Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP)
The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) was established in 1986 to monitor trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains of N. gonorrhoeae in the United States in order to establish a rational basis for the selection of gonococcal therapies. GISP is a collaborative project among selected sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics, five regional laboratories, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In GISP, N. gonorrhoeae isolates are collected from up to the first 25 men with urethral gonorrhea attending STD clinics each month in 26 cities in the United States. At regional laboratories, the susceptibilities of these isolates to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and azithromycin are determined by agar dilution. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are measured, and values are interpreted according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
- GISP Protocol (Updated February 17, 2015)
- 2012 STD Surveillance Report - Gonorrhea (overall GISP data)
- 2012 GISP Profiles (site-specific GISP data)
- GISP Profiles (2008-2010) and Annual Reports (1998-2007)
- Ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991–2006. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Apr
- Trends in antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States—the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), January 2006–June 2012. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2013; 89(Suppl 4): iv5–iv10.
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae antibiotic resistance among men who have sex with men and men who have sex exclusively with women, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 2005–2010. Annals of Internal Medicine 2013;158(5):321–328.
- Cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea in North America. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 2013;309(2):185–187.
- Emergence of increased azithromycin resistance during unsuccessful treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with azithromycin (Portland, Oregon, 2011). Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2012;39(11):877-9. Abstract
- Update to CDC’s 2010 Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections – MMWR August 10, 2012 (August 9, 2012)
- The Emerging Threat of Untreatable Gonococcal Infection. New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 366(6):485-487.
- Cephalosporin Susceptibility Among Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates --- United States, 2000—2010 - MMWR July 8, 2011
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae with Reduced Susceptibility to Azithromycin --- San Diego County, California, 2009 – MMWR May 13, 2011
- Albuquerque, NM
- Atlanta, GA
- Baltimore, MD
- Birmingham, AL
- Boston, MA
- Buffalo, NY
- Chicago, IL
- Cleveland, OH
- Dallas, TX
- Greensboro, NC
- Honolulu, HI
- Indianapolis, IN
- Kansas City, MO
- Las Vegas, NV
- Los Angeles, CA
- Minneapolis, MN
- New Orleans, LA
- New York, NY
- Orange County, CA
- Philadelphia, PA
- Phoenix, AZ
- Pontiac, MI
- Portland, OR
- San Diego, CA
- San Francisco, CA
- Seattle, WA
- Tripler Army Medical center, Honolulu, HI
- Emory University, Atlanta, GA
- Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
- Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX
- University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL
- University of Washington, Seattle, WA