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NHIS - Adult Tobacco Use Information

Smoking Status Recodes

Description of Smoking Status Recodes

Questions about lifetime and current cigarette smoking have been asked on the NHIS questionnaire since 1965. For the earliest years (1965 and 1966) no recodes were included on the data files (although the SAS code for constructing them is included here). The original smoking variable for the question “Have you ever smoked 100 cigarettes in your lifetime?” is on the data file, along with a variable for the number of cigarettes usually smoked. The original screener question “Do you smoke now?”, however, was omitted from these early data files.

Smoking status recodes were first added to the public use data files in 1970. From 1970 through 1980, the data files contained only the recodes and not the original variables. Beginning in 1983, the next year in which smoking questions were asked, both the original smoking variables and their recodes were included on the data files.

The basic NHIS cigarette smoking questions consist of a screener question “Have you ever smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?” and a follow-up question about current smoking practices. Before 1991, the follow-up question was simply “Do you smoke now?” Beginning in 1991, the NHIS first asked specifically about non-daily smoking with follow-up questions for all who answered the screener question “Do you smoke now?” In 1992, the NHIS transitioned to new question wording that that continues to this day: “Do you smoke every day, some days, or not at all?” For adults who smoked less than daily, information is collected on the number of days they smoked during the past 30 days and the number of cigarettes smoked on those days. For data years, 1997-2003, this additional detail about smoking habits was summarized in recodes on the public use data files. For years 2004 and later, the recode with this additional detail (SMKSTAT3) was discontinued, although the primary variables continue to be available on the data files.

The NHIS smoking status recodes are shown here. For data years 1970-1995, smoking status recodes are identified by filename and ASCII file location — separately for each year. For years 1987-1995, both ASCII file location and variable names are shown. [Variable names were first included on NHIS data file documentation in 1987.] No smoking information was collected in 1996.

In 1997, there was a major change to data collection and processing procedures. At this time, there was a transition to identifying variables in the data file documentation by variable name instead of ASCII file location, although ASCII files continued to be available. For this reasons, the recodes described in this section are identified only by their variable names for data years since 1997. Three recodes (SMKSTAT1, SMKSTAT2, and SMKSTAT3) are available on the Sample Adult data files for data years 1997-2003. Because they are identical across years, they appear only once in the list below. For data years 2004 forward, the number of smoking status recodes was reduced to only one of the three (SMKSTAT2), although SMKSTAT1 can be easily reconstructed using SMKSTAT2; SMKSTAT3 can be reconstructed from variables on the data files.

 

List of Smoking Status Recodes in the NHIS, by Year

Smoking recodes are identified in various ways in the list below due to variations in data file documentation for the different years:

    1. 1997 forward: SAS variable name (only);
    2. 1987-1995: both ASCII file location and SAS variable name [no smoking questions in 1996];
    3. 1970-1985: ASCII file location (only) [no smoking recodes prior to 1970].

 


2004–forward - Sample Adult File, Adult Health Behaviors Section, SAMADULT.DAT 

 

SMKSTAT2 - Smoking Status Recode 2.

            1  Current every day smoker

            2  Current some day smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Never smoker

            5  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

The SMKSTAT1 and SMKSTAT3 recodes were deleted beginning in 2004 in order to reduce the number of recodes in the dataset.  SMKSTAT1 can be reconstructed from SMKSTAT2.


 1997-2003  - Sample Adult File, Adult Health Behaviors Section, SAMADULT.DAT

 

SMKSTAT1 - Smoking Status Recode 1.

            1  Current smoker

            2  Former smoker

            3  Never smoker

            4  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

SMKSTAT2 - Smoking Status Recode 2.

            1  Current every day smoker

            2  Current some day smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Never smoker

            5  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

SMKSTAT3 - Smoking Status Recode 3.

