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Interim Results: State-Specific Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage --- United States, August 2009--January 2010

Please note: An erratum has been published for this article. To view the erratum, please click here.

The advent of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in April 2009 made the 2009--10 influenza season highly unusual. Public awareness of the potential seriousness of influenza was heightened by media coverage of pandemic-associated hospitalizations and deaths, especially among younger persons. In the fall, the distribution of two separate influenza vaccines began, with distinct, although overlapping, recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1,2). In addition, 2009--10 was the first full season in which ACIP's recommendation to vaccinate all children aged 5--18 years (2) was implemented. To provide preliminary state-specific estimates of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage, CDC analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) data collected during October 2009--February 2010. By January 31, estimated state seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥6 months ranged from 30.3% to 54.5% (median: 40.6%). Median coverage was 41.2% for children aged 6 months--17 years, 38.3% for adults aged 18--49 years with high-risk conditions, 28.8% for adults aged 18--49 years without high-risk conditions, 45.5% for adults aged 50--64 years, and 69.3% for adults aged ≥65 years. These results, compared with the previous season (3), suggest large increases in coverage for children and a moderate increase for adults aged 18--49 years without high-risk conditions. Health departments should identify best practices that lead to higher vaccination coverage and should support effective vaccination services (e.g., school-located vaccination programs and office-based protocols, such as reminder/recall and standing orders).

CDC used data collected during October 2009--February 2010 from two separate surveys, BRFSS and NHFS. BRFSS respondents in 50 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories were asked if they (or their children, in 43 states) had been vaccinated for the "seasonal flu" in the past 12 months, and if so, in which month.* NHFS respondents aged ≥18 years were asked whether they (or their children) had received "seasonal flu vaccination" since August, and if so, in which month. Similar questions were asked about "H1N1 flu" vaccination in both surveys (4). The Council of American Survey and Research Organizations (CASRO) NHFS response rates were 35% for landline and 27% for cellular telephones; cooperation rates were 45% and 57%, respectively. The median state CASRO BRFSS response and cooperation rates were 54% and 76%, respectively.

To improve the precision of state-level estimates from each survey, CDC first combined the monthly data collected during October 2009--February 2010 and estimated the cumulative proportion of persons vaccinated with at least 1 dose during August--January by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis procedure. To improve precision for subgroups within states, particularly children, CDC then combined the estimates from BRFSS and NHFS (5).§ The 2009--10 BRFSS survey included 18,368 children and 152,128 adults; the NHFS included 60,786 children and 31,135 adults. CDC performed Pearson correlations among children and adults to determine if state-specific seasonal coverage was associated with state-specific H1N1 coverage or with coverage during past seasons. For comparison to estimated national vaccination coverage for the 2008--09 influenza season, overall, and by month, CDC analyzed the BRFSS adult and child data available from 19 states that fully participated in a special early survey conducted January--February 2009 (3). Student t-tests were used to determine statistical difference between groups.

Among children aged 6 months--17 years, estimated national 2009--10 seasonal coverage was 40.0% (16 percentage points higher than in 2008--09) (3). State-specific 2009--10 coverage for children ranged from 23.6% (Nevada) to 67.2% (Hawaii) (U.S. median: 41.2%); coverage among adults aged ≥18 years ranged from 32.4% (Nevada) to 52.5% (Minnesota) (U.S. median: 40.6%) (Table 1). State-specific child and adult (age ≥18 years) coverages were correlated positively (r = 0.68), with a wider range of coverage among state-specific child levels compared with adult levels (Figure 1). Seasonal state coverage also correlated positively with 2009 H1N1 state coverage (5) among children (r = 0.72) and adults (r = 0.72). Among adults, state coverage in 2009--10 was correlated positively with coverage in 2007--08 (r = 0.81) (CDC, unpublished data, 2010).

Among adults aged 18--49 years, national seasonal vaccination coverage was higher for persons with high-risk conditions (36.2%) than without high-risk conditions (27.6%). This difference also was statistically significant in 10 states (Table 1). Coverage ranged from 21.2% (Mississippi) to 63.4% (Minnesota) for the high-risk group, and for the persons not at high risk, 19.4% (Florida) to 43.1% (South Dakota). Seasonal coverage for adults aged 18--49 years with high-risk conditions was similar to coverage in 2008--09. Among younger adults without such conditions, coverage was 30% higher in 2009--10 than in 2008--09 (20.8%) (3; CDC, unpublished data, 2010).

National seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was 45.0% for adults aged 50--64 years and 68.0% for adults aged ≥65 years, similar to previous seasons. Coverage ranged from 33.7% (Florida) to 56.3% (Hawaii) for adults aged 50--64 years and from 59.3% (Idaho) to 78.6% (New Mexico) for adults aged ≥65 years (Table 1).

Among all persons aged ≥6 months, coverage was higher among non-Hispanic whites (42.5%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (32.2%) and Hispanics (33.6%) (Table 2), and was similar to Asians (41.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 38.1--45.3) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (40.1%; CI = 35.7--44.5). Among adults, blacks (31.1%; CI = 29.1--33.1) and Hispanics (30.9%; CI = 28.2--33.6) had lower coverage than whites (43.0%; CI = 42.4--43.6). Among children, coverage among blacks was lowest (32.7%; CI = 29.5--35.9), followed by Hispanics (39.3%; CI = 36.0--42.6) and whites (40.3%; CI = 38.9--41.7).

Coverage for persons aged ≥6 months was higher during September and October and lower in November compared with 2008--09 (Figure 2). One or more seasonal doses reportedly were administered to 29.1 million children (CI = 28.1--30.0 million) and 89.7 million adults (CI = 88.3--91.2 million), for an estimated 118.8 million vaccinees (CI = 117.1--120.5 million) during August 2009--January 2010.

