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Leisure-time Physical Activity Recodes

Physical activity recodes are generally not included on NHIS data files. However, SAS and Stata code are provided here to allow data users to construct recodes for adult leisure-time physical activity consistent with the indicators used to track progress toward national health objectives.

 

Sample Adult Core Leisure-Time Physical Activity (LTPA) Recodes

Since 1997, questions about usual light-moderate and usual vigorous leisure-time physical activity have been included on the NHIS Sample Adult core questionnaire. The question wording differed slightly from January-June 1997, but the questions have remained essentially unchanged since July 1997. In 2004, the phrase “leisure-time” was inserted in EACH question, (previously it appeared only in the introductory phrase for the LTPA question series.)

In addition to being used to track Healthy People Objectives, estimates based on the Sample Adult Core questions are routinely published in "Early Release of Selected Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey," "Health, United States," and "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults (beginning in 2007)."

 

Sample Adult Supplement Recodes

Prior to 1997, physical activity questions were asked in supplement questionnaires in selected years. Major Health Promotion and Disease Prevention/Healthy People Supplements were included in 1985, 1990, 1991, 1995, and 1998. Each contained a series of questions asking frequency, duration, and intensity of more than 20 leisure-time sports, exercises, and physically active hobbies. Using this information and applying estimates of kilocalorie expenditures associated with each activity, two recodes are created:

  1. KCAL - a estimate of average total kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per day over a recent two-week period, and
  2. PA_LEVEL - a categorical variable based on kilocalorie (kcal) expenditure: sedentary (kcal < 1.5), moderately active (1.5 ≤ kcal < 3.0), and very active (kcal ≥ 3.0).

The questionnaires for 1985 and 1990 were identical. Similarly, the questionnaires for 1991, 1995 and 1998 were identical. Caution should be used when studying trends that bridge the 1990 to 1991 questionnaire change. Age restrictions that were imposed for many of the leisure-time physical activities in the 1985 and 1990 questionnaires were removed beginning in 1991. Although the questions remained the same within these two time periods, valid value ranges and coding of "unknown" and "not asked" categories differed across the data years.

Description of the logic underlying the calculation of KCAL across all data years:

  • KCAL = the sum of the kilocalorie expenditures for all mentioned activities for which both frequency and duration have valid values. [If heart rate is missing, it is imputed to the lowest value for purposes of calculating the recode.]
  • Kilocalorie values for individual activities [KCALPI(I)] are calculated based on frequency, duration, and heart rate intensity during the activity. The individual KCALPI(I) values, rounded to one decimal, are then summed to create the recode KCAL, the total average daily kilocalorie expenditure over the two–week period. The values for individual activities [KCALPI(I)] are stored in the data file and may be of methodological interest but are not in themselves considered recodes.
  • If an activity is mentioned but frequency or duration is missing and no other activities are mentioned, then KCAL=99999.9.
  • If all activities are "no," then KCAL=00000.0.
  • If some activities are "no" and others are unknown, then KCAL=99999.9
  • If some or all activities were not asked (due to age or handicap), and the respondent did not volunteer that he or she engaged in the activities, "not asked" is treated as "no" for purposes of calculating KCAL. If the respondent volunteered one or more activities, his or her KCAL value is based on those volunteered activities.

A summary of the Energy Expenditures assigned in these recodes is provided.

SAS code for generating the LTPA recodes for the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (1990)/Year 2000 Objectives Supplement data files for each year:

NOTE: The recodes KCAL and PA_LEVEL exist on the 1998 NHIS Year 2000 Objectives public use data file. For consistency across data years, input variables for 1995, 1991, 1990, and 1985 have been renamed to be consistent with the 1998 naming conventions.

 

Comparison of Two Recodes: Core and Supplement Leisure-time Physical Activity Recodes (1998)

In 1998, the core and supplement questions on leisure-time physical activity were both asked of the same adult respondents during the same interview. Using the recodes specified here, the Comparison of Two Sets of Adult Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questions: 1998 National Health Interview Survey compares the two sets of questions in terms of population prevalence (Table A) and in terms of their associations with selected health status indicators (Table B). This comparison is limited to the recode for the Healthy People 2010 physical activity indicator and has not been replicated with the indicators for the Healthy People 2020 [2008 Physical Activity Guidelines] indicator.

