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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-

RTECS #

KJ3325000

CAS #

50-29-3

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

354.48

Molecular Formula

C14H9Cl5

Synonyms

1,1,1-Trichloor-2,2-bis(4-chloor fenyl)-ethaan (Dutch)
1,1,1-Trichlor-2,2-bis(4-chlor-phenyl)-aethan (German)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane
1,1,1-Tricloro-2,2-bis(4-cloro-fenil)-etano (Italian)
1,1-Bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane
4,4'-DDT
4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Aavero-extra
Agritan
alpha,alpha-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-beta,beta,beta-trichlorethane
Arkotine
Azotox
Azotox M 33
Benzene, 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro-
Benzochloryl
Bosan Supra
Bovidermol
Chlorophenothan
Chlorophenothane
Chlorophenotoxum
Citox
Clofenotane
DDT
DDT (ACGIH:OSHA)
DDT technical
Deoval
Detox
Detoxan
Dibovin
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ACGIH:OSHA)
Dicophane
Dodat
Dykol
ENT 1,506
Estonate
Gesafid
Gesarol
Hildit
Ivoran
Mutoxan
NCI-C00464
Neocid
Neocidol (solid)
OMS 16
p,p'-DDT
p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Parachlorocidum
PEB1
Pentachlorin
RCRA waste number U061
Santobane
Tafidex
Trichlorobis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
Zerdane

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 µgAJBSAM 27,427,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/quail5 gm/LEXPEAM 30,920,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/chicken5 gm/LEXPEAM 30,920,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human40 mg/LHOEKAN 29,33,1979
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human200 µg/L/72HMUREAV 40,131,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgJCLBA3 47,78a,1970
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/rat10 µg/L34LXAP -,555,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse50 ppmCNJGA8 16,491,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/mouse50 mg/kgPHTHDT 6,147,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse300 mg/kgAJBSAM 27,427,1974
DNA adductAscites tumor/mouse15 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli15 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species0.1 µg/L/96HEMMUEG 49,406,2008
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species2 µg/L/48HEMMUEG 49,406,2008
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms50 ppm/24HIJEBA6 19,568,1981
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human500 mg/LARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibitionother cell types/Drosophila melanogaster250 ppbEXPEAM 41,745,1985
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat100 mg/LARTODN 45,101,1980
Dominant Lethal Testoral/other insects200 ppmETEAAT 12,221,1969
Dominant Lethal Testoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 µgAJBSAM 27,427,1974
Dominant Lethal Testoral/rat100 mg/kgFCTXAV 11,53,1973
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse100 mg/kgPHTHDT 6,147,1979
Dominant Lethal Testunreported route/mouse200 mg/kg/10W- intermittentPHTHDT 6,147,1979
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species0.1 µg/L/96HEMMUEG 49,406,2008
morphological transformembryo/mouse42600 nmol/LJNCIAM 54,981,1975
morphological transformoral/rat4620 mg/kg/77D-continuousCRNGDP 11,1413,1990
morphological transformother cell types/mouse5 mg/L/12DMUREAV 557,191,2004
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human100 mg/kgGTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
other mutation test systemsembryo/quail5 gm/LEXPEAM 30,920,1974
other mutation test systemsembryo/chicken5 gm/LEXPEAM 30,920,1974
other mutation test systems/Other microorganisms50 ppm/24HIJEBA6 19,568,1981
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse18 mg/kgMUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/mammal (species unspecified)50 mg/LAECTCV 15,581,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 µgAJBSAM 27,427,1974
sperm morphologyoral/rat1 gm/kg/2D- intermittentBECTA6 14,171,1975
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 pmol/LCRNGDP 5,1547,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat50 µmol/kgCRNGDP 8,1433,1987

