Fatalities in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry (FOG)
Key FOG Variable Descriptions
The FOG database collects several different types of information (i.e., variables) on each fatal incident and each worker who died in the incident. Variables about the incident are those that would be common to all fatalities associated with the incident, such as the date the event occurred and the location of the incident. Other variables are specific to each fatally injured worker, such as the worker’s age, years of experience, and cause of the fatality.
Below are the definitions for key FOG variables; these are the most commonly reported variables in FOG datasets, publications, and products.
Worker level variables: Event Type
FOG event types describe how the fatal injury or illness occurred. In FOG, each fatally injured worker is assigned only one event type. In instances where two or more events occur to a single victim, precedence is given to the initial event type. For example, a worker that is struck by a piece of equipment resulting in a fall will be categorized as a struck-by incident since this event caused the fall.
The definition of each FOG event type is below. Note: The definition does not include the explanation of technical terms (see Resources for this information).
Caught between or crushed:
Workers who were injured as a result of being squeezed, crushed, pinched, or compressed between two or more objects, between parts of an object, between other meshing objects, between a moving and stationary object, between two or more moving objects, in collapsing material, or in operating equipment.
Workers who were injured as a result of making contact (bumping into, stepping on, being pushed, thrown into, or against objects, etc.) or impact with stationary objects or equipment.
Workers who were injured as a result of making contact or impact with objects or equipment that were flying, discharged, dislodged, swinging, slipping, sliding, or rolling. Excluded are objects or equipment that fell from an elevation to a lower level.
Struck by a falling object:
Workers who were injured as a result of contact or impact with objects or equipment that fell from an elevation to a lower level. This includes instances where the injured person is crushed, pinned, or caught under a falling object.
Workers who were injured from contact with electricity. This includes direct contact from the power source to the worker or indirect contact, such as when an object the worker is touching contacts a power source. Excluded is contact with lightning (see Exposure: environmental).
Workers who were injured in an uncontrolled fire or an explosion that resulted from combustion. This includes instances when a worker was fatally injured in a fire that originated at an intentional heat source (e.g., flare stack), as well as unintentional and intentionally set explosions (e.g., perforating). Excluded are explosions that were not accompanied by combustion (see Explosion (Pressure)).
Workers who were injured in an explosion that was an unexpected pressure release. FOG defines an explosion as rapid expansion, outbreak, bursting, or upheaval. Large and small explosions are included. Excluded are explosions that are accompanied by combustions (see Explosion (combustion) or fire).
Workers who were poisoned due to unintentional alcohol or drug overdose. Excluded are instances where alcohol or drug use contributed to an incident but was not the cause of death or injury.
Cardiac event (possible work exposure):
Workers whose cause of death or diagnosis was determined to be a heart attack, heart arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, or other heart-related episodes where symptoms of the cardiac event began at work, and a specific workplace event, exposure, or practice is suspected to have contributed to the worker’s death.
Workers who were injured from contact with or exposure to a condition or substance that is a part of the environment. This includes drownings in reserve pits or manmade or natural bodies of water, contact with temperature extremes (e.g. heat stroke and hypothermia), contact with lightning, contact with wildlife including insect or animal bites and stings, and instances of extreme weather events. Excluded are oxygen-deficient environments (see Exposure: harmful substance).
Workers who were injured due to inhalation, absorption (skin contact), or ingestion (swallowing) of a caustic, noxious (harmful) or allergenic substance in confined or open spaces. Also included, are instances where the worker is exposed to oxygen-deficient environments. Excluded are drownings and venomous bites and stings (see Exposure: environmental), and unintentional alcohol or drug overdose (see Exposure: alcohol or drug overdose).
Hot or cold objects:
Workers who were injured from contact with hot or cold objects or substances. Included is contact with heat sources such as welding torches or heated fluids; contact with fire and flames from stoves, furnaces, etc.; radiant heat emitted from such sources. Contact with cold objects includes contact with dry ice, liquid nitrogen, etc.
Undetermined (possible work exposure):
Workers who were injured while at work or sought medical attention for symptoms experienced at work where a specific workplace event, exposure, or practice is suspected to have contributed to the worker’s injury or death, but the manner and cause of the worker’s injury or death cannot be confirmed from available sources.
Workers who were injured in a fall or jump to a lower level (point of contact with the source of the injury was lower than the surface supporting the worker before the fall). This includes instances where the worker fell from stairs, steps, ladders, or other places of height.
Same level (slip or trip):
Workers who were injured in a fall on the same level (point of contact with the source of the injury was on the same level or higher than the surface supporting the worker before the fall). This includes instances where the worker slips or trips.
Workers whose death or injury as a result of suicide, homicide, or other actions taken by themselves or others that were intentionally meant to cause harm.
Workers who were injured as a result of excessive physical effort. This involves lifting, pulling, pushing, turning, carrying, etc.
Includes incidents involving vehicles (motor vehicles, powered industrial vehicles, powered mobile industrial equipment, trains, watercraft, and aircraft). Excluded are incidents where the worker was injured solely with the non-transport components of the vehicle, such as being struck by rising forklifts or swinging buckets on a loader, or falls from vehicles while the vehicle is not in transport.
Vehicle incidents are coded into the four following categories:
Workers who were injured in incidents involving vehicles that occur at oil and gas extraction workplaces (e.g., oil and gas wellsites, yards, storage facilities).
Workers who were injured in incidents involving vehicles that did not occur on a roadway or an oil and gas extraction site. (e.g., air or water travel)
Workers who were injured in incidents involving vehicles that occurred or originated on roadways, including public highways and streets, lease roads, or other roads generally used for travel.
Workers who were injured in incidents involving vehicles where the location of the incident is not apparent from available sources.
Cardiac event (no known work exposure):
Workers whose cause of death or diagnosis was determined to be from a heart attack, heart arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, or other heart-related episodes where symptoms of the cardiac event began at work and are not attributable to a specific workplace event, exposure, or practice.
Workers who died or were injured, and the event could not be determined.