 

Tables

Table of Energy Expenditures for Calculation of Kilocalories Recode

The following kilocalorie expenditure values are assigned in SAS programs HP98_KCAL.sas, HP95_KCAL.sas, HP91_KCAL.sas, HP90_KCAL.sas, and HP85_KCAL.sas. All variables associated with the activities are shown.

Variables Energy expenditures values corresponding to perceived heart rate change reported for the activity 1
Activity # 1991, 1995, 1998 Activity # 1985, 1990 Exercise/Activity Frequency Activity (*_T) Duration Activity (*_M) Heart Rate Change (*_H) Small or none, unknown Moderate Large
(*_I) = 1, 4, 7-9 (*_I) = 2 (*_I) = 3
Column A Column B Column C Column D Column E Column F Column G
1 1 WALK WALK_T WALK_M WALK_H 3 4 5
2 4 YARD YARD_T YARD_M YARD_H 3 5 7
3 na STRETCH STRT_T STRT_M STRT_H2 2 2 2
4 14 WTLIFT LIFT_T LIFT_M LIFT_H 3 5 7
5 2 RUN RUN_T RUN_M RUN_H 9 11 13
6 5 AEROBICS AERO_T AERO_M AERO_H 4 6 9
7 11 BIKE BIKE_T BIKE_M BIKE_H 3 7 10
8 na STAIRS STAIR_T STAIR_M STAIR_H 4 6 8
9 12 SWIM SWIM_T SWIM_M SWIM_H3 3 5 9
10 9 TENNIS TENNIS_T TENNIS_M TENNIS_H 4 6 10
11 10 BOWL BOWL_T BOWL_M4 BOWL_H4 2 2.5 3
12 8 GOLF GOLF_T GOLF_M4 GOLF_H4 3 3 3
13 16 BASEBALL BASEBL_T BASEBL_M BASEBL_H 3 4 5
14 20 RACQUET RACQ_T RACQ_M RACQ_H 6 9 12
15 na SKI_DH SKI_DH_T SKI_DH_M SKI_DH_H5 4 6 8
16 na SKI_CRS SKI_CR_T5 SKI_CR_M5 SKI_CR_H5 5 9 13
17 na SKI_WAT SKI_WA_T SKI_WA_M5 SKI_WA_H5 5 7 9
18 15 BASKETBL BASKET_T* BASKET_M BASKET_H 6 8 11
19 19 VOLLEYBL VOLLEY_T VOLLEY_M VOLLEY_H 5 6 8
20 18 SOCCER SOCCER_T SOCCER_M SOCCER_H 5 7 11
21 17 FOOTBALL FOOTBL_T FOOTBL_M FOOTBL_H 5 6 7.5
22 23 OTR_ACT1 OTR_A1_T OTR_A1_M OTR_A1_H 3 4 5
23 24 OTR_ACT2 OTR_A2_T OTR_A2_M OTR_A2_H 3 4 5
na 3 HIKE HIKE_T HIKE_M HIKE_H 3 6 8
na 6 DANCE DANCE_T DANCE_M DANCE_H 4 5 7
na 7 CALIST CALIST_T CALIST_M CALIST_H 3.5 5.5 8.5
na 13 YOGA YOGA_T YOGA_M YOGA_H 2 2 2
na 21 SKATE SKATE_T SKATE_M SKATE_H 4.5 7 10.5
na 22 SKI_DH SKI_DH_T SKI_DH_M SKI_DH_H5 4 7 10

na = not asked

1 Adapted from: Stephens T, Craig CL. Fitness and activity measurement in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. In: National Center for Health Statistics: Assessing Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Population-based Surveys. Thomas F. Drury, ed. DHHS Pub. No..(PHS) 89-1253. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989.

2 STRETCH asked only from 1991 forward. Heart rate (STRT _H) not asked but imputed.

3 The question wording differed between the two set of questions. In 1985 and 1990, the question asked about "swimming or water exercises." The value assigned for large heart rate change for these years was "7" instead of the "9" shown here. The question in 1991 and later asked about "swimming for exercise."