Reported by

H Ding, MD, PJ Lu, MD, PhD, GL Euler, DrPH, C Furlow, PhD, LN Bryan, MS, B Bardenheier, MA, MPH, E Monsell, AG Gonzalez-Feliciano, MPH, C LeBaron, MD, PM Wortley, MD, JA Singleton, MS, Immunization Svc Div; M Town, MS, L Balluz, ScD, Div of Behavioral Science, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Svcs, CDC.

Editorial Note

Seasonal influenza vaccination during 2009--10 occurred under unique circumstances. In October 2009, the distribution of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine was added to the ongoing distribution of the seasonal influenza vaccine that started in August. The populations recommended for 2009 H1N1 vaccination were different from, but overlapped, those recommended for seasonal vaccination (1,2). For this unusual season, coverage for seasonal vaccination of children aged 6 months--17 years (40%) was higher than coverage estimates for the previous season (24% from BRFSS [3] and 30% from NHIS [CDC, unpublished data, 2009]). Coverage for healthy adults aged 18--49 years also was moderately higher (3). These higher coverage levels for 2009--10 might reflect increased awareness of the seriousness of influenza associated with the H1N1 pandemic. Influenza activity due to 2009 H1N1 virus increased during summer and early fall, when only seasonal vaccine was available, and was associated with a threefold higher levels of hospitalizations and deaths among persons aged <65 years compared with previous seasons (6). Higher coverage in children also might reflect the first full year of expansion of ACIP recommendations for all children aged 6 months--18 years to receive annual influenza vaccination (2). Nevertheless, despite increased attention to influenza during the fall, no significant increase in coverage occurred among those aged 18--49 years with high-risk conditions, underscoring the challenges associated with increasing coverage in this group.

Seasonal vaccination coverage varied widely among states, particularly among children. The strong positive correlations between 2009--10 seasonal state levels with both current 2009 H1N1 vaccine coverage and with previous season coverage suggests that certain factors that differ among states (e.g., medical-care delivery infrastructure, population norms, and effectiveness of state and local immunization programs) might explain at least part of the state-level variation in vaccination levels. Increased coverage in September likely reflects the early availability of vaccine supplies, coupled with increased demand, compared with previous seasons.

The lower seasonal influenza vaccination coverage for Hispanics and blacks observed during 2009--10 compared with whites among persons aged ≥6 months also has been observed in previous seasons among adults (3). The reasons for racial/ethnic disparities and their variations by state are multifactorial. Broad use of interventions to systematize offering of vaccination (e.g., routine offering of vaccine to all patients) is one important component of efforts to reduce these disparities (7).

The estimate of 119 million persons in the United States receiving at least 1 dose of seasonal vaccine certainly is an overestimate because only 114--115 million doses were distributed in the United States. The actual number of first doses available to be administered to the surveyed population was even lower because of unused doses, a second dose administered to children aged <9 years, and institutional use of doses (e.g., military and long-term care facilities not surveyed by BRFSS). The overestimate based on the surveys likely was caused by nonresponse bias, which has been observed for telephone surveys conducted during previous seasons, and recall bias for self-report or parental report of vaccination.

The findings in this report are subject to at least six other limitations. First, misclassification of H1N1 for seasonal vaccine, unique to this season, might have contributed to some overreporting. However, the high seasonal vaccination coverage in September before 2009 H1N1 vaccine was available suggests that survey respondents generally were able to distinguish between the two types of influenza vaccinations. Second, both BRFSS and NHFS are telephone-based surveys and thus do not include persons without telephone service. Also, BRFSS is limited to households with landlines. Third, response rates for both surveys were low (5), which increases the risk for nonresponse bias. Fourth, for these surveys, self-reported vaccination status is not validated with medical records and is subject to respondents' recall bias. Fifth, combining BRFSS and NHFS estimates increased the sample to approximately 260,000 persons, but differences in survey methods (e.g., different sampling frame, survey questions, operations, response rates, and weighting) might lead to different levels of bias that are averaged in the combined estimates of this report (5). Given all of these factors combined, the net bias (estimated coverage minus actual coverage) range likely is 10%--15%.** This range was probably higher than in previous seasons due, in part, to higher media coverage of the pandemic. Nevertheless, because demand for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009--10 remained strong even after vaccine was in short supply in some places, a higher proportion of available doses likely were used this season compared with previous seasons. Finally, the 2008--09 BRFSS child coverage data slightly underestimated coverage through January and were based on only 19 states reporting (3). However, 2008--09 estimates of overall coverage levels and distribution by month matched those of the 2007--08 season.

Even with increased demand for vaccination this season, influenza vaccination levels were well below Healthy People 2010 targets of 60% for noninstitutionalized adults aged 18--64 years with high-risk conditions and 90% for adults aged ≥65 years (objectives 14-29a and 14-29c) (8). School-located vaccination was implemented in many communities for 2009 H1N1 vaccination (CDC, unpublished data, 2010), and the experience acquired might lead to greater use of this strategy in fall 2010, and thereby contribute to ongoing gains in influenza vaccination.

Acknowledgments

The findings in this report are based, in part, on contributions by KR Copeland, N Ganesh, M Stanislawski, and N Davis, National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Illinois; state BRFSS coordinators; the Div of Behavioral Science, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Svcs; and the H1N1 Vaccine Coverage Monitoring Team, CDC.

References

  1. CDC. Use of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR 2009;58(No. RR-10).
  2. CDC. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR 2009;58 (No. RR-8).
  3. CDC. Influenza vaccination coverage among children and adults---United States, 2008--09 influenza season. MMWR 2009;58:1091--5.
  4. CDC. Interim results: influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage---United States, October--December 2009. MMWR 2010;59:44--8.
  5. CDC. Interim results: state-specific influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage---United States, October 2009--January 2010. MMWR 2010;59:363--8.
  6. CDC. Update: influenza activity---United States, August 30, 2009--March 27, 2010, and composition of the 2010--11 influenza vaccine. MMWR 2010;59:423--30.
  7. Fiscella K. Anatomy of racial disparity in influenza vaccination. Health Serv Res 2005;40:539--50.
  8. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010 (conference ed., in 2 vols.). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. Available at http://www.health.gov/healthypeople. Accessed April 22, 2010.

