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National Immunization Survey (NIS)

Breastfeeding Among U.S. Children Born 2001–2011, CDC National Immunization Survey

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year a,b
Any Breastfeeding Exclusive Breastfeeding

aBreastfeeding rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey’s landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods  for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bHealthy People 2020 objectives for breastfeeding in early postpartum period, at 6 months and 12 months are 81.9%, 60.6% and 34.1%, respectively. Healthy People 2020 objectives for exclusive breastfeeding through 3 and 6 months of age are 46.2% and 25.5%, respectively. National data on exclusive breastfeeding are not available for children born prior to 2003. See survey methods  for details.

Percentage of Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage ± Half 95% Confidence Interval)
 Landline Sample Dual-frame Sample
20012002200320042005200620072008 200920102011
Ever Breastfed71.6±1.071.4±0.972.6±0.973.1±0.874.1±1.074.0±0.975.6±0.974.6±0.9 76.1±1.076.7±1.279.2±1.2
At 6 months37.3±1.237.9±1.039.1±0.942.1±0.942.9±1.143.5±1.143.8±1.144.4±1.1 46.6±1.247.5±1.449.4±1.5
At 12 months18.5±0.919.2±0.819.6±0.821.4±0.821.5±0.922.7±0.922.7±1.023.4±1.0 24.6±1.025.3±1.326.7±1.3
Exclusively through 3 months29.6±1.531.5±0.932.1±1.033.6±1.033.5±1.034.3±1.0 35.9±1.137.1±1.440.7±1.5
Exclusively through 6 months10.3±1.012.1±0.712.3±0.714.1±0.813.8±0.814.6±0.8 15.6±0.917.2±1.218.8±1.2
aBreastfeeding rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey’s landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.


 

Percentage of Breastfed Children Who were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United Statesa,b

aFormula supplementation rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey’s landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bFormula supplementation is defined as supplementation of breast milk with formula (with or without other supplementary liquids or solids) among infants breastfed at the age specified (2 days, 3 months, or 6 months). National data on formula supplementation are not available for children born prior to 2003. See survey methods for details on study design.

Percentage of U.S. Breastfed Infants Who were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage +/- Half 95% Confidence Interval)a,b
 Landline Sample Dual-frame Sample
200320042005200620072008 200920102011
Before 2 days22.3±1.623.5±1.024.9±1.124.2±1.125.6±1.225.1±1.2 23.3±1.122.8±1.419.4±1.3
Before 3 months38.1±2.237.4±1.338.1±1.436.7±1.437.1±1.537.1±1.5 35.9±1.535.4±1.831.5±1.8
Before 6 months47.4±2.644.5±1.545.9±1.743.6±1.643.7±1.743.6±1.7 43.4±1.742.8±2.237.9±2.0

aFormula supplementation rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey’s landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bFormula supplementation is defined as supplementation of breast milk with formula (with or without other supplementary liquids or solids) among infants breastfed at the age specified (2 days, 3 months, or 6 months). National data on formula supplementation are not available for children born prior to 2003. See survey methods for details on study design.


 

Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2011, National Immunization Survey, United Statesa,b

aBreastfeeding rates presented in this figure are based on dual-frame (landline and cellular telephone) samples from 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey. See survey methods for details on study design.

bExclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk — NO solids, no water, and no other liquids.

Source: National Immunization Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services

 

Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2011 (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)a,b
U.S. National Breastfeeding Rates, 2011 Birth
Child AgeBreastfeeding
(n=14456)
Exclusive Breastfeeding (n=14131)
At birth

79.2±1.2

7 days

78.1±1.2

59.5±1.5

14 days

77.2±1.2

57.3±1.5

21 days

75.7±1.2

55.1±1.5

28 days

74.5±1.3

53.7±1.5

42 days

70.3±1.4

48.0±1.5

1 month

74.2±1.3

53.2±1.5

2 months

68.8±1.4

46.9±1.5

3 months

63.6±1.4

40.7±1.5

4 months

56.9±1.5

32.9±1.5

5 months

51.9±1.5

24.0±1.3

6 months

49.4±1.5

18.8±1.2

7 months

41.0±1.5

8 months

37.8±1.5

9 months

33.9±1.4

10 months

30.7±1.4

11 months

28.5±1.4

12 months

26.7±1.3

18 months

9.9±0.9

aBreastfeeding rates presented in this table are based on dual-frame (landline and cellular telephone) samples from 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey. See survey methods for details on study design.

bExclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk — NO solids, no water, and no other liquids.

Source: National Immunization Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services.

Sample sizes appearing in the NIS breastfeeding tables are slightly smaller than the numbers published in other NIS publications due to the fact that in the DNPAO breastfeeding analyses, the sample was limited to records with valid responses to the breastfeeding questions.

 

Tables Based on Dual-frame Estimates

TablesBirth Cohorts
"Any" and "Exclusive" Breastfeeding Rates
-by states201120102009
-by socio-demographics201120102009
Note: Dual-frame estimates are based on both landline and cellular phone samples.

 

Tables and Maps Based on Landline Estimates

For Tables and Maps Based on Landline Estimates for Birth Cohorts from 2000 to 2008: visit new interactive database on Data, Trends & Maps.

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