Hearing Loss in Children
Recommendations and Guidelines
American Academy of Audiology Childhood Hearing Screening Guidelines, September 2011
The American Academy of Audiology endorses detection of hearing loss in early childhood and school‐aged populations using evidence‐based hearing screening methods. The goal of early detection of new hearing loss is to maximize perception of speech and the resulting attainment of linguistic‐based skills. Identification of new or emerging hearing loss in one or both ears followed by appropriate referral for diagnosis and treatment are first steps to minimizing these effects. Informing educational staff, monitoring chronic or fluctuating hearing loss, and providing education toward the prevention of hearing loss are important steps that are needed to follow mass screening if the impact of hearing loss is to be minimized.
Universal Screening for Hearing Loss in NewbornsFrom the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
The USPSTF recommends screening for hearing loss in all newborn infants. Because half of the children with hearing loss have no identifiable risk factors, universal screening (instead of targeted screening) has been proposed to detect children with permanent congenital hearing loss (PCHL). There is good evidence that newborn hearing screening testing is highly accurate and leads to earlier identification and treatment of infants with hearing loss.
Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention ProgramsFrom the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, 2007
- All infants should have access to hearing screening using a physiologic measure before 1 month of age.
- All infants who do not pass the initial hearing screen and the subsequent rescreening should have appropriate audiologic and medical evaluations to confirm the presence of hearing loss before 3 months of age.
- All infants with confirmed permanent hearing loss should receive intervention services before 6 months of age. A simplified, single point of entry into an intervention system appropriate to children with hearing loss is optimal.
- The EHDI system should be family centered with infant and family rights and privacy guaranteed through informed choice, shared decision making, and parental consent. Families should have access to information about all intervention and treatment options and counseling regarding hearing loss.
- The child and family should have immediate access to high-quality technology, including hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices when appropriate.
- All infants and children should be monitored for hearing loss in the medical home. Continued assessment of communication development should be provided by appropriate providers to all children with or without risk indicators for hearing loss.
- Appropriate interdisciplinary intervention programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing infants and their families should be provided by professionals knowledgeable about childhood hearing loss. Intervention programs should recognize and build on strengths, informed choices, traditions, and cultural beliefs of the families.
- Information systems should be designed to interface with electronic health records and should be used to measure outcomes and report the effectiveness of EHDI services at the community, state, and federal levels.
Early Identification of Hearing Loss: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (An Implementation Guide)From the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management
This electronic "e-book" outlines some of the most important issues which need to be addressed in implementing and operating a successful early identification of hearing loss program for newborns.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Hearing Loss Team
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