* Respondents were asked, "Now I will ask you questions about seasonal flu. A flu shot is an influenza vaccine injected into your arm. During the past 12 months, have you had a seasonal flu shot? During what month and year did you receive your most recent seasonal flu shot? The seasonal flu vaccine sprayed in the nose is also called FluMist. During the past 12 months, have you had a seasonal flu vaccine that was sprayed in your nose? During what month and year did you receive your most recent seasonal flu vaccine that was sprayed in your nose?" Additional information about BRFSS is available at http://www.cdc.gov/brfss.

Respondents were asked, "Since August 2009, have you had a seasonal flu vaccination? There are two types of seasonal flu vaccinations. One is a shot and the other is a spray, mist or drop in the nose. During what month did you receive your most recent seasonal flu vaccine? Was your most recent seasonal flu vaccine a shot or the spray in the nose? The seasonal flu vaccine can be given either as a shot or a nasal spray, also called FluMist." The landline sample was augmented with a sample of children aged <18 years identified during screening for the National Immunization Survey. Additional information about NHFS is available at http://www.cdc.gov/nis/h1n1_introduction.htm and http://www.cdc.gov/nis/data/h1n1_flu_survey.pdf.

§ Combined estimates were weighted averages of the BRFSS and NHFS estimates, with weights being determined by the effective sample sizes. The effective sample sizes take into account the design of each survey and are determined as the unweighted sample size divided by the design effect. The design effect is the ratio of the variance of a survey estimate to the variance had the survey design used a simple random sample; surveys with large design effects are less efficient. CDC estimated state and age-group--specific design effects based on estimated proportions vaccinated each month, using data from each survey from October 2009 through February 2010. Among states, the median design effects for children were 1.9 for NHFS and 1.3 for BRFSS, with the BRFSS estimate receiving a median of 34% of the weight in the combined average estimate. For adults, median design effects were 1.2 for NHFS and 1.5 for BRFSS, with BRFSS estimates receiving a median of 80% of the weight. The NHFS estimate was used alone when no data were available from BRFSS.

Additional information available at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/estimates_2009_h1n1.htm.

** Before estimating the net overreporting bias observed, subtractions from the amount of doses distributed were made for estimates of 6 million unused doses and for additional coverage not included in this report (e.g., an estimate of 2 million second doses to children aged <9 years and approximately 2 million doses administered to persons in the military and nursing homes).


What is already known on this topic?

The 2009--10 influenza season was highly unusual because 1) public awareness of the potential seriousness of influenza was heightened by media coverage of H1N1 pandemic--associated hospitalizations and deaths, especially among younger persons; 2) in the fall, the distribution of two separate influenza vaccines began, with distinct, although overlapping, recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP); and 3) it was the first full season in which ACIP's recommendation to vaccinate all children aged 5--18 years was implemented.

What is added by this report?

Compared with the previous influenza season, 2009--10 saw a 67% relative increase in estimated coverage for children and a 30% relative increase for adults aged 18--49 years without high-risk conditions.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Health departments should identify strategies that increase coverage (e.g., school-located vaccination programs and office-based protocols, such as reminder/recall and standing orders) and other community interventions to supplement the routine vaccination services provided by health-care providers.


TABLE 1. Estimated seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among children and adults,* by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region, state, and selected age and risk subgroups --- United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), end of January 2010

HHS region and state/area

Unweighted sample size

All persons aged ≥6 mos

Children aged 6 mos--17 yrs

Persons aged ≥18 yrs

Persons aged 18--49 yrs at high risk§

Persons aged 18--49 yrs not at high risk

All persons aged 50--64 yrs

All persons aged ≥65 yrs

No.

%

(95% CI**)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

All states combined

262,417

39.7

(±0.6)

40.0

(±1.4)

39.6

(±0.6)

36.2

(±1.5)

27.6

(±0.9)

45.0

(±1.3)

68.0

(±0.9)

Region 1

25,533

48.0

(±1.8)

55.7

(±5.1)

45.4

(±1.7)

44.6

(±4.3)

31.6

(±2.5)

51.1

(±2.8)

72.9

(±2.6)

Connecticut††

4,534

42.6

(±3.3)

46.2

(±5.7)

41.3

(±4.1)

39.8

(±10.5)§§

27.2

(±6.0)

47.8

(±7.4)

69.1

(±6.6)

Maine¶¶

5,313

48.1

(±2.6)

57.2

(±7.5)

46.2

(±2.7)

43.7

(±7.4)

34.3

(±6.5)

48.0

(±3.9)

73.2

(±4.2)

Massachusetts¶¶***

6,347

51.5

(±3.4)

61.6

(±9.4)

47.5

(±3.0)

47.1

(±7.0)

32.4

(±4.2)

54.1

(±4.7)

76.4

(±4.2)

New Hampshire

3,892

47.0

(±3.2)

49.7

(±6.9)

46.2

(±3.6)

43.6

(±10.8)§§

34.7

(±5.4)

53.0

(±5.5)

69.3

(±5.0)

Rhode island

3,156

50.3

(±3.9)

57.0

(±10.8)§§

48.5

(±4.0)

52.3

(±8.0)

33.9

(±4.7)

52.9

(±6.1)

73.1

(±5.8)

Vermont***

2,291

41.0

(±3.6)

46.8

(±7.4)

39.8

(±4.0)

36.7

(±16.5)§§

30.3

(±8.4)

41.0

(±6.8)

66.9

(±6.7)

Region 2

11,180

39.3

(±2.0)

41.3

(±5.4)

38.6

(±2.1)

39.0

(±5.2)

28.7

(±3.5)

42.5

(±3.6)

66.1

(±3.5)

New Jersey***

5,683

37.7

(±2.6)

42.7

(±7.5)

36.1

(±2.4)

31.0

(±4.8)

24.9

(±3.1)

39.7

(±4.0)

62.8

(±4.4)

New York

5,497

40.0

(±2.7)

40.6

(±7.1)

39.8

(±2.8)

42.6

(±7.3)

30.3

(±4.9)

43.7

(±4.9)

67.6

(±4.7)

Region 3

27,045

42.8

(±1.3)

45.9

(±3.6)

42.0

(±1.4)

40.6

(±3.6)

28.1

(±2.0)

47.0

(±2.2)

70.8

(±2.1)

Delaware***

3,805

42.3

(±3.3)

42.9

(±6.6)

42.2

(±3.8)

40.6

(±11.0)§§

34.3

(±11.2)§§

52.4

(±7.2)

67.4

(±5.4)

District of Columbia***

2,843

40.0

(±5.1)

34.8

(±15.5)§§

41.4

(±5.0)

38.9

(±13.7)§§

36.0

(±8.3)

40.6

(±6.8)

63.3

(±8.0)

Maryland¶¶

5,672

44.3

(±2.6)

51.0

(±6.9)

42.3

(±2.7)

43.2

(±7.4)

28.4

(±4.0)

48.6

(±4.1)

69.7

(±4.6)

Pennsylvania¶¶

6,776

42.2

(±2.3)

47.8

(±6.5)

40.6

(±2.3)

38.2

(±5.4)

24.8

(±3.2)

45.7

(±3.8)

70.4

(±3.5)

Virginia***

4,138

43.0

(±2.5)

40.8

(±6.0)

43.5

(±2.7)

43.7

(±8.4)

31.7

(±4.2)

46.8

(±4.6)

73.6

(±4.1)

West Virginia

3,811

43.3

(±2.8)

41.2

(±9.8)

43.8

(±2.4)

36.3

(±7.7)

29.1

(±4.1)

51.9

(±3.9)

68.5

(±3.6)

Region 4

46,594

36.9

(±1.2)

36.8

(±3.4)

37.0

(±1.2)

29.4

(±3.1)

25.3

(±1.8)

39.9

(±1.8)

66.1

(±1.7)

Alabama††

4,903

35.6

(±2.7)

33.5

(±6.3)

36.4

(±2.9)

39.1

(±8.8)

21.8

(±4.3)

39.8

(±5.0)

65.0

(±4.4)

Florida¶¶

10,721

31.6

(±2.0)

26.4

(±4.3)

33.0

(±2.2)

22.1

(±7.2)

19.4

(±3.7)

33.7

(±3.7)

64.3

(±3.1)

Georgia

4,039

34.4

(±3.5)

30.8

(±7.1)

35.4

(±4.0)

27.3

(±7.7)

27.7

(±6.3)

41.3

(±5.5)

60.6

(±5.1)

Kentucky

5,525

41.3

(±2.7)

37.1

(±5.6)

42.3

(±3.1)

39.2

(±9.4)

30.3

(±5.4)

47.3

(±4.5)

69.0

(±4.3)

Mississippi

6,443

35.1

(±3.0)

31.7

(±10.4)§§

36.0

(±2.6)

21.2

(±4.2)

26.8

(±4.3)

37.9

(±3.9)

66.3

(±3.9)

North Carolina¶¶***

5,270

45.8

(±4.4)

59.8

(±14.9)§§

40.9

(±2.9)

33.9

(±7.9)

29.8

(±4.1)

44.2

(±4.7)

71.6

(±4.8)

South Carolina

5,616

37.2

(±2.6)

32.6

(±6.0)

38.8

(±2.9)

33.6

(±8.6)

28.3

(±4.2)

39.9

(±4.6)

68.0

(±4.2)

Tennessee

4,077

42.1

(±3.1)

44.5

(±8.9)

41.5

(±3.2)

34.8

(±7.0)

28.8

(±4.1)

46.1

(±4.8)

69.5

(±4.6)

Region 5

29,931

39.8

(±1.2)

38.2

(±3.1)

40.3

(±1.2)

40.6

(±3.4)

28.1

(±1.9)

43.8

(±1.9)

68.4

(±1.9)

Illinois

4,841

39.0

(±2.9)

39.1

(±6.9)

39.0

(±3.1)

36.3

(±9.9)

28.7

(±4.9)

41.4

(±5.0)

67.6

(±4.9)

Indiana

6,376

40.9

(±3.1)

46.2

(±9.7)

39.2

(±2.5)

29.9

(±7.6)

26.5

(±3.9)

48.2

(±4.4)

67.3

(±4.1)

Michigan††

5,371

36.0

(±2.6)

32.4

(±5.9)

37.2

(±2.8)

43.3

(±6.2)

23.0

(±4.0)

41.3

(±4.0)

66.9

(±4.2)

Minnesota

4,638

51.9

(±3.4)

49.2

(±5.5)

52.5

(±3.9)

63.4

(±7.1)

41.5

(±6.6)

55.3

(±4.9)

74.1

(±4.6)

Ohio

5,847

37.7

(±2.5)

35.3

(±6.1)

38.8

(±2.4)

41.3

(±4.9)

26.3

(±3.0)

41.3

(±3.5)

64.9

(±4.0)

Wisconsin

2,858

39.9

(±3.0)

37.0

(±7.6)

40.6

(±3.3)

33.4

(±11.4)§§

27.0

(±5.7)

41.7

(±5.3)

74.3

(±5.1)

Region 6

28,054

40.7

(±1.6)

43.7

(±3.5)