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 60 mg/kg (3D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTXAPA9 18,348,1971
intraperitoneal/rat 21 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NATUAS 228,1222,1970
intraperitoneal/mouse 40 mg/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)BECTA6 9,267,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse 40 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersAMBOCX 1,148,1972
oral/Dog 3540 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
AECTCV 6,83,1977
oral/rabbit 150 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
AIPTAK 192,286,1971
oral/rat 420 mg/kg (34D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)
AECTCV 3,479,1976
oral/mouse 504 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralENPBBC 4,189,1974
oral/mouse 81 mg/kg (4W male/4W pre-2W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityTXAPA9 10,54,1967
oral/mouse 124 mg/kg (62D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersENPBBC 3,127,1973
oral/mouse 148 mg/kg (66D prior to copulation/1-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)ENPBBC 3,127,1973
oral/rat 112 mg/kg (56D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 16,1002,1978
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)FCTXAV 11,53,1973
oral/rat 430 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)BECTA6 12,373,1974
oral/rat 1890 mg/kg (36W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)AECTCV 3,479,1975/1976
oral/rat 250 mg/kg (15-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemBNEOBV 26,283,1975
oral/rat 50 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityFCTXAV 11,53,1973
subcutaneous/mouse 418 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 143 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsENPBBC 5,54,1975
subcutaneous/mouse 40 mg/kg (3D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders
IJMRAQ 65,576,1977
unreported route/mouse 3 mg/kg (10-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TXAPA9 22,327,1972
unreported route/mouse 17500 µg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralPSYPAG 12,424,1968

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 21280 mg/kg/38W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
PSEBAA 134,113,1970
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (multigenerations)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 51,983,1973
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 73 mg/kg/26W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
FCTXAV 7,215,1969
oral/mouse toxic dose: 7560 mg/kg/90W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
FCTXAV 11,433,1973
oral/mouse toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/80W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,725,1977
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8760 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4380 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/mouse toxic dose: 3150 mg/kg/15W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ZKKOBW 82,25,1974
oral/mouse toxic dose: 3408 mg/kg (multigenerations)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
IJCNAW 11,688,1973
oral/rat toxic dose: 19 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,179,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 438 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
REONBL 26,177,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 17976 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral/rat toxic dose: 24192 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 29.2 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 31.76 gm/kg/4Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.5 gm/kg/151W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20.99 gm/kg/120W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.03 gm/kg/43W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral/rat toxic dose: 8100 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TXAPA9 11,88,1967
oral/rat toxic dose: 12096 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1225 mg/kg/7W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 61,113,1975
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 370 mg/kg/80W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,725,1977

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 6.8 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TIVIEQ 4,17,1990
In Vitro/ctdInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µg/L/8HEndocrine: Other changesTXAPA9 247,243,2010
In Vitro/Human, colon tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 pmol/L/96HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 229,284,2014
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 126 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,3963,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.FCTOD7 50,3963,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TXCYAC 313,83,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/6DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 322,99,2014
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.001 nmol/L/6DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TXCYAC 322,99,2014
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.001 nmol/L/4DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 225,158,2014
In Vitro/jtfInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.313 µmol/L/24HEndocrine: EstrogenicTOLED5 206,152,2011
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.4 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TIVIEQ 4,17,1990
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 40 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysNRTXDN 44,204,2014
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 200 mg/m3Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement)HBPTO* 1,770,2001
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5000 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 201,137,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32 mg/kgPESTD5 17,351,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9100 µg/kgPESTD5 17,351,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgEndocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
TXAPA9 14,358,1969
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightHBPTO* 2,1320,2001
intravenous/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 75 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 68 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous/monkey lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous/monkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 55 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 47 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
oral/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgMEMOAQ 4,25,1950
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgYKYUA6 32,463,1981
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral/domestic animal lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgMEMOAQ 4,25,1950
oral/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7600 µg/kgENVPAF 20,45,1979
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgEJTXAZ 7,159,1974
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kgLBASAE 26,274,1976
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
85KYAH 11,446,1989
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Analgesia
PHARAT 2,268,1947
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdHBPTO* 2,1322,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 3.57 mg/kgTaste: Change in functionHBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 10.71 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Behavioral: Ataxia
HBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 21.43 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
HBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral/infant lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaBMJOAE 2,845,1945
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kgBehavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin and Appendages: Other: Sweating
CMEP** -,1,1956
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 71.43 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
HBPTO* 2,1329,2001
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 4.29 mg/kgCardiac: Change in force of contraction