            1 Current every day smoker

            2  Current some day smoker (1+ days past mo)

            3  Current some day smoker (0 days past mo)

            4  Current some day smoker (unknown days past mo)

            5  Former smoker

            6  Never smoker

            7  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked


1996 – no smoking questions


1995 - Year 2000 Objectives Supplement, Section A – Tobacco, YEAR2000.DAT

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 1,  column 408

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current every day smoker

            2  Current some day smoker 

            3  Former smoker

            4  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 2, column 409

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker (every day + some days)

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 3, column 410

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current every day smoker

            2  Current some day smoker (1+ days past month)

            3  Current some day smoker (0 days past month)

            4  Current some day smoker (unknown if smoked in past month)

            5  Smoker, current status unknown

            6  Former smoker

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 


1994 - Year 2000 Objectives Supplement, Section B – Tobacco,  YEAR2000.DAT

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 1, column 369

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            4  Has smoked, DK if smokes now

            9  DK if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 2, column 370

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker (every day + some days)

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, DK smoking status

            9  DK if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 3, column 371

            0  Never smoked

            1  Smokes every day

            2  Smokes some days (1+ days past month)

            3  Smokes some days (0 days past month)

            4  Smokes some days now (DK days in past month)

            5  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            6  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            9  DK if ever smoked

 


1993 - Year 2000 Objectives Supplement, Section YB – Tobacco,  YEAR2000.DAT

 

Current Smoking Status (expanded categories), column 354

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            4  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status, (collapsed categories) column 355

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker (every day + some days)

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, DK unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 


1992 - Cancer Epidemiology Supplement,  Section H – Smoking Habits CANCEPID.DAT

 

SMOKSTR1 - Current Smoking Status Recode 1,   (expanded categories), column 1185

WARNING, not equivalent to SMOKSTR1 IN 1992 Cancer Control File

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            4  Has smoked, DK if smokes now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

 

SMOKSTR2 - Current Smoking Status Recode 2, column 1186

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker (every day + some days)

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

 

SMOKSTR3 - Current Smoking Status Recode 3), column 1187

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days (1+ days in past month)

            3  Now smokes some days (0 days in past month)

            4  Now smokes some days (unknown number of days in past month)

            5  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            6  Does not smoke at all now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 


 1992 - Cancer Control Supplement   Section T – Smoking Habits, CANCCNTL.DAT

 

SMOKSTR1 - Current Smoking Status Recode 1 (expanded categories) column 790

WARNING: not equivalent to SMOKSTR1 IN 1992 Cancer Epidemiology File

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Has smoked, unknown how often

            4  Has smoked, does not smoke at all

            5  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

SMOKSTR2 - Current Smoking Status Recode 2, column 791

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 


1991 - Health Promotion Disease Prevention Supplement, Section F – Tobacco, HPDPSAMP.DAT

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 1, column 364

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Now smokes, unknown if some days or every day

            4  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            5  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 2, column 365

            0  Never smoked

            1  Current smoker

            2  Former smoker

            3  Smoker, unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 

Current Smoking Status Recode 3, column 366

            0  Never smoked

            1  Now smokes every day

            2  Now smokes some days (1+ days in past month)

            3  Now smokes some days (0 days in past month)

            4  Now smokes (DK number of days in past month)

            5  Has smoked, unknown if smokes now

            6  Has smoked, does not smoke at all now

            9  Unknown if ever smoked

 


1990 - Health Promotion Disease Prevention Supplement,  Section X – Smoking,

HPDPSAMP.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 699

            1  Current smoker

            2  Former regular smoker

            3  Former occasional smoker

            4  Never smoked

            5  Smoker, current smoking status unknown

            9  Unknown smoking status

 


1989 – no population smoking questions


1988 - Occupational Health Supplement,  Section N8 – Cigarette Smoking,  OCHEALTH.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 1520

            1  Never smoked 100 cigarettes

            2  Former occasional

            3  Former regular

            4  Current occasional

            5  Current regular

            7  Occasional smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown smoking status (includes dummy records)

 


 1987 - Cancer Control Supplement, HIS-1A Section T – Smoking Habits, CANCCNTL.DAT

 

SMSTR1 - Smoking Status Recode 1, column 975

            0  Never smoked 100 cigarettes

            1  Smoked 100 cigarettes but never smoked regularly

            2  Now smokes some days

            3  Former, occasional

            4  Former, regular

            5  Current

            6  Smoker, current status unknown

            9  Unknown

 