39.9

(±1.8)

34.7

(±4.8)

28.7

(±2.3)

45.8

(±3.1)

70.3

(±2.6)

Arkansas¶¶***

3,524

49.4

(±6.0)

65.3

(±15.8)§§

41.0

(±3.7)

36.6

(±12.3)§§

31.9

(±6.6)

44.5

(±5.7)

66.6

(±4.9)

Louisiana

4,630

40.6

(±2.7)

42.2

(±5.2)

40.1

(±3.1)

35.1

(±7.8)

29.7

(±4.9)

39.8

(±4.1)

70.6

(±5.9)

New Mexico

5,536

45.7

(±3.3)

49.9

(±8.1)

44.3

(±3.5)

47.1

(±7.3)

31.7

(±4.7)

45.0

(±5.6)

78.6

(±6.2)

Oklahoma

3,976

40.4

(±3.0)

37.2

(±6.8)

41.6

(±3.3)

26.7

(±6.3)

29.5

(±4.7)

47.8

(±6.6)

69.6

(±5.5)

Texas

10,388

39.4

(±2.2)

40.5

(±4.7)

39.1

(±2.5)

34.5

(±6.9)

27.9

(±3.2)

46.7

(±4.4)

70.1

(±3.6)

Region 7

26,376

42.8

(±1.6)

38.8

(±3.1)

44.1

(±1.8)

42.6

(±6.8)

31.5

(±3.1)

45.9

(±3.1)

71.9

(±2.8)

Iowa

4,571

48.8

(±2.7)

44.1

(±5.8)

50.2

(±3.1)

38.3

(±9.1)

38.9

(±4.9)

51.3

(±5.1)

76.0

(±4.4)

Kansas¶¶

9,421

41.7

(±2.0)

38.3

(±3.8)

43.5

(±2.4)

33.1

(±7.2)

33.2

(±4.0)

47.4

(±3.1)

71.6

(±3.0)

Missouri††

3,511

38.7

(±3.1)

34.4

(±6.8)

39.7

(±3.4)

44.2

(±13.5)§§

25.0

(±5.8)

41.8

(±5.9)

69.4

(±5.3)

Nebraska

8,873

47.8

(±3.1)

42.9

(±7.7)

49.7

(±3.1)

58.3

(±6.8)

40.0

(±5.5)

48.8

(±3.5)

74.1

(±3.5)

Region 8

26,380

41.8

(±1.9)

40.4

(±5.6)

42.3

(±1.5)

46.5

(±5.2)

31.0

(±2.9)

48.9

(±2.2)

70.4

(±2.4)

Colorado***

5,387

42.6

(±3.3)

42.9

(±11.3)§§

42.4

(±2.7)

48.9

(±8.9)

31.4

(±5.3)

48.0

(±3.7)

73.7

(±4.1)

Montana¶¶††

4,808

37.5

(±2.5)

31.6

(±5.3)

39.4

(±2.8)

44.6

(±7.1)

27.3

(±4.6)

42.6

(±4.3)

61.3

(±4.7)

North Dakota

3,646

44.3

(±3.0)

45.5

(±7.4)

44.0

(±3.2)

39.8

(±9.6)

33.5

(±4.4)

45.5

(±4.6)

69.8

(±4.8)

South Dakota

4,016

52.7

(±3.5)

54.0

(±8.2)

52.3

(±3.9)

47.4

(±9.6)

43.1

(±6.1)

53.4

(±6.5)

74.8

(±4.5)

Utah

3,853

38.5

(±3.7)

36.5

(±8.6)

39.7

(±3.0)

47.4

(±11.7)§§

27.3

(±4.3)

54.0

(±4.6)

66.0

(±5.2)

Wyoming

4,670

39.6

(±2.4)

39.6

(±6.0)

39.7

(±2.5)

29.9

(±8.4)

28.8

(±4.3)

44.4

(±4.0)

69.6

(±3.5)

Region 9

20,455

37.2

(±2.3)

35.3

(±4.1)

37.9

(±2.8)

29.7

(±5.5)

25.7

(±3.3)

50.1

(±7.3)

64.1

(±3.9)

Arizona††

3,600

40.6

(±4.7)

41.3

(±12.0)§§

40.4

(±4.8)

43.4

(±10.8)§§

29.3

(±7.3)

40.6

(±8.2)

68.4

(±7.1)

California

7,225

36.4

(±2.9)

33.7

(±4.8)

37.5

(±3.5)

26.7

(±6.8)

25.2

(±4.0)

52.6

(±9.3)

63.3

(±4.9)

Hawaii¶¶

5,400

54.5

(±3.5)

67.2

(±8.3)

47.6

(±3.0)

38.3

(±8.6)

33.8

(±5.3)

56.3

(±4.6)

75.1

(±4.1)

Nevada¶¶††

4,230

30.3

(±3.0)

23.6

(±5.2)

32.4

(±3.6)

32.6

(±9.3)

20.2

(±4.8)

38.1

(±5.7)

59.6

(±5.3)


TABLE 1. (Continued) Estimated seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among children and adults,* by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region, state, and selected age and risk subgroups --- United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), end of January 2010

HHS region and state/area

Unweighted sample size

All persons aged ≥6 mos

Children aged 6 mos--17 yrs

Persons aged ≥18 yrs

Persons aged 18--49 yrs at high risk§

Persons aged 18--49 yrs not at high risk

All persons aged 50--64 yrs

All persons aged ≥65 yrs

No.

