Selected Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI) Papers


  • Haddadin Z, Schuster JE, Spieker A, Rahman H, Blozinski A, Stewart L, Campbell AP, Lively JY, Michaels MG, Williams JV, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Staat MA, McNeal MM, Selvarangan R, Harrison CJ, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Englund JA, Klein EJ, Curns AT, Rha B, Langley GE,. Hall AJ, Patel MM, Halasa NB, for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network.  Acute respiratory illnesses in children during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: a prospective multicenter surveillance study. Pediatrics 2021:e2021051462. doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-051462. PMID: 33986150.
  • Rha B, Lively JY, Englund JA, Staat MA, Weinberg GA, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, Williams JV, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Michaels MG, Stewart LS, Harrison CJ, Szilagyi PG, McNeal MM, Klein EJ, Strelitz B, Lacombe K, Schlaudecker E, Moffatt ME, Schuster JE, Pahud BA, Weddle G, Hickey RW, Avadhanula V, Wikswo ME, Hall AJ, Curns AT, Gerber SI, Langley G.  SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Children – Multi-Center Surveillance, United States, January-March 2020.  J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9:609-612. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piaa075. PMID: 32556327
  • Prill MM, Iwane MK, Edwards KM, Williams JV, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Willby MJ, Talbot HK, Hall CB, Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Curns AT, Erdman DD; for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Human coronavirus in young children hospitalized for acute respiratory illness and asymptomatic controlsPediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:235-240.
  • Talbot HKB, Crowe JE, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Zhu Y, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Szilagyi PG, Podsiad AB, Iwane MK, Williams JV. Coronavirus infection and hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young childrenJ Med Virol 2009;81:853-856.

