U.S. Outbreaks Associated with Drug Diversion by Healthcare Providers, 1983-2013

drug diversion

These outbreaks revealed gaps in prevention, detection, or response to drug diversion in U.S. healthcare facilities. Healthcare facilities should have strong narcotics security measures and active monitoring systems to prevent and detect diversion activities. Appropriate response by healthcare facilities includes assessment of harm to patients, consultation with public health officials when tampering with injectable medication is suspected, and prompt reporting to law and other enforcement agencies.

Timeline References
  1. Maki DG, Klein BS, McCormick RD, et al. Nosocomial Pseudmonas pickettii bacteremias traced to narcotic tampering: a case for selective drug screening of health care personnel.external iconJAMA. 1991;265(8):981-986.
  2. Sehulster L, Taylor J, Hendricks K, VanEgdom M, Whitely S, Manning S. Hepatitis C outbreak linked to narcotic tampering in an ambulatory surgical center [Abstract]. Program and Abstracts of the 37th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC:American Society for Microbiology. 1997;293.
  3. Ostrowsky BE, Whitener C, Bredenberg HK, et al. Serratia marcescens bacteremia traced to an infused narcotic.external icon N Engl J Med. 2002;346(20):1529-1537.
  4. Lee KC, Scoville S, Taylor R, et al. Outbreak of acute hepatitis c virus (HCV) infections of two different genotypes associated with an HCV-infected anesthetist [Abstract]. Poster session at 43rd Annual Infectious Diseases Society of American Annual Conference. San Francisco, CA; October 8, 2005.
  5. Schaefer MK, Perz JF. Outbreaks of infections associated with drug diversion by healthcare personnel, United Statesexternal iconMayo Clinic Proceedings.2014; 89 (6).
  6. Behrens-Muller B, Conway J, Yoder J, Conover CS. Investigation and control of an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia.external iconInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(2):180-184.
  7. Hellinger WC, Bacalis LP, Kay RS, Thompson ND, Xia GL, Lin Y, Khudyakov YE, Perz JF. Health care–associated hepatitis C virus infections attributed to narcotic diversionexternal iconAnn Intern Med. 2012; 156:477-82.
  8. Ramer, H. . Hepatitis C tests continue after NH tech’s arrest. HuffingtonPost. December 22, 2012.
  9. Minnesota Department of Health, Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Division. Outbreak of gram-negative bacteremia at St. Cloud Hospital. Investigation Summary, Minnesota Department of Health, 2011 pdf icon[PDF – 27 pages]external icon. Sept 14, 2012.
  10. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health Services. State of New Hampshire hepatitis C outbreak investigation Exeter Hospital public report pdf icon[PDF – 176 pages]external icon. June 2013.
  11. Kansas Department of Health and Environment. 2012 News Release. State health officials provide update in the case of potential hepatitis C exposures at Hays Medical Centerexternal icon. August 2012.
  12. Walker AK. 1,750 had possible contact with technician with hepatitis Cexternal icon. Baltimore Sun. August 12, 2012.