4 GOLF_M, GOLF_H, BOWL_M, AND BOWL_H: Duration and heart rate changes were asked in 1985 and 1990, but not in 1991, 1995, or 1998. For these later years, duration was imputed: BOWL_M= 90 minutes; GOLF_M=120 minutes, and heart rate was assigned the lowest intensity.

5 The skiing question did not specify type of skiing in 1985 or 1990, but duration and intensity were asked during these years. The variables for the 1985 and 1990 recodes are renamed to SKI_DH for convenience, although they are not identical to the variables of the same name found in the later years. In 1991, 1995, and 1998, specific types of skiing were asked: SKI_DH (downhill skiing) SKI_CR(cross-country), SKI_WA (water)], but duration and intensity were asked only for cross-country. Values for duration for the other two types were imputed: SKI_DH=120 minutes and SKI_WA=120 minutes. Heart rate intensity was coded to unknown and treated accordingly in creating the recodes.

 

Table A. Comparison of Percent Distributions for Two Leisure-Time Physical Activity Recodes

 

Table A1. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over: age-adjusted rates, 1998

 

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Adults aged 18 years and over (age adjusted)3,4 100.0 63.0 (0.39) 15.0 (0.24) 22.0 (0.31) 100.0 40.4 (0.45) 30.0 (0.34) 29.6 (0.34)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A2. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by reported health status: age-adjusted rates, 1998
Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Reported health status4,5 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Excellent or very good 100.0 56.2 (0.48) 17.0 (0.32) 26.8 (0.41) 100.0 33.6 (0.52) 31.4 (0.43) 35.0 (0.46)
Good 100.0 70.8 (0.67) 13.5 (0.46) 15.7 (0.52) 100.0 46.0 (0.72) 30.9 (0.62) 23.1 (0.59)
Fair or poor 100.0 84.0 (0.88) 8.2 (0.67) 7.9 (0.60) 100.0 65.0 (1.13) 21.9 (1.00) 13.1 (0.81)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A3. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without difficulties in physical functioning: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Difficulties in physical functioning4,6 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 81.5 (0.95) 8.6 (0.62) 9.8 (0.71) 100.0 59.0 (1.17) 25.3 (0.97) 15.7 (0.85)
No 100.0 59.8 (0.43) 16.2 (0.27) 24.1 (0.35) 100.0 37.0 (0.48) 30.9 (0.37) 32.0 (0.37)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A4. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without difficulty walking: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Difficulty walking4,7 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 90.8 (1.07) 4.7 (0.73) 4.6 (0.80) 100.0 74.6 (1.60) 17.0 (1.37) 8.5 (1.19)
No 100.0 60.9 (0.41) 15.9 (0.25) 23.2 (0.33) 100.0 37.8 (0.46) 31.0 (0.35) 31.2 (0.36)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A5. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without diabetes: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Diabetes4,8 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 72.4 (1.80) 11.5 (1.27) 16.1 (1.61) 100.0 51.0 (1.90) 27.2 (1.68) 21.7 (1.66)
No 100.0 62.5 (0.39) 15.2 (0.25) 22.3 (0.32) 100.0 39.7 (0.45) 30.2 (0.36) 30.1 (0.35)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A6. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without hypertension: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Hypertension4,9 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 68.2 (0.96) 14.3 (0.74) 17.5 (0.81) 100.0 46.4 (1.04) 29.8 (0.92) 23.9 (0.89)
No 100.0 61.7 (0.43) 15.2 (0.27) 23.0 (0.35) 100.0 39.0 (0.47) 30.2 (0.39) 30.8 (0.38)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A7. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without symptoms of serious psychological distress: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks) Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Symptoms of serious psychological distress4,10 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 77.9 (1.46) 8.7 (1.08) 13.4 (1.20) 100.0 60.3 (1.64) 22.0 (1.49) 17.7 (1.34)
No 100.0 62.6 (0.39) 15.2 (0.24) 22.2 (0.32) 100.0 39.8 (0.45) 30.2 (0.34) 30.0 (0.34)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A8. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by body mass index: age-adjusted rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Body mass index4,11 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Underweight 100.0 69.0 (2.44) 14.0 (1.92) 17.0 (1.83) 100.0 49.7 (2.31) 28.8 (2.36) 21.5 (2.02)
Healthy weight 100.0 59.6 (0.58) 15.8 (0.38) 24.5 (0.49) 100.0 36.5 (0.58) 30.4 (0.50) 33.1 (0.51)
Overweight 100.0 60.8 (0.56) 15.9 (0.39) 23.3 (0.48) 100.0 39.6 (0.61) 29.9 (0.55) 30.5 (0.58)
Obese 100.0 70.8 (0.66) 12.8 (0.50) 16.4 (0.56) 100.0 46.9 (0.83) 29.7 (0.69) 23.4 (0.64)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A9. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over: crude rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Adults aged 18 years and over (crude)3 100.0 62.9 (0.39) 15.0 (0.24) 22.1 (0.32) 100.0 40.2 (0.45) 30.0 (0.34) 29.8 (0.34)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A10. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by reported health status: crude rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Reported health status5 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Excellent or very good 100.0 55.8 (0.48) 16.8 (0.32) 27.3 (0.41) 100.0 32.7 (0.52) 31.6 (0.42) 35.6 (0.46)
Good 100.0 71.0 (0.65) 13.6 (0.45) 15.4 (0.51) 100.0 46.8 (0.70) 30.5 (0.60) 22.7 (0.56)
Fair or poor 100.0 85.2 (0.65) 7.8 (0.51) 7.0 (0.44) 100.0 68.3 (0.89) 20.1 (0.77) 11.6 (0.59)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A11. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by those with or without difficulties in physical activities: crude rates, 1998.

