Data and Statistics
Quick Stats on HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STIs, and TB Among Justice-Involved Persons
According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, over 5 million people are estimated to be under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems (in prison or jail, or on probation or parole). Many persons who are justice-involved experience multiple risk factors for HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and tuberculosis (TB). The prevalence for these infections and diseases among people who are incarcerated is higher than in the general population.
- In 2021, about 1.1% of persons incarcerated in state and federal prisons were known to be persons with HIV; this rate was three times higher than the prevalence in the general U.S. population.
- In 2021, 16 U.S. states conducted mandatory HIV testing of all persons under state law enforcement custody, and 23 states and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons offered opt-out HIV testing, accounting for 84% of all persons admitted and sentenced to more than 1 year in the custody of state and federal correctional authorities.
- In a 2013 survey of women across 20 metropolitan areas with high HIV prevalence, women who were recently incarcerated were significantly more likely to have factors that increase their risk for HIV infection than those who were never incarcerated, including receiving money or drugs in exchange for sex with a partner, multiple casual partners, multiple casual condomless partners, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis.
More information on HIV Surveillance in the United States.
- In 2009, a systematic review of 23 studies from incarcerated populations in the U.S. reported a wide chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence range of 0.9%–11.4%.
- HBV prevalence has been estimated to be 3 to 38 times higher in correctional settings than in the general population in 2009.
- From 2013–2016, people who were incarcerated were estimated to have a rate of current hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 10 times higher (10.7% vs 1%) than persons in the general population.
- Approximately 30% of all persons infected with HCV in the United States spend at least part of the year in correctional facilities
More information on viral hepatitis surveillance in the United States.
- Males and females 35 years of age and younger in juvenile and adult detention facilities have been reported to have higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than nonincarcerated persons in the community.
- Jail-based chlamydia screen-and-treat programs can potentially decrease chlamydia prevalence in communities with higher incarceration rates —as much as 13% in large communities and 54% in small communities.
More information on STIs among persons detained or incarcerated.
- In 2021, 2.4% of persons 15 years of age or older diagnosed with TB disease were current residents of correctional facilities at the time of diagnosis.
- From 2003–2013, annual median TB incidence was about 6 times higher for persons in jails and federal prisons compared with the general population.
- An analysis during 2011–2019 demonstrated that large TB outbreaks still occur in state prisons and account for a large proportion of total TB cases in some states.
For more information on TB cases by residence in and type of correctional facility.
- LM Maruschak. HIV in Prisons, 2021—Statistical Tables. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, DC (Published May 2022). https://bjs.ojp.gov/document/hivp21st.pdf , Accessed 16 Mar 2023
- Wise A, Finlayson T, Nerlander L, Sionean C, Paz-Bailey G; NHBS Study Group. Incarceration, Sexual Risk-related Behaviors, and HIV Infection Among Women at Increased Risk of HIV Infection, 20 United States cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 1;75 Suppl 3:S261-S267. Incarceration, Sexual Risk-Related Behaviors, and HIV Infection Among Women at Increased Risk of HIV Infection, 20 United States Cities – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Harzke AJ, Goodman KJ, Mullen PD, Baillargeon J. Heterogeneity in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Seroprevalence Estimates from U.S. Adult Incarcerated Populations. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(9):647-650. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.04.001. Heterogeneity in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Seroprevalence Estimates from U.S. Adult Incarcerated Populations | Elsevier Enhanced Reader
- Roberts H, Kruszon-Moran D, Ly KN, Hughes E, Iqbal K, Jiles RB, Holmberg SD. Prevalence of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in U.S. Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988-2012. Hepatology. 2016 Feb;63(2):388-97. doi: 10.1002/hep.28109. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PMID: 26251317. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in U… : Hepatology (lww.com)
- Hofmeister MG, Rosenthal EM, Barker LK, et al. Estimating Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the United States, 2013-2016. Hepatology. 2019;69(3):1020-1031. doi:10.1002/hep.30297. Estimating Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the United States, 2013-2016 – PubMed (nih.gov)
- CDC 2021 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Treatment Guidelines: Persons in Correctional Facilities
- Bernstein KT, Chow JM, Pathela P, Gift TL. Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening Outside the Clinic–Implications for the Modern Sexually Transmitted Disease Program. Sex Transm Dis. 2016;43(2 Suppl 1):S42-S52. Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening Outside the Clinic–Implications for the Modern Sexually Transmitted Disease Program – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Owusu-Edusei K Jr, Gift TL, Chesson HW, Kent CK. Investigating the potential public health benefit of jail-based screening and treatment programs for chlamydia. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Mar 1;177(5):463-73. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws240. Epub 2013 Feb 12. PMID: 23403986. Investigating the potential public health benefit of jail-based screening and treatment programs for chlamydia – PubMed (nih.gov)
- CDC Tuberculosis Data & Statistics: Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2021 in Residents of Correctional Facilities https://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2020/risk_factors.htmLambert LA, Armstrong LR, Lobato MN, Ho C, France AM, Haddad MB. Tuberculosis in Jails and Prisons: United States, 2002-2013. Am J Public Health. 2016 Dec;106(12):2231-2237. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303423. Epub 2016 Sep 15. PMID: 27631758; PMCID: PMC5104991. Tuberculosis in Jails and Prisons: United States, 2002-2013 – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Stewart RJ, Raz KM, Burns SP, Kammerer JS, Haddad MB, Silk BJ, Wortham JM. Tuberculosis Outbreaks in State Prisons, United States, 2011 – 2019. Am J Public Health. 2022, 112(8), 1170-1179. PMID: 35830666; PMCID: PMC934802. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2022.306864