Data and Statistics

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Quick Stats on HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STIs, and TB Among Justice-Involved Persons

According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, over 5 million people are estimated to be under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems (in prison or jail, or on probation or parole). Many persons who are justice-involved experience multiple risk factors for HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and tuberculosis (TB). The prevalence for these infections and diseases among people who are incarcerated is higher than in the general population.


  • In 2021, about 1.1% of persons incarcerated in state and federal prisons were known to be persons with HIV; this rate was three times higher than the prevalence in the general U.S. population.
  • In 2021, 16 U.S. states conducted mandatory HIV testing of all persons under state law enforcement custody, and 23 states and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons offered opt-out HIV testing, accounting for 84% of all persons admitted and sentenced to more than 1 year in the custody of state and federal correctional authorities.
  • In a 2013 survey of women across 20 metropolitan areas with high HIV prevalence, women who were recently incarcerated were significantly more likely to have factors that increase their risk for HIV infection than those who were never incarcerated, including receiving money or drugs in exchange for sex with a partner, multiple casual partners, multiple casual condomless partners, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis.

More information on HIV Surveillance in the United States.

Viral Hepatitis

  • In 2009, a systematic review of 23 studies from incarcerated populations in the U.S. reported a wide chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence range of 0.9%–11.4%.
  • HBV prevalence has been estimated to be 3 to 38 times higher in correctional settings than in the general population in 2009.
  • From 2013–2016, people who were incarcerated were estimated to have a rate of current hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 10 times higher (10.7% vs 1%) than persons in the general population.
  • Approximately 30% of all persons infected with HCV in the United States spend at least part of the year in correctional facilities

More information on viral hepatitis surveillance in the United States.


  • Males and females 35 years of age and younger in juvenile and adult detention facilities have been reported to have higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than nonincarcerated persons in the community.
  • Jail-based chlamydia screen-and-treat programs can potentially decrease chlamydia prevalence in communities with higher incarceration rates —as much as 13% in large communities and 54% in small communities.

More information on STIs among persons detained or incarcerated.


  • In 2021, 2.4% of persons 15 years of age or older diagnosed with TB disease were current residents of correctional facilities at the time of diagnosis.
  • From 2003–2013, annual median TB incidence was about 6 times higher for persons in jails and federal prisons compared with the general population.
  • An analysis during 2011–2019 demonstrated that large TB outbreaks still occur in state prisons and account for a large proportion of total TB cases in some states.

For more information on TB cases by residence in and type of correctional facility.