Human Metapneumovirus



hospitalized child
  • Hamdan L, Probst V, Haddadin Z, Rahman H, Spieker A, Vandekar S, Stewart L, Williams J, Boom J, Munoz F, Englund J, Selvarangan R, Staat MA, Weinberg G, Azimi P, Klein E, McNeal M, Sahni L, Singer M, Szilagyi P, Harrison C, Patel M, Campbell A, Halasa N. Influenza clinical testing and oseltamivir treatment in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness, 2015-2016. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2022;16:289–297. PMID: 34704375.
  • Tenforde MW, Campbell AP, Michaels MG, Harrison CJ, Klein EJ, Englund JA, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, Stewart LS, Weinberg GA, Williams JV, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Singer MS, Azimi PH, Zimmerman RK, McNeal MM, Talbot HK, Monto AS, Martin ET, Gaglani M, Silveira FP, Middleton DB, Ferdinands JM, Rolfes MA. Clinical influenza testing practices in hospitalized children and adults at United States medical centers, 2015–2018. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2022;11:5-8. PMID: 34643241
  • Campbell AP, Ogokeh C, Weinberg GA, Boom JA Englund JA Williams JV, Halasa NB Selvarangan R, Staat MA, Klein EJ, McNeal M, Michaels MG, Sahni LC, Stwart L, Szilagyi PG, Harrison CJ, Lively JY, Rha B, Patel M, for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Effect of vaccination on preventing hospitalized influenza among children during a severe season associated with B/Victoria Viruses, 2019-2020. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73:e947-e954. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab060. PMID: 33502489.
  • Kim SS, Naioti EA, Halasa NB, Stewart LS, Williams JV, Michaels MG, Selvarangan R, Harrison CJ, Staat MA, Schlaudecker EP, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Englund JA, Klein EJ, Ogokeh CE, Campbell AP, Patel MM, for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalization and emergency department visits in two A(H3N2) dominant influenza seasons among children <18 years old, New Vaccine Surveillance Network 2016-17 and 2017-18. J Infect Dis 2021 Dec 24;jiab624. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab624. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34951451.
  • Ogokeh CE, Campbell AP, Feldstein LR, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, McNeal MM, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, Englund JA, Boom JA, Azimi PH, Szilagyi PG, Harrison CJ, Williams JV, Klein EJ, Sahni LC, Singer MN, Lively JY, Payne DC, Patel M.  Comparison of parental report of influenza vaccination to documented records in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 2015–2016. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021;10:389-397. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piaa110. PMID: 33043965.
  • Campbell AP, Ogokeh C, Lively JY, Staat MA, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, Englund JA, Boom JA, Weinberg GA, Williams JV, McNeal M, Harrison CJ, Stewart LS, Klein EJ, Sahni LC, Szilagyi PG, Michaels MG, Hickey RW, Moffat ME, Pahud BA, Schuster JE, Weddle GM, Rha B, Fry AM, Patel M. Vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalization and emergency department visits among children in the United States, 2018–2019.  Pediatrics 2020;146:e20201368. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1368. PMID: 33020249
  • Feldstein LR, Ogokeh C, Rha B, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, Englund JA, Boom JA, Azimi PH, Szilagyi PG, McNeal M, Harrison CJ, Williams JV, Klein EJ, Sahni LC, Singer MN, Lively JY, Payne DC, Fry AM, Patel M, Campbell AP, for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalization among children in the United States, 2015–2016. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2020;Feb 28 piaa017 [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32108879.
  • Weinberg GA. Live, attenuated influenza vaccine: Present and future roles. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(S1):S1-S2. PubMed PMID 32191309.
  • Weinberg GA. Nontraditional uses of live, attenuated influenza vaccine: School-located influenza vaccination. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(S1):S19-S23. PubMed PMID 32191311.
  • Iwane MK, Chaves SS, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Staat MA, Brown CJ, Griffin MR, Weinberg, GA, Poehling KA, Prill MM, Williams JV, Bridges CB. Disparities between Black and White Children in Hospitalizations Associated With Acute Respiratory Illness, and Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Three US Counties—2002-2009Am J Epidemiol 2013;177:656-665.
  • Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Snively BM, Suerken CK, Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Chaves SS, Zhu Y, McNeal MM, Bridges CB. The burden of influenza in young children, 2004-2009Pediatrics 2013;131:207-16.
  • Ortega-Sanchez IR, Molinari NAM, Fairbrother G, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Griffin MR, Cassidy A, Poehling KA, Bridges CB, Staat MA. Indirect, out-of-pocket and medical costs from influenza-related illness in young childrenVaccine 2012;30:4175-4181.
  • Staat MA, Griffin MR, Donauer S, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Prill MM, Chaves SS, Bridges CB, Poehling KA, Fairbrother G. Vaccine effectiveness for laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6-59 months of age, 2005-2007Vaccine. 2011;29:9005-9011.
  • Brown C, Clayton-Boswell H, Chaves SS, Prill MM, Iwane MK, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Weinberg GA, Fairbrother G, Hall CB, Zhu Y, Bridges CB; for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). Validity of parental report of influenza vaccination in young children seeking medical careVaccine 2011;28;29:9488-9492.
  • Allred NJ, Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Zhang F, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Donauer S, Prill MM, Fairbrother G. The impact of missed opportunities on seasonal influenza vaccination coverage for healthy young childrenJ Public Health Manag Pract 2011;17:560-4
  • Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Snively BM, Payne DC, Bridges CB, Chu SY, Light LS, Prill MM, Finelli L, Griffin MR, Edwards KM; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Impact of maternal immunization on influenza hospitalizations in infantsAm J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(6 Suppl 1):S141-8.
  • Fairbrother G, Cassedy A, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Molinari NA, Donauer S, Henderson D, Ambrose S, Kent D, Poehling K, Weinberg GA, Griffin MR, Hall CB, Finelli L, Bridges C, Staat MA; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. High costs of influenza: Direct medical costs of influenza disease in young children. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 12;28(31):4913-9.
  • Poehling KA, Fairbrother G, Zhu Y, Donauer S, Ambrose S, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Prill MM, Finelli L, Allred NJ, Bardenheier B, Szilagyi PG; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Practice and child characteristics associated with influenza vaccine uptake in young children. Pediatrics. 2010;126:665-673.
  • Eisenberg K, Szilagyi PG, Fairbrother G, Griffin MR, Staat M, Hornung R, Sexton S, Shone LP, Weinberg GA, Hall C, Zhu Y, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Lofthus G, Fisher SG, Holloway M, Bridges CB, Iwane MK, and the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 influenza seasons. Pediatrics 2008;122:911-919.
  • Miller EK, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Zhu Y, Hall CB, Fairbrother G, Seither R, Erdman D, Lu P, Poehling KA; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Influenza burden for children with asthma. Pediatrics 2008;121:1-8.
  • Grijalva CG, Poehling KP, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Griffin MR. Accuracy and interpretation of rapid influenza tests in children. Pediatrics 2007;119:e6-e11.
  • Grijalva CG, Weinberg GA, Bennett NM, Staat MA, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Iwane MK, Postema AS, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating the undetected burden of influenza hospitalizations in children. Epidemiol Infect 2007;135:951-8.
  • Grijalva CG, Craig AS, Dupont WD, Bridges CB, Schrag SJ, Iwane MK, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Estimating influenza hospitalizations among children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;12(1):103-9.
  • Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi P, Staat MA, Iwane MK, Bridges CB, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Bernstein DI, Herrera G, Erdman D, Hall CB, Seither R, Griffin MR. The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N Engl J Med 2006;355:31-40.
  • Poehling KA, Zhu Y, Tang YW, Edwards K. Accuracy and impact of a point-of-care rapid influenza test in young children with respiratory illnesses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006;160:713-18.
  • Humiston SG, Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Schaffer SJ, Santoli J, Shone L, Barth R, McInerny T, Schwartz B. The feasibility of universal influenza vaccination for infants and toddlers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:867-74.
  • Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Humiston SE, Schaffer S, McInerny T, Shone L, Jennings J, Washington ML, Schwartz B. Time spent by primary care practices on pediatric influenza vaccination visits: implications for universal influenza vaccination. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157:191-95.
  • Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Schaffer S, Humiston SG, Barth R, McInerny T, Shone L, Schwartz B. Potential burden of universal influenza vaccination of young children on visits to primary care practices. Pediatrics 2003;112:821-28.