 

SMSTR2 - Smoking Status Recode 2, column 976

            1  Never

            2  Former

            3  Current

            9  Unknown

 


1987 - Cancer Epidemiology Supplement, HIS-1B Epidemiology Study,

              Section EE – Smoking Habits CANCEPID.DAT

 

SMKSTSR1 - Smoking Status Recode, column 1052

            1  Never

            2  Former

            3  Current

            9  Unknown (includes never smoked regularly)


1986 – no smoking questions


1985 - Health Promotion Disease Prevention Supplement, Section S – Smoking, HPDPSAMP.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 653

            1  Current smoker

            2  Former regular smoker

            3  Former occasional smoker

            4  Never smoked

            5  Smoker, unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown smoking status

 


1984 – no smoking questions


 1983 Alcohol/Health Practices Supplement Section O, ALCOHOLH.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 230

            1  Never smoked

            2  Current regular smoker

            3  Current occasional smoker

            4  Former regular smoker

            5  Former occasional smoker

            6  Smokers, unknown current smoking status

            9  Unknown smoking status  

 

[1983 is the first year for which the answer to the screening question (ever smoked 100 cigarettes) was reported.  In the previous years, only the recode was put on the public use file, not the responses to the individual component questions.]

 


1982 – no smoking questions                   


1981 – no smoking questions


 1980 -  Smoking Supplement, SMOKINGX.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 323

            1  Never smoked

            2  Occasional smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Present smoker

            5  Smoker – present smoking status unknown

            6  Smoking status unknown

 

[The 1980 Smoking Supplement questionnaire was not published with the other NHIS Questionnaires. The questions are available in the tobacco questions section of this website. ]

 


 1979 – Smoking Supplement, SMOKINGX.DAT

 

 Smoking Status Recode, column 323

            1  Never smoked

            2  Occasional smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Present smoker

            5  Smoker – present smoking status unknown

            6  Smoking status unknown

 

[The 1979 Smoking Supplement questionnaire was not published with the other NHIS Questionnaires. The questions are available in the tobacco questions section of this website.]

 

 


 1978 - Smoking Supplement, SMOKINGX.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 206

            1  Never smoked

            2  Occasional smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Present smoker

            5  Smoker – present status unknown

            6  Smoking status unknown

 

[The 1978 Smoking Supplement questionnaire was not published with the other NHIS Questionnaires. The questions are available in the tobacco questions section of this website.]

 


1977 - Health Habits (H1) Supplement, H1SUPPLT.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 497

            1  Never smoked

            2  Present smoker

            3  Former smoker

            4  Smoker, unknown present smoking status

            5  Unknown if smoked

 


1976-  Health Habits Supplement, HLTHHABS.DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 497

1  Never smoked

2  Former smoker

3  Present smoker

4  Unknown

 


1975 – no smoking questions


1974  - Hypertension Supplement, HYPERTEN .DAT

 

Smoking Status Recode, column 528

            1  Never smoked

            2  Former smoker

            3  Present smoker

            4  Unknown


1973 – no smoking questions


1972 – no smoking questions


1971 – no smoking questions


1970 - Core Person  File, PERSONSX.DAT

        [Smoking questions were asked of all persons aged 17 years and over]

 

Cigarette Smoking Recode, column 462

            1  Present smoker

            2  Former smoker

            3  Never smoked

            4  DK if ever smoked

 


1969 – no smoking questions


1968– no smoking questions 


1967 – no smoking questions


1966 (FY) – Smoking supplement, SMOKINGX.DAT

The fiscal year (FY) extended from July 1, 1965 – June 30, 1966. Smoking questions were asked of all persons aged 17 years and over.

            No recodes. The smoking variables are in columns 125-134.

 


1965 (FY) – Smoking Supplement, SMOKINGX.DAT

The fiscal year (FY) extended from July 1, 1964 through June 30, 1965. Smoking questions were asked of all persons aged 17 years and over.

            No recodes. The smoking variables are in columns 125-134.


 

 

 

 

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