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Difficulties in physical activities6 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 83.5 (0.65) 8.6 (0.48) 7.9 (0.46) 100.0 64.0 (0.85) 23.3 (0.73) 12.8 (0.56)
No 100.0 59.5 (0.43) 16.1 (0.27) 24.4 (0.35) 100.0 36.4 (0.48) 31.1 (0.37) 32.5 (0.38)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A12. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, for persons with and without difficulty walking: crude rates, 1998.

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Difficulty walking7 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 92.0 (0.62) 4.6 (0.48) 3.4 (0.39) 100.0 77.6 (0.98) 16.1 (0.84) 6.2 (0.56)
No 100.0 60.6 (0.41) 15.8 (0.26) 23.5 (0.33) 100.0 37.3 (0.46) 31.1 (0.35) 31.6 (0.36)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A13. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, for persons with and without diabetes: crude rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Diabetes8 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 74.9 (1.19) 11.8 (0.87) 13.3 (0.96) 100.0 56.6 (1.35) 25.5 (1.14) 17.9 (1.05)
No 100.0 62.1 (0.39) 15.2 (0.25) 22.7 (0.32) 100.0 39.2 (0.45) 30.3 (0.36) 30.5 (0.36)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A14. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, for persons with and without hypertension: crude rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Hypertension9 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 70.9 (0.70) 13.9 (0.54) 15.2 (0.57) 100.0 50.5 (0.77) 27.8 (0.66) 21.7 (0.64)
No 100.0 61.0 (0.43) 15.3 (0.27) 23.8 (0.35) 100.0 37.7 (0.48) 30.6 (0.38) 31.7 (0.39)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A15. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, for persons with and without symptoms of psychological distress: crude rates, 1998.

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Symptoms of serious psychological distress10 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Yes 100.0 78.1 (1.48) 8.7 (1.08) 13.2 (1.20) 100.0 60.3 (1.68) 22.0 (1.48) 17.7 (1.37)
No 100.0 62.4 (0.39) 15.2 (0.25) 22.4 (0.32) 100.0 39.6 (0.45) 30.3 (0.35) 30.1 (0.34)

See footnotes at end of Table A16.

