Data and Statistics
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Prevalence (IBD) in the United States
Some people were more likely to report having IBD, including those:
- Aged 45 years or older
- Hispanic or non-Hispanic white
- With less than a high school level of education
- Not currently employed
- Born in the United States (compared with adults born outside of the United States)
- Living in poverty
- Living in suburban areas
This estimate does not include children younger than 18 years, who may also have IBD. Most people with IBD are diagnosed in their 20s and 30s.
On the basis of the National Inpatient Sample data, there was no significant change in the hospitalization rate when Crohn’s disease was the primary diagnosis from 2003 to 2013. The hospitalization rate, however, increased significantly during this period from 44.2 to 59.7 per 100,000 population when it was listed as any secondary diagnosis.3 The mean hospitalization costs were $11,345 for Crohn’s disease and $13,412 for ulcerative colitis. From 2003 to 2008, total hospitalization costs increased annually by 3% for Crohn’s disease and 4% for ulcerative colitis but remained unchanged for both diseases from 2008 to 2014.4
Compared with adults without IBD, those with IBD are more likely to have certain chronic health conditions that include:
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
- Respiratory disease
- Kidney disease
- Liver disease
A study based on Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older found that older adults with IBD were more likely to be hospitalized for hip fractures and have 30-day readmissions and longer hospital stays.6 Therefore, screening for osteoporosis, exercise interventions to prevent fallexternal icon, and comprehensive inpatient care are important for this population.
In addition, clinicians should be aware of potential health-risk behaviors that are more prevalent among adults with IBD than those without, such as:
- Not getting enough sleep
- Not meeting aerobic nor muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelinesexternal icon5
Since IBD is associated with various chronic and infectious conditions, preventive care is an essential aspect of lifelong disease management. The American College of Gastroenterology published clinical guidelines for disease prevention among people with IBD.7 The first U.S. population-based study using 2015 and 2016 National Health Interview Survey results reported that adults with IBD were more likely than adults without IBD to receive preventive care services, which included:
- Receiving medical advice about smoking cessation and healthy diet
- Having colon cancer screening in the past 12 months
- Having ever had an HIV test
- Having ever had a pneumococcal vaccine
- Having received a flu vaccine in the past 12 months
- Having received a tetanus vaccine in the past 10 years.8
- Dahlhamer JM, Zammitti EP, Ward BW, Wheaton AG, Croft JB. Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease among adults aged ≥18 years—United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(42):1166–1169. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6542a3.htm. Accessed May 2, 2018.
- Nguyen GC, Chong CA, Chong RY. National estimates of the burden of inflammatory bowel disease among racial and ethnic groups in the United States. J Crohns Colitis. 2014;8:288–295. DOI: https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/article/8/4/288/386357external icon. Accessed May 2, 2018.
- Malarcher CA, Wheaton AG, Liu Y et al. Hospitalization for Crohn’s Disease—United States, 2003–2013. MMWR. 2017;66(14):377-381. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6614a1.htm. Accessed May 2, 2018.
- Xu F, Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Rabarison KM, Croft JB. Trends and factors associated with hospitalization costs for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2018; DOI: 10.1007/s40258-018-0432-4.
- Xu F, Dahlhamer JM, Zammitti EP, Wheaton AG, Croft JB. Health-risk behaviors and chronic conditions among adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease—United States, 2015 and 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(6):190–195. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6706a4.htm. Accessed May 2, 2018.
- Xu F, Wheaton AG, Barbour KE, Liu Y, Greenlund KJ. Trends and outcomes of hip fracture among Medicare beneficiaries with inflammatory bowel disease, 2000–2017. Dig Dis Sci. 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s10620-020-06476-z.
- Farraye FA, Melmed GY, Lichtenstein GR, Kane SV. ACG clinical guideline: preventive care in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(2):241-258. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2016.537.
- Xu F, Dahlhamer JM, Terlizzi EP, Wheaton AG, Croft JB. Receipt of preventive care services among US adults with inflammatory bowel disease, 2015—2016. Dig Dis Sci. 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s10620-019-05494-w.