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Selected References

  • CDC. Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation---Mississippi, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010; 59(36);1165-1170.
  • CDC. Notes from the field: Transplant-transmitted Balamuthia mandrillaris---Arizona, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010; 59(36);1182
  • Cary, L.C., et al., Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: survival of a pediatric patient. Pediatrics. 2010; 125(3): p. e699-703.
  • M. Abramowicz and et al. Drugs for Parasitic Infections. The Medical Letter. 2010.
  • Martinez, D.Y., et al., Successful treatment of Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic infection with extensive neurological and cutaneous involvement. Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 51(2): p. e7-11.
  • Schuster FL, Yagi S, Gavali S. et al. Under the radar: Balamuthia amebic encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48(7):879-887.
  • CDC. Balamuthia amebic encephalitis---California 1999-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008; 57(28): p. 768-71.
  • Kiderlen, A.F., E. Radam, and A. Lewin, Detection of Balamuthia mandrillaris DNA by real-time PCR targeting the RNase P gene. BMC Microbiol. 2008; 8: p. 210.
  • Siddiqui, R. and N.A. Khan, Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis: an emerging disease with fatal consequences. Microb Pathog. 2008; 44(2): p. 89-97.
  • Schuster FL, Yagi S, Wilkins PP et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris, agent of amebic encephalitis: detection of serum antibodies and antigenic similarity of isolates by enzyme immunoassay. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008; 55:313-320.
  • Maciver, S.K., The threat from Balamuthia mandrillaris. J Med Microbiol. 2007; 56(Pt 1): p. 1-3.
  • Perez, M.T. and L.M. Bush, Balamuthia mandrillaris amebic encephalitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007; 9(4): p. 323-8.
  • Perez, M.T. and L.M. Bush, Fatal amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an immunocompetent host: a clinicopathological review of pathogenic free-living amebae in human hosts. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007; 11(6): p. 440-7.
  • Visvesvara, G.S., H. Moura, and F.L. Schuster, Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007; 50(1): p. 1-26.
  • Schuster FL Honarmand S, Visvesvara GS, Glaser CA. Detection of antibodies against free-living amebae Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. In a population of encephalitis patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 42:1260–1265.
  • Schuster, F.L., et al. Balamuthia amebic encephalitis risk, Hispanic Americans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10(8): p. 1510-2
  • Schuster, F.L. and G.S. Visvesvara, Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Int J Parasitol. 2004; 34(9): p. 1001-27.
  • Schuster, F.L. and G.S. Visvesvara, Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment. Drug Resist Updat. 2004; 7(1): p. 41-51.
  • Bravo, F. and M.R. Sanchez, New and re-emerging cutaneous infectious diseases in Latin America and other geographic areas. 2003; 21(4): p. 655-68.
  • Dunnebacke, T.H., F.L Schuster, S. Yagi, and G.C. Booton, Isolation of Balamuthia amebas from the environment. 2003; 50(Suppl.): p. 510-1.
  • Huang, Z.H., A. Ferrante, and R.F. Carter, Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 1999; 179(5): p.1305-8.
  • Martinez, A.J. and G.S. Visvesvara, Free-living, amphizoic and opportunistic amebas. Brain Pathol. 1997; 7(1): p. 583-98.

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