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

  • Fairbrother G, Donauer S, Staat MA, Broder K, Salisbury S, Morrow AL, Tabangin ME, Altaye M, Holloway M, Schwartz B. Cincinnati pediatricians’ measured and reported immunizing behavior for children during the national shortages of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Vaccine 2013;31:2177-83.
  • Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Arbogast PG, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Decline in pneumonia admissions after routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA: a time-series analysis. Lancet. 2007 Apr 7;369(9568):1179-86.
  • Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Grijalva CG, Martin SW, LaFleur B, Mitchel E, Barth RD, Nuorti JP, Griffin MR. Reduction of frequent otitis media and pressure-equalizing tube insertions in children after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics 2007;119:707-15.  Erratum in: Pediatrics 2007;119:1270.
  • Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Shone LP, Barth R, Zhu Y, Schaffer S, Ambrose S, Roy J, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Walker FJ, Schwartz B. The impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on routine childhood vaccination and primary care use in 2 countiesPediatrics 2006;118:1394-402.
  • Poehling KA, Lafleur BJ, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Mitchel E, Barth R, Schwartz B, Griffin MR. Population-based impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in young children. Pediatrics 2004;114:755-61.
  • Schaffer SJ, Szilagyi PG, Shone LP, Ambrose SJ, Dunn MK, Barth RD, Edwards K, Weinberg GA, Balter S, Schwartz B. Physician perspectives regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics 2002;110:e68.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

  • Rha B, Curns AT, Lively JY, Campbell AP, Englund JA, Boom JE, Azimi PE, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Selvarangan R, Halasa NB, McNeal M, Klein EJ, Harrison CJ, Williams JV, Szilagyi PG, Singer MN, Sahni LC, Figueroa-Downing D, McDaniel D, Prill MM, Whitaker BL, Stewart LS, Schuster JE, Pahud BA,  Weddle G, Avadhanula V, Munoz FM, Piedra PA, Payne DC, Langley G, Gerber SI.  Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among young children — 2015–2016. Pediatrics 2020 Jun 16;e20193611. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-3611. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32546583.
  • Lively JY, Curns A, Weinberg GA, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Prill MM, Iwane MK, Gerber SI, Langley GE. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated outpatient visits among children less than 24 months of age. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2019 Mar 6. pii: piz011. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piz011. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30840770.
  • Weinberg GA. Respiratory syncytial virus mortality among young children. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e951-e952.
  • Oliveira DB, Iwane MK, Prill MM, Weinberg GA, Williams JV, Griffin MR, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Hall CB, Durigon EL, Erdman DD. Molecular characterization of respiratory syncytial viruses infecting children reported to have received palivizumab immunoprophylaxis.  J Clin Virol. 2015 Apr;65:26-31.
  • Hall CB, Weinberg, GA, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Schultz AF, Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Williams JV, Zhu Y, Grijalva CG, Prill MM, Iwane MK. Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations among children less than 24 months of agePediatrics. 2013;132:e341-e348.
  • Carroll KN, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Ali A, Zhu Y, Iwane MK, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Stevens TP, Hall CB, Williams JV, Hartert TV. Adherence to guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis among infants with prematurity or chronic lung disease in three United States countiesPediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:e229-31.
  • Hall CB, Weinberg, GA, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Iwane MK, Bridges CB, Staat MA, Griffin MR, Szilagyi PG.  The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children.  N Engl J Med 2009;360:588-598.