Table A16. Comparison of percent distributions of item-specific and usual leisure-time physical activity summary indicators among adults aged 18 years and over, by body mass index: crude rates, 1998

Summary (kilocalories) of 23 activities (past 2 weeks)1 Usual leisure-time physical activity2
Body mass index11 Total Sedentary (kcal < 1.5) Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) Very active (kcal≥3.0) Total Inactive Some activity, less than regular Regularly active
Percent Distribution (Standard Error) Percent Distribution (Standard Error)
Underweight 100.0 69.0 (2.27) 13.6 (1.72) 17.4 (1.82) 100.0 50.4 (2.41) 28.0 (2.24) 21.6 (1.95)
Healthy weight 100.0 59.2 (0.57) 15.8 (0.38) 25.0 (0.50) 100.0 36.0 (0.58) 30.5 (0.50) 33.5 (0.50)
Overweight 100.0 61.1 (0.56) 15.8 (0.39) 23.1 (0.48) 100.0 39.8 (0.62) 29.8 (0.55) 30.4 (0.57)
Obese 100.0 70.9 (0.66) 12.8 (0.51) 16.3 (0.56) 100.0 46.7 (0.84) 30.0 (0.69) 23.4 (0.64)

1 Based on a series of questions about frequency, duration, and intensity of 23 sports-related leisure-time physical activities during the two weeks preceding the interview. Total average daily kilocalorie expenditure was estimated. Activity level was classified as "sedentary," moderately active," or "very active" based on average daily kilocalorie expenditure over the two week period.

2 Based on a set of four questions asking about frequency and duration of light-moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity that lasted at least 10 minutes. The questions were introduced with a phrase specifying that the questions referred to leisure-time exercise, sports and physically active hobbies. Adults were classified in terms of regularity of their activity: "Inactive" refers to adults who engaged in no light-moderate or vigorous LTPA. "Some activity, less than regular" refers to adults who engaged in some activity but less than the amount needed to qualify as "regularly active." "Regularly active" adults engaged in light-moderate activity at least 5 times per week for at least 30 minutes each time or vigorous activity at least 3 times a week for at least 20 minutes each time or both.

3 Excludes adults with unknown leisure-time physical activity status.

4 Age adjusted using the 2000 projected U.S. population as the standard population with age groups: 18-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over.

5 Based on the questions: "Would you say {your/name} health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?"

6 In a series of questions, respondents were asked if they experienced difficulty performing one or more of the nine routine physical activities--by themselves, and without using any special equipment. These activities included walking a quarter of a mile (or three city blocks); standing for 2 hours; stooping, bending, or kneeling; climbing 10 steps without resting; sitting for two hours; reaching over one's head; using one's fingers to grasp or handle small objects; lifting or carrying a 10-pound object (such as a bag of groceries); and pushing or pulling a large object (such as a living room chair). The response categories consisted of "not at all difficult," "only a little difficult," "somewhat difficult," "very difficult," "can't do at all," or "do not do this activity." The estimates shown include adults who responded "very difficult," or "cannot do at all" to any of these questions.

7 Difficulty walking is based on answers of "very difficult" and "can't do at all" to the question about walking a quarter mile shown in footnote #6.

8 Based on the question "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had diabetes or sugar diabetes?" Borderline and diabetes only during pregnancy were excluded.

9 Based on a set of two questions: "Have you ever been told you had high blood pressure?" and "Have you been told you had high blood pressure two or more times?"

10 Based on a series of questions about frequency of negative moods during the past 30 days: sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, feeling everything is an effort, and worthless. Response choices were: all of the time; most of the time; some of the time; little of the time; none of the time. A composite index of these items was developed by Kessler et al. with a score of 13 or greater representing serious psychological distress.

11 Body Mass Index (BMI) is based on self-reported height and weight using the formula: weight (in kilograms)/[height (in meters)]2. Categories shown are consistent with the World Health Organization classification: (a) underweight is BMI<18.5; (b) healthy weight is 18.5≤BMI<25.0; (c) overweight is 25.0≤BMI<30.0; obese is BMI≥30.0.

 

Table B. Comparison of Odds Ratios for Two Leisure-Time Physical Activity Recodes

 

Table B1. Odds ratios from logistic regressions predicting selected adverse health status characteristics by leisure-time physical activity in the past 2 weeks, adjusted for age and selected sociodemographic characteristics: U.S. adults aged 18 years and over, 1998

 

Health status characteristic
Fair or poor health1 Difficulties in physical functioning2 Difficulty walking 1/4 mile3 Diabetes4 Hypertension5 Serious psychological distress6 Obese7
Leisure-time physical activity, past 2 weeks8 Multivariate odds ratio** (CI)10
Sedentary (kcal< 1.5) † 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Moderately active (1.5≤kcal<3.0) 0.5 (0.4-0.5) 0.5 (0.4-0.5) 0.2 (0.2-0.3) 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.6 (0.5-0.8) 0.8 (0.7-0.8)
Very active (≥3.0 kcal) 0.3 (0.3-0.4) 0.4 (0.3-0.4) 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 0.7 (0.6-0.7)

See footnotes at end of Table B2.

