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How To... - Read A Data Table - Prevalence Tables
Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis

 
More info on Prevalence Tables:
 Summary of Health Indicators
 Summary of Breastfeeding Indicators
 Geographic Comparison of Health Indicators
 Health Indicators by Demographic Variables
 Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis
   

Use

Use the PNSS Table 13C, Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Outcomes by Select Health Indicators to examine maternal health indicators that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

This table can be used to answer questions such as:

  • What percent of women who smoke gave birth to preterm infants compared to women who do not smoke?


Interpreting the Data

The following paragraphs provide general information about the table data that will help you with interpretation.

Title
For PNSS, the table title includes a group of health indicators but only selected health indicators are included in the group.
Review the PNSS table titles.

Risk Factors
In this table, the pregnancy outcomes of maternal weight gain, low and high birthweight, preterm and full term low birthweight are stratified by the following risk factors:

  • prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)
  • weight gain during pregnancy
  • smoking during pregnancy

Prepregnancy BMI
A woman’s prepregnancy BMI is associated with the weight she gains during pregnancy. Prepregnancy underweight is associated with low birthweight. The following weight gain recommendations have been established by the Institute of Medicine based on a woman’s prepregnancy BMI:

Prepregnancy BMI Ideal Weight Gain
Underweight: BMI <19.8 28-40 pounds
Normal weight: BMI 19.8–26 25-35 pounds
Overweight: BMI >26 to 29 15-25 pounds
Obese: BMI >29 At least 15 pounds

Weight Gain
Weight gain during pregnancy is associated with pregnancy outcome.

  • Less than ideal weight gain is associated with an increased risk of low birthweight.
  • Greater than ideal weight gain is associated with high birthweight.
  • Low birthweight is the result of preterm delivery or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or both. In PNSS, full term low birthweight is used as a proxy for IUGR because almost all full term low birthweight infants are IUGR.

Smoking Risk
Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have less than ideal weight gain than women who do not smoke. Their infants are at risk for the following conditions:

  • Infants of women who smoke and are underweight before pregnancy, or who do not gain the recommended weight during pregnancy are at increased risk of low birthweight, particularly full term low birthweight.
  • Infants of women who smoke are at risk of preterm delivery.

Stratification of Data Within the Table
Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Outcomes are stratified by Prepregnancy BMI, Weight Gain, and Smoking During Pregnancy. Data must be valid for both health indicators (Prepregnancy BMI and Birthweight) to be included in the analysis.


Sample: PNSS Table 13C, Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis

We're going to look at sections of the PNSS Table 13C, Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis. You can click on the View Sample Table link below each portion to review the entire table. The sample table is numbered to match the portions shown below.

Prepregnancy BMI

Sample: PNSS Table 13C Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 13C, Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Outcomes by Select Health Indicators


1 Underweight women have the highest prevalence of the following indicators:
  • Less than ideal or recommended weight gain based on their Prepregnancy BMI (22.8%)
  • Low Birthweight (9.3%)
  • Preterm (15%)
  • Full Term Low Birthweight (5.5%).

Review the definition of Prepregnancy BMI and its prevalence calculation.


Smoking During Pregnancy

Sample: PNSS Table 13C Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 13C, Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Outcomes by Select Health Indicators


2 Women who smoke during pregnancy have a higher prevalence of the following indicators:
  • Low Birthweight (9.1%)
  • Preterm (12.7%)
  • Full Term Low Birthweight (5.0%)

Review the definition of Smoking and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Birthweight and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Preterm and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Full Term Low Birthweight and its prevalence calculation.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity

This page last updated March 04, 2010

United States Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity