies to surge plans, and integrating state and CDC information systems.

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