 

Table B2. Odds ratios from logistic regressions predicting selected adverse health status characteristics by usual leisure-time physical activity, adjusted for age and selected sociodemographic characteristics: U.S. adults aged 18 years and over, 1998

 

Health status characteristic
Fair or poor health1 Difficulties in physical functioning2 Difficulty walking 1/4 mile3 Diabetes4 Hypertension5 Serious psychological distress6 Obese7
Usual leisure-time physical activity9 Multivariate odds ratio** (CI)10
Inactive (including unable)1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Some activity, less than regular 0.5 (0.5-0.6) 0.6 (0.6-0.7) 0.4 (0.3-0.4) 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 0.9 (0.9-1.0) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.9 (0.8-1.0)
Regularly active 0.4 (0.3-0.4) 0.4 (0.3-0.4) 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.6 (0.5-0.8) 0.7 (0.6-0.8)

 

† Reference group

** Adjusted for sex, age, race and Hispanic ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty status using the NHIS imputed income files. The 2000 projected U.S. population was used as the standard population for age adjustment, with age groups 18-44, 45-64, and 65 and over

1 Based on the questions: "Would you say {your/name} health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?"

2 Based on a series of questions asking about the degree of difficulty the respondent how much difficulty he or she has doing activities without the help of another person or special equipment: walking 1/4 mile, walking up 10 steps, standing for 2 hours, sitting for 2 hours, stooping, bending, or kneeling; reaching overhead; grasping small objects; lifting or carrying 10 pounds; or pushing or pulling large objects. Responses to each consisted of: not at all difficult, only a little difficult; somewhat difficult; very difficult can't do at all, or does not do the activity. Adults were classified as having difficulty if they responded "somewhat" or "very" difficult to at least one of these activities. Adults who did not do the activity were excluded from the analysis, as were those who could not provide an answer to any of them.

3 Difficulty walking is based on answers of "very difficult" and "can't do at all" to the question about walking a quarter mile shown in footnote #2.

4 Based on the question "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had diabetes or sugar diabetes?" Borderline and diabetes only during pregnancy were excluded.

5 Based on a set of two questions: "Have you ever been told you had hypertension or high blood pressure?" and "Have you been told you had hypertension two or more times?"

6 Based on a series of questions about frequency of negative moods during the past 30 days: sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, feeling everything is an effort, and worthless. Response choices were: all of the time; most of the time; some of the time; little of the time; none of the time. A composite index of these items was developed by Kessler et al. with a score of 13 or greater representing serious psychological distress.

7 Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0 or greater. BMI is calculated, based on self-reported height and weight, using the formula: weight (in kilograms/[height (in meters)]2.

8 Based on a series of questions about frequency, duration, and intensity of 23 sports-related leisure-time physical activities during the two weeks preceding the interview. Total average daily kilocalorie expenditure was estimated. Activity level was classified as "sedentary," moderately active," or "very active" based on average daily kilocalorie expenditure over the two week period.

9 Based on a set of four questions about leisure-time physical activity that were introduced with a phrase specifying that the questions were asking about exercise, sports and physically active hobbies done in leisure time. The questions asked about the frequency and duration of light-moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activities lasting at least 10 minutes at a time. Adults were classified in terms of regularity of their activity: "Inactive" refers to adults who engaged in no light-moderate or vigorous LTPA. "Some activity, less than regular" refers to adults who engaged in some activity but less that the amount needed to qualify as "regularly active." "Regularly active" adults engaged in light-moderate activity at least 5 times per week for at least 30 minutes each time or vigorous activity at least 3 times a week for at least 20 minutes each time or both.

10 CI is 95% confidence interval.

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