%

(95% CI**)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Region 10

20,869

38.6

(±1.5)

38.8

(±4.4)

38.5

(±1.4)

38.9

(±4.0)

25.7

(±2.1)

43.2

(±2.2)

68.7

(±2.3)

Alaska

2,585

36.6

(±4.8)

35.0

(±8.4)

37.2

(±5.8)

32.7

(±11.5)§§

26.2

(±7.1)

46.2

(±9.4)

81.6

(±8.9)

Idaho

4,003

33.8

(±2.6)

30.5

(±6.0)

35.1

(±2.8)

28.4

(±8.7)

24.6

(±4.2)

42.1

(±4.6)

59.3

(±5.0)

Oregon

4,527

38.3

(±2.8)

34.7

(±6.7)

39.2

(±3.0)

34.0

(±7.3)

27.8

(±4.7)

42.1

(±4.9)

67.6

(±5.3)

Washington††

9,754

40.0

(±2.3)

43.9

(±7.4)

38.9

(±1.9)

44.6

(±5.8)

24.6

(±2.7)

43.7

(±2.6)

70.1

(±2.6)

Median†††

4,670

40.6

41.2

40.6

38.3

28.8

45.5

69.3

Range†††

2,291--10,721

30.3--54.5

23.6--67.2

32.4--52.5

21.2--63.4

19.4--43.1

33.7--56.3

59.3--78.6

U.S. territories§§§

2,623

11.3

(±3.1)

---†††

---†††

11.3

(±3.1)

---†††

---†††

---†††

---†††

10.0

(±3.3)

20.6

(±4.9)

Guam¶¶¶

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Puerto Rico

1,710

11.1

(±3.1)

---****

---****

11.1

(±3.1)

---****

---****

---****

---****

9.7

(±3.3)

20.3

(±5.1)

U.S. Virgin Islands

913

---

---

---

---

19.7

(±4.3)

---****

---****

12.7

(±6.9)

24.1

(±5.9)

37.5

(±9.6)

* Coverage estimates are for persons with reported vaccination during August 2009--January 2010 who were interviewed during October 2009--February 2010.

Percentages are weighted to the U.S. population.

§ High risk includes asthma, other lung problems, diabetes, heart disease, kidney problems, anemia, or weakened immune system caused by a chronic illness or by medicines taken for a chronic illness.

Respondents with missing vaccination information were excluded; the missing rates are 7.5% for BRFSS and 2.8% for NHFS.

** Confidence interval.

†† Estimates for adults with high-risk conditions were significantly higher compared with adults with no high-risk conditions in the following states: Connecticut, Alabama, Michigan, Missouri, Colorado, Montana, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and Washington.

§§ Estimates might be unreliable because confidence interval half-width is >10.

¶¶ Child estimates were significantly higher than adult estimates in the following states: Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Florida, North Carolina, Arkansas, Kansas, Montana, Hawaii, and Nevada.

*** BRFSS data were not collected for children in Massachusetts, Vermont, New Jersey, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Colorado. BRFSS data were not collected for adults aged 18--49 years not at high risk in Vermont and Delaware.

††† Excludes U.S. territories.

§§§ Estimates for U.S. territories are from BRFSS only.

¶¶¶ Guam did not collect BRFSS data in 2009 and 2010.

**** Estimates might be unreliable; relative standard error >0.30.

FIGURE 1. Estimates of child and adult state-specific cumulative seasonal influenza vaccination coverage* --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) combined, 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, end of January 2010

The figure shows estimates of child and adult state-specific cumulative seasonal influenza vaccination coverage for the 50 States and the District of Columbia from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National H1N1Flu Survey (NHFS) combined data. State-specific child and adult (age ≥18 years) coverage were correlated positively (r = 0.68), with wider range of coverage among state-specific child levels compared with adult levels.

* Coverage estimates are for persons with reported vaccination during August 2009--January 2010 who were interviewed during October 2009--February 2010.

Alternate Text: The figure above shows estimates of child and adult state-specific cumulative seasonal influenza vaccination coverage for the 50 States and the District of Columbia from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National H1N1Flu Survey (NHFS) combined data. State-specific child and adult (age ≥18 years) coverage were correlated positively (r = 0.68), with wider range of coverage among state-specific child levels compared with adult levels.


TABLE 2. Estimated seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥6 months,* by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region, state, and racial/ethnic group --- United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), end of January 2010

HHS region and state/area

Non-Hispanic white persons aged ≥6 mos

Non-Hispanic black persons aged ≥6 mos

Hispanic persons aged ≥6 mos

Persons of other race/ethnicity aged ≥6 mos

No.§¶

%

(95% CI**)

No.

%

(95% CI)

No.

%

(95% CI)

No.

%

(95% CI)

All states combined

201,361

42.5BHO

(±0.6)

21,864

32.2WO

(±1.9)

20,082

33.6WO

(±2.3)

17,445

40.0WBH

(±2.4)

Region 1

22,185

48.8

(±2.0)

767

45.2

(±8.6)

1,252

42.7

(±6.4)

1,146

46.9

(±6.4)

Connecticut

3,653

44.9

(±4.0)

268

34.8

(±14.2)††

327

35.8

(±9.6)

255

38.4

(±13.4)††

Maine

5,014

48.3

(±2.7)

---§§

---§§

---§§

79

47.3

(±18.5)††

151

35.8

(±13.6)††

Massachusetts¶¶

5,076

51.8

(±3.9)

313

55.6

(±12.8)††

505

47.1

(±10.4)††

401

49.2

(±9.3)

New Hampshire

3,651

46.3O

(±3.4)

---§§

---§§

---§§

59

39.4O

(±18.8)††

124

71.6WH

(±15.7)††

Rhode Island

2,655

52.4B

(±4.0)

118

25.9WHO

(±12.3)††

248

47.4B

(±17.5)††

118

46.8B

(±16.7)††

Vermont¶¶

2,136

41.2

(±3.7)

---§§

---§§

---§§

34

---§§

---§§

97

38.6

(±18.4)††

Region 2

8,115

42.2BH

(±2.1)

1,151

29.1WO

(±6.1)

1,112

34.1WO

(±6.4)

686

45.4BH

(±9.2)

