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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Lead

RTECS #

OF7525000

CAS #

7439-92-1

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

207.19

Molecular Formula

Pb

Synonyms

C.I. 77575
C.I. Pigment Metal 4
Glover
KS-4
Lead (ACGIH)
Lead flake
Lead inorganic
Lead inorganic (OSHA)
Lead S2
Olow (Polish)
Omaha & grant

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/human50 µg/m3MUREAV 147,301,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat23 µg/m3/16WGTPZAB 26(10),38,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/monkey42 mg/kg/30WTOLED5 8,165,1981
DNA Damageinhalation/human4.2 ng/L/6Y- intermittentTXCYAC 187,183,2003

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 10 mg/m3/24H (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
ZHPMAT 165,294,1977
inhalation/rat 3 mg/m3/24H (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicZHPMAT 165,294,1977
oral/mouse 1120 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AEHLAU 23,102,1971
oral/mouse 6300 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
EXPEAM 31,1312,1975
oral/mouse 300 mg/kg (1-2D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityTXCYAC 6,129,1976
oral/mouse 4800 mg/kg (1-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)BECTA6 18,271,1977
oral/domestic animal 662 mg/kg (1-21W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTXAPA9 25,466,1973
oral/domestic animal 814 mg/kg (5W prior to copulation/1-21W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralAEHLAU 29,154,1974
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 2118 mg/kg (15D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AECTCV 17,365,1988
oral/mouse 4099.2 mg/kg (56D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral/mouse 24 µg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalREPTED 19,35,2004
oral/rat 1545 gm/kg (8W pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETOX* 27,11,2006
oral/mouse 0.2 ppb (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 22,586,2006
oral/mouse 0.2 ppb (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 22,586,2006
oral/rat 515 mg/kg (61D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 -,40,2009
oral/rat 790 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AEHLAU 23,102,1971
oral/rat 1140 mg/kg (14D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralPHMCAA 20,201,1978
oral/rat 520 mg/kg (7-22D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFEPRA7 37,394,1978
oral/rat 1100 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FEPRA7 37,895,1978

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 10 µg/m3Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Other changes
VRDEA5 (5),107,1981
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 271 mg/m3VCVN1* -,425,1988
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgEye: Other eye effectsTOXID9 66,206,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 155 mg/kgVCVN1* -,427,1988
oral/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 160 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TPKVAL 14,22,1975
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/6YPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
JAMAAP 237,2627,1977
parenteral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsNETOX* 27,108,2006
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 300 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/6H/30D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)KHZDAN 15,150,1972
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 200 µg/m3/6H/26W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)KHZDAN 15,150,1972
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 9.9 mg/m3/122D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVN1* -,425,1988
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.011 mg/m3/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVN1* -,425,1988
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 0.03 mg/m3/1Y- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
HUTODJ 7,125,1988
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 0.03 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentEndocrine: AndrogenicHUTODJ 7,125,1988
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 0.109 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)AEHLAU 42,124,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in cerebral spinal fluidTOXID9 -,70,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4099.2 mg/kg/8W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in endocrine weight (unspecified)TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10248 mg/kg/20W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6879 mg/kg/5W- continuousBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
PNUSB5 (505),53,1982
oral/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 582 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
MAERE* 24,179,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 µg/kg/30W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
GISAAA 40(5),101,1975
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 93.6 mg/kg/30D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,17,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 43.75 mg/kg/1W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOXID9 66,283,2002
unreported route/horse, donkey lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN1* -,427,1988
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.012 mg/kg/10D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
VCVN1* -,426,1988
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.012 mg/kg/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
VCVN1* -,426,1988

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,325,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,325,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMSUDL 7,230,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTRBMAV 33,85,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPGMJAO 51,783,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJDSCAE 58,1767,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIRXPAT 12,1,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTPHBG 55,147,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 6,377,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWQURBAW 7,75,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 54,55,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAVMA4 164,277,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEMBAP 40,239,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 5,151,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGEIGAI 20,291,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSTEVA8 2,341,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLCHAU 19,361,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Pb,254,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPDTNBH 6,204,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMTODM 3,209,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 76,115,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW49DXAV -,57,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 30,396,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 540,19,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,155,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,161,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMAERE* 51,247,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMCPT* 2,67,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,483,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,491,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,521,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,531,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,641,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 27,429,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 27,520,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLNUT* 25,369,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,76,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJATDK 26,191,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,742,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),71,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,133,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,297,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,701,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,247,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,36,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,73,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,137,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1009,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 667,82,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 73,66964,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,113,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWETOPFR 27,307,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFESTAS 90,911,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,321,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,485,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,191,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,4,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,16,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,333,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,689,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,711,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,737,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,747,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,191,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,130,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,165,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 26,81,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,38,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 33,269,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,178,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,545,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,810,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 34,298,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 248,71,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,171,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,278,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 33,608,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 30,89,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 49,117,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 776,84,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 313,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 313,15,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3DTLVS* 3,143,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 (dust, fume), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.1 mg/m3;KZW 0.4 mg/m3, inhal, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 (dust, fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3 (fume, dust), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 0.2 mg/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3 (dust, fume), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg/m3, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3 (dust and fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0,05 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (total dust);time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (resp. dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 mg/m3, KZG-week 0.8 mg/m3, carc 3, inhal, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.15 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1910.1025CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO LEAD, INORGANIC-air10H time-weighted average 50 µg/m3NIOSH* DHHS#92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X3272; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 149; Number of Occupations 15; Total Number of Employees Exposed 4226; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 777
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5909; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 53; Number of Occupations 7; Total Number of Employees Exposed 857; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 437
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X8307; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 13; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 616
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 42490; Number of Industries 235; Total Number of Facilities 43061; Number of Occupations 146; Total Number of Employees Exposed 767619; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 236378
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 42490; Number of Industries 107; Total Number of Facilities 8256; Number of Occupations 81; Total Number of Employees Exposed 103308

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166704)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-human
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Lead in blood and urine, 8003; in surface wipe samples, 9100
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Lead, by flame AAS, 7082; or by HGAAS, 7105
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Metals in urine, 8310
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID125G
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID206
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