Improving rodent control in and around homes and buildings can help to reduce exposure to rodents that may be infected with arenaviruses. Avoid contact with rodents, seal up holes and gaps in homes and other buildings surrounding the home to prevent or minimize rodent infestation or entry into the household. Place traps in and around homes to decrease rodent populations. Clean up any food that may be accessible to rodents.

People should avoid areas that are infested with rodents and other small mammals, or where they see signs of rodent infestation (droppings, etc.).

Chapare virus can be transmitted person-to-person. People who are sick with Chapare may be infectious in blood, saliva, urine, semen, respiratory secretions, and other body fluids while they have symptoms— and for months after they no longer have symptoms. Body fluids of sick and recovering people should be monitored for the presence of Chapare virus, since infected people have the potential to infect others (particularly household members, healthcare workers, and potentially sexual partners) via these fluids. For this reason, it is important to avoid contact with the body fluids of people who are sick with Chapare. Take precautions to avoid contact with body fluids (e.g. blood, saliva, urine, semen, respiratory secretions, etc) of infected people, even after they have recovered, until they have tested negative.

Precautions for preventing Chapare virus transmission in healthcare settings

Person-to-person transmission of Chapare virus has been documented as a result of close contact with infected patients, such as during aerosol-generating procedures in healthcare settings. Standard, contact and droplet precautions with eye protection should be implemented during management of suspected or confirmed CHHF cases in healthcare settings. Airborne precautions should be used when performing procedures that could generate infectious aerosols (such as endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy or endoscopy, suctioning, chest, compressions, etc.).

Precautions when working with Chapare virus in laboratories

Infection with Chapare virus can produce hemorrhagic symptoms— often with a fatal outcome— in humans. Researchers studying the virus must only work with suspected samples using the highest biosecurity standards available (CDC recommends a biosafety level 4 laboratory), strictly following all protocols for personal protection, sample inactivation and waste disposal. In the United States, Chapare virus is classified as a Select Agent.

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