New Jersey¶¶

4,103

43.0BHO

(±2.6)

595

28.6W

(±8.0)

557

26.9W

(±7.4)

384

34.0W

(±7.3)

New York

4,012

41.8B

(±2.9)

556

29.3WO

(±8.0)

555

37.3

(±8.6)

302

50.7B

(±13.1)††

Region 3

20,372

45.4B

(±1.6)

3,940

34.0W

(±4.0)

1,130

38.7

(±6.7)

1,441

40.5

(±7.0)

Delaware

2,881

44.6B

(±4.1)

480

32.2W

(±8.2)

187

49.1

(±15.8)††

251

42.5

(±14.5)††

District of Columbia¶¶

1,307

54.0BH

(±8.5)

1,156

31.7W

(±5.8)

181

34.2W

(±10.6)††

175

45.6

(±14.2)††

Maryland

3,890

47.8B

(±2.9)

1,117

37.2W

(±6.4)

227

39.6

(±10.8)††

398

49.4

(±11.1)††

Pennsylvania

5,603

43.4

(±2.6)

597

35.6

(±10.3)††

290

42.5

(±13.2)††

233

32.2

(±15.9)††

Virginia¶¶

3,110

48.0BH

(±3.2)

518

29.7W

(±7.0)

195

33.4W

(±11.8)††

282

40.6

(±11.1)††

West Virginia

3,581

43.8

(±2.9)

72

34.9

(±15.0)††

50

---§§

---§§

102

39.9

(±19.0)††

Region 4

34,229

41.4BHO

(±1.4)

8,404

28.9W

(±3.0)

1,874

25.4WO

(±4.8)

1,671

33.4WH

(±5.3)

Alabama

3,419

38.9B

(±3.5)

1,174

27.4W

(±5.2)

124

35.4

(±16.6)††

152

32.4

(±15.3)††

Florida

8,474

35.8H

(±2.2)

898

28.3

(±8.9)

859

22.7W

(±6.7)

374

26.0

(±9.7)

Georgia

2,703

39.7BH

(±4.1)

901

28.0W

(±7.0)

220

23.2W

(±11.5)††

194

28.7

(±12.2)††

Kentucky

4,579

40.8

(±3.3)

569

47.7

(±14.0)††

107

40.3

(±20.7)††

194

40.2

(±13.5)††

Mississippi

4,056

42.6B

(±3.6)

2,093

23.7W

(±3.9)

117

32.8

(±14.5)††

128

29.8

(±16.7)††

North Carolina¶¶

3,992

50.8B

(±5.7)

768

32.8W

(±6.8)

218

40.2

(±12.5)††

272

42.4

(±14.1)††

South Carolina

3,703

43.0BH

(±3.7)

1,476

25.4WO

(±5.2)

132

24.4W

(±14.1)††

213

39.3B

(±12.6)††

Tennessee

3,303

45.3B

(±3.9)

525

31.0W

(±8.1)

97

---§§

---§§

144

48.5

(±18.1)††

Region 5

24,022

41.6BO

(±1.3)

2,978

30.1W

(±5.0)

1,391

38.5

(±7.2)

1,351

34.4W

(±5.2)

Illinois

3,444

42.4BO

(±3.3)

610

29.4W

(±11.4)††

510

37.0

(±11.6)††

267

30.4W

(±10.9)††

Indiana

5,026

40.9

(±2.6)

727

42.8

(±13.0)††

365

41.2

(±14.8)††

191

34.2

(±13.6)††

Michigan

4,068

38.1

(±2.8)

822

27.4

(±10.4)††

141

32.7

(±14.6)††

292

29.2

(±9.2)

Minnesota

4,147

53.9B

(±3.7)

126

29.7W

(±12.6)††

133

47.1

(±19.3)††

222

43.7

(±13.8)††

Ohio

4,887

39.3B

(±2.5)

525

27.9W

(±6.7)

123

38.6

(±13.9)††

268

33.6

(±10.6)††

Wisconsin

2,450

39.7

(±3.8)

168

33.0

(±12.0)††

119

46.9

(±20.2)††

111

45.6

(±18.0)††

Region 6

17,519

43.1B

(±1.9)

2,750

34.4WO

(±4.6)

5,616

38.6

(±4.7)

1,971

43.7B

(±7.0)

Arkansas¶¶

2,767

53.1B

(±7.1)

434

32.1WO

(±9.5)

145

44.5

(±16.1)††

146

54.5B

(±14.2)††

Louisiana

3,211

43.5B

(±3.2)

1,113

34.0W

(±5.2)

135

45.0

(±13.6)††

158

45.0

(±20.3)††

New Mexico

2,904

42.6O

(±4.1)

88

54.3

(±15.6)††

1,977

45.0O

(±6.1)

537

58.2WH

(±9.6)

Oklahoma

2,824

42.8H

(±3.7)

257

33.4

(±12.4)††

290

30.8W

(±10.8)††

598

37.2

(±7.6)

Texas

5,813

41.3

(±2.8)

858

34.8

(±7.5)

3,069

38.0

(±5.4)

532

42.7

(±11.7)††

Region 7

23,355

43.7HO

(±1.9)

815

40.9

(±9.7)

1,204

36.3W

(±6.6)

921

35.2W

(±6.7)

Iowa

4,176

51.0BH

(±3.0)

83

22.0W

(±11.3)††

182

24.6W

(±9.6)

112

41.2

(±16.0)††

Kansas

8,091

43.4B

(±2.1)

365

33.8W

(±8.1)

525

34.1

(±9.4)

416

36.4

(±8.1)

Missouri

2,963

38.2

(±3.9)

266

43.2

(±14.0)††

110

40.5

(±16.7)††

165

33.1

(±13.2)††

Nebraska

8,125

48.5O

(±2.5)

101

54.4O

(±17.1)††

387

45.1

(±16.0)††

228

31.0WB

(±11.8)††

Region 8

22,870

42.8B

(±1.8)

202

30.6W

(±10.7)††

1,486

38.4

(±6.3)

1,701

40.7

(±5.9)

Colorado¶¶

4,328

43.6B

(±3.3)

96

26.0WHO

(±12.9)††

713

41.6B

(±8.2)

223

44.8B

(±11.8)††

Montana

4,131

38.2

(±2.8)

---§§

---§§

---§§

102

---§§

---§§

545

32.9

(±6.8)

North Dakota

3,323

44.9

(±3.2)

---§§

---§§

---§§

61

33.6

(±19.5)††

214

39.7

(±21.6)††

South Dakota

3,464

54.3

(±4.0)

---§§

---§§

---§§

69

37.4

(±17.8)††

447

47.4

(±10.1)††

Utah

3,450

39.8

(±3.8)

---§§

---§§

---§§

250

30.6

(±11.1)††

119

33.8

(±12.3)††

Wyoming

4,174

39.8

(±3.0)

---§§

---§§

---§§

291

30.8

(±11.7)††

153

45.2

(±20.5)††

Region 9

11,503

40.7H

(±3.0)

594

42.2

(±11.2)††

3,751

30.4WO

(±5.2)

4,535

40.2H

(±5.1)

Arizona

2,547

42.3

(±5.3)

86

28.4O

(±16.1)††

655

35.1O

(±10.4)††

298

54.7BH

(±14.0)††

California

4,233

40.6H

(±3.8)

274

45.0H

(±13.4)††

1,999

30.1WB

(±6.0)

710

36.8

(±6.3)

Hawaii

1,675

49.8O

(±4.7)

57

63.4

(±24.8)††

455

51.0

(±10.5)††

3,175

56.4W

(±4.1)

Nevada

3,048

35.5BH

(±3.4)

177

22.1W

(±10.2)††

642

20.5W

(±8.4)

352

31.4

(±10.2)††


TABLE 2. (Continued) Estimated seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥6 months,* by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region, state, and racial/ethnic group --- United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), end of January 2010

HHS region and state/area

Non-Hispanic white persons aged ≥6 mos

Non-Hispanic black persons aged ≥6 mos

Hispanic persons aged ≥6 mos

Persons of other race/ethnicity aged ≥6 mos

No.§¶

%

(95% CI**)

No.

%

(95% CI)

No.

%

(95% CI)

No.

%

(95% CI)

Region 10

17,191

38.9

(±1.6)

263

30.2

(±11.1)††

1,266

36.3

(±6.4)

2,022

40.1

(±5.1)

Alaska

1,760

39.3

(±6.3)

59

---§§

---§§

110

30.9

(±15.5)††

645

34.6

(±9.0)

Idaho

3,541

33.4

(±2.7)

---§§

---§§

---§§

257

32.2

(±12.7)††

156

46.3

(±14.8)††

Oregon

3,727

38.9

(±3.2)

39

---§§

---§§

269

40.7

(±13.7)††

469

32.7

(±7.7)

Washington

8,163

40.4

(±2.3)

141

35.7

(±15.6)††

630

34.7

(±8.2)

752

43.5

(±7.7)

Median***

3,653

42.8

499

32.2

248

37.3

233

39.9

Range***

1,307--8,474

33.4--54.3

57--2,093

22.0--63.4

59--3,069

20.5--51.0

97--3,175

26.0--71.6

U.S. territories†††

185

31.6BH

(±8.0)

559

14.5W

(±3.9)

1,775

10.9W

(±2.9)

38

---§§

---§§

Guam§§§

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Puerto Rico

---§§

---§§

---§§

---§§

---§§

---§§

1,684

10.8

(±3.1)

---§§

---§§

---§§

U.S. Virgin Islands¶¶¶

185

31.6B

(±8.0)

559

14.5W

(±3.9)

91

---§§

---§§

38

---§§

---§§

NOTE: Superscripted letters indicate that the value was significantly different (p<0.05) than the value for another race/ethnic group (W = non-Hispanic white, B = non-Hispanic black, H = Hispanic, O = other race/ethnicity).

* Coverage estimates are for persons with reported vaccination during August 2009--January 2010 who were interviewed during October 2009--February 2010.

Percentages are weighted to the U.S. population.

§ Respondents with missing vaccination information were excluded; the missing rates are 7.5% from BRFSS and 2.8% from NHFS.

Unweighted sample size.

** Confidence interval.

†† Estimates might be unreliable because confidence interval half-width is >10.

§§ Estimates might be unreliable because relative standard error >0.30.

¶¶ Includes adult data from BRFSS, but no child BRFSS data were collected.

*** Excludes U.S. territories.

††† Estimates for U.S territories are from BRFSS only

§§§ Guam did not collect BRFSS data in 2009 and 2010.

¶¶¶ Estimates are limited to persons aged ≥18 years.

FIGURE 2. Estimated monthly number of persons reporting vaccination for seasonal influenza --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) combined, United States, 2008--09* and 2009--10 influenza seasons

The figure shows the estimated monthly number of persons reporting vaccination for seasonal influenza for the United States, during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons, from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) combined data. Monthly coverage of 2009-10 seasonal vaccination for persons aged ≥6 months was higher during September and October and lower in November compared with 2008-09.

* Based on data from 19 states reporting, weighted to the U.S. population. Survey was conducted to measure vaccination during August--December only.

For persons aged ≥6 months, 95% confidence intervals for the monthly estimates of the two seasons do not overlap.

Alternate Text: The figure above shows the estimated monthly number of persons reporting vaccination for seasonal influenza for the United States, during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons, from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) combined data. Monthly coverage of 2009-10 seasonal vaccination for persons aged ≥6 months was higher during September and October and lower in November compared with 2008-09.



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