The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that infants be exclusively breastfed for about the first 6 months with continued breastfeeding while introducing appropriate complementary foods for 1 year or longer.1 The World Health Organization also recommends exclusively breastfeeding up to 6 months with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to 2 years of age or older.2
Although most infants receive some breast milk, most are not exclusively breastfeeding or continuing to breastfeed as long as recommended.
|Healthy People 2030 Breastfeeding Objectives*||Baseline||Target|
|Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed exclusively through 6 months of age.||24.9%†||42.4%|
|Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed at 1 year.||35.9%†||54.1%|
|*Healthy People 2030 Breastfeeding Objectivesexternal icon
†Baseline rates represent infants born in 2015, National Immunization Survey.
|Key Breastfeeding Indicators||Current Rates|
|Percentage of infants who are breastfed: Ever.*||83.9|
|Percentage of infants who are breastfed: At 6 months.*||56.7|
|Percentage of infants who are breastfed: At 1 year.*||35.0|
|Percentage of infants who are breastfed: Exclusively through 3 months.*||46.3|
|Percentage of infants who are breastfed: Exclusively through 6 months.*||25.8|
|Percentage of employers that have worksite lactation support programs. †||51.0|
|Percentage of breastfed newborns who receive formula supplementation within the first 2 days of life.*||19.4|
|*Current rates represent infants born in 2018, National Immunization Survey 2019–2020.
†Current rates represent employers providing an on-site lactation/mother’s room, Society for Human Resource Management, 2019 surveyexternal icon.
- Infants living in the Southeast are less likely to be breastfed at 6 months than infants living in other areas of the country (see map below).3
- Infants in rural areas are less likely to ever breastfeed than infants living in urban areas.3
- For state-by-state breastfeeding rates, please visit the Breastfeeding Rates page. Historic data are also available in DNPAO’s online Data, Trends, and Maps database.
- Fewer non-Hispanic Black infants (75.5%) are ever breastfed compared with Asian infants (92.4%), non-Hispanic White infants (85.3%) and Hispanic infants (85.0%).3
- Infants eligible for and receiving the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are less likely to ever be breastfed (76.9%) than infants eligible, but not receiving WIC (83.3%), and infants ineligible for WIC (91.6%).3
- Younger mothers aged 20 to 29 years are less likely to ever breastfeed (81.2%) than mothers aged 30 years or older (85.9%).3
Sixty percent of mothers do not breastfeed for as long as they intend to.4 How long a mother breastfeeds her baby (duration) is influenced by many factors including:
- Issues with lactation and latching.4
- Concerns about infant nutrition and weight.4
- Mother’s concern about taking medications while breastfeeding.4
- Unsupportive work policies and lack of parental leave.5
- Cultural norms and lack of family support.5
- Unsupportive hospital practices and policies.6
Visit The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding to learn how you can participate in a society-wide approach to support mothers and babies who are breastfeeding.
Because of the importance of breastfeeding for the health of mothers and babies, CDC supports breastfeeding through hospital initiatives, work site accommodation, continuity of care, and community support initiatives.
For more information about hospital maternity practices in the United States that support breastfeeding, read “Vital Signs: Improvements in Maternity Care Policies and Practices That Support Breastfeeding—United States, 2007–2013.”
- American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milkexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e827-841. DOI 2011-3552. Accessed August 24, 2021.
- World Health Organization. WHO Breastfeeding websiteexternal icon. Accessed August 24, 2021.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Immunization Survey (NIS) website. Accessed August 24, 2021.
- Odom EC, Li R, Scanlon KS, Perrine CG, Grummer-Strawn L. Reasons for earlier than desired cessation of breastfeedingexternal icon. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):e726–732. Accessed August 24, 2021.
- Sriraman NK, Kellams A. Breastfeeding: What are the barriers? Why women struggle to achieve their goalsexternal icon.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016;25(7):714–722. Accessed August 24, 2021.
- Feltner C, Weber RP, Stuebe A, Grodensky CA, Orr C, Viswanathan M. Breastfeeding Programs and Policies, Breastfeeding Uptake, and Maternal Health Outcomes in Developed Countries. pdf icon[PDF-343KB]external icon Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); July 2018. Accessed August 24, 2021.