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
HBPTO* 2,1329,2001
oral/monkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgAVPCAQ 12,31,1975
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedETOPFR 2,307,1996
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 135 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgPCOC** -,347,1966
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 87 mg/kgDOEAAH 35,25,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOSCF2 54,81,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOSCF2 54,81,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)REPTED 6,491,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgEndocrine: HyperglycemiaHBPTO* 2,1317,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increaseHBPTO* 2,1318,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 350 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsHBPTO* 2,1321,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NRTXDN 8,15,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
ARTODN 79,7,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 1,51,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOXID9 90,373,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTSCDR 29,505,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 106 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JTSCDR 28,403,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 97 mg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 28,403,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTXCYAC 238,49,2007
parenteral/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 24100 µg/kgAIPTAK 74,343,1947
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1000 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/18HEndocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Changes in endocrine weight (unspecified)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other carbohydrates
JAFCAU 18,1108,1970
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgHBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 95 mg/kgEndocrine: EstrogenicJAFCAU 18,1108,1970
unreported route/human lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kgVCVGK* -,68,1984
unreported route/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgGTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 221 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 66,131,2002
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTOXID9 66,131,2002
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgGISAAA 37(10),27,1972

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 mg/m3/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 mg/m3/4H/14D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/4H/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/90W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,69,1994
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
LPDSAP 7,182,1972
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 187.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicSCIEAS 162,371,1968
intraperitoneal/quail lowest published toxic dose: 1875 mg/kg/3D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicSCIEAS 162,371,1968
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
CLPTAT 14,727,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/4D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 111,99,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXAPA9 14,358,1969
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
BECTA6 34,63,1985
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 612.5 mg/kg/35D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseHBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/40D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 116.8 gm/kg/4Y- continuousLiver: Multiple effects

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 73 gm/kg/4Y- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/domestic bird lowest published toxic dose: 630 gm/kg/12D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)THAUC* 79,104,1962
oral/domestic bird lowest published toxic dose: 140 gm/kg/8D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTHAUC* 79,104,1962
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1867 mg/kg/42D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
BCTKAG 7,37,1974
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 65.7 gm/kg/78W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 17.5 gm/kg/10W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 4900 mg/kg/14W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 11200 mg/kg/32W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 14,626,1969
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TXAPA9 21,98,1972
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 17500 mg/kg/10W- continuousBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AIPTAK 141,111,1963
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/14W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 34,47,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 504 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
BECTA6 37,433,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 53088 µg/kg/24W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseBECTA6 48,535,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25.19 gm/kg/78W- continuousLiver: Other changesHBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8760 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Other changesHBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
ENPBBC 4,116,1974
oral/pigeon lowest published toxic dose: 1517 mg/kg/42D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
SCIEAS 166,1278,1969
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 12200 mg/kg/61D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
BECTA6 9,179,1973
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 60714 mg/kg/17W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Thyroid weight (goiter)

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
POSCAL 53,125,1974
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 12600 mg/kg/18W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
POSCAL 53,125,1974
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/20D- intermittentBehavioral: Tremor

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/57D- continuousBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXAPA9 32,587,1975
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 52.4 mg/kg/57D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weightTXAPA9 32,587,1975
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 gm/kg/15D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JPETAB 99,140,1950
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 117.6 mg/kg/4W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/30D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement)HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4140 mg/kg/90D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1309,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/60D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 23.1 µg/kg/11W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9030 mg/kg/43W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2730 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightTXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.09 mg/kg/43W- continuousLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXAPA9 218,280,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14.6 gm/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Multiple effects

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3W- intermittentEndocrine: AndrogenicBECTA6 18,231,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldBECTA6 18,231,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 547.5 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Multiple effectsHBPTO* 2,1311,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/45D- intermittentEndocrine: HyperglycemiaHBPTO* 2,1317,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/21D- continuousBehavioral: AtaxiaHBPTO* 2,1321,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 38.64 mg/kg/161D- intermittentLiver: Other changesHBPTO* 1,59