  • Shah MM, Perez P, Lively JY, Avadhanula V, Boom JA, Chappell J, Englund JA, Fregoe W, Halasa NB, Harrison CJ, Hickey RW, Klein EJ, McNeal MM, Michaels MG, Moffatt ME, Otten C, Sahni LC, Schlaudecker E, Schuster JE, Selvarangan R, Staat MA, Stewart LS, Weinberg GA, Williams JV, Ng TFF, Routh JA, Gerber SI, McMorrow ML, Rha B, Midgley CM.  Enterovirus D68-associated acute respiratory illness ─ New Vaccine Surveillance Network, United States, July–November, 2018–2020.  MMWR—Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep 2021;70:1623-1628. PMID: 34818320.
  • Kujawski SA, Midgley CM, Rha B, Lively JA, Nix WA, Payne DC, Englund J, Boom JA, Williams JV, Weinberg GA, Staat, MA, Selvarangan R, Halasa N, Klein E, Sahni LC, Michaels MG, Shelley L, McNeal M, Harrison CJ, Stewart LS, Lopez AS, Routh JA, Patel M, Oberste MS, Watson JT, Gerber SI. Notes from the Field: Enterovirus D68-associated acute respiratory illness in the United States: Results from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network, July-October, 2017-2018.  MMWR—Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep 2019;68:277-280. Erratum in: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Apr 19;68(15):360. PubMed PMID: 30921299.
  • Iwane MK, Prill MM, Lu X, Miller EK, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Griffin MR, Staat MA, Anderson LJ, Williams JV, Weinberg GA, Ali A, Szilagyi PG, Zhu Y, Erdman DD. Human Rhinovirus Species Associated With Hospitalizations for Acute Respiratory Illness in Young US ChildrenJ Infect Dis. 2011;204:1702-1710.
  • Miller EK, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Iwane MK, Griffin MR, Hall CB, Zhu Y, Szilagyi PG, Morin L-L, Heil LH, Lu X, Williams JV, for the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. A novel group of rhinoviruses is associated with asthma hospitalizationsJ Allerg Clin Immunol. 2009;123:98-104.
  • Miller EK, Lu X, Erdman DD, Poehling KA, Zhu Y, Griffin MR, Hartert TV, Anderson LJ, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Iwane MK, Edwards KM; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Rhinovirus-associated hospitalizations in young children.  J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 195(6): 773-81.


  • Probst V, Spieker AJ, Stopczynski T, Stewart LS, Haddadin Z, Selvarangan R, Harrison CJ, Schuster JE, Staat MA, McNeal M, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Piedra PA, Englund JA, Klein EJ, Michaels MG, Williams JV, Campbell AP, Patel M, Gerber SI, Halasa NB.  Clinical presentation and severity of adenovirus detection alone vs. adenovirus co-detection with other respiratory viruses in U.S. children with acute respiratory illnesses from 2016-2018.  J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2021;(in press).
  • Weinberg, GA, Schnabel K, Erdman DD, Prill MM, Iwane MK, Whitaker B, Szilagyi PG, Hall CB. Field evaluation of TaqMan array card (TAC) for the simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infectionJ Clin Virol. 2013;57:254-260.
  • Griffin MR, Walker FJ, Iwane MK, Weinberg GA, Staat MA, Erdman DD. Epidemiology of respiratory infections in young children: insights from the new vaccine surveillance networkPediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:S188-S192.
  • Iwane MK, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Weinberg GA, Coulen C, Poehling KA, Shone LP, Balter S, Hall CB, Erdman DD, Wooten K, Schwartz B; New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Population-based surveillance for hospitalizations associated with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses among young childrenPediatrics. 2004; 113: 1758-1764.
  • Weinberg GA, Erdman DD, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Schwartz B. Superiority of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to conventional viral culture in the diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections in children. J Infect Dis 2004;189:706-10.
  • Erdman DD, Weinberg GA, Edwards KM, Walker FJ, Anderson BC, Winter J, Gonzalez M, Anderson LJ. GeneScan reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of six common respiratory viruses in young children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:4298-303.
  • Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Edwards K, Mitchel E, Barth R, Hughes H, Lafleur B, Schaffer SJ, Schwartz B, Griffin MR. Streptococcus pneumoniae-related illnesses in young children: secular trends and regional variation. Pediatric Infect Dis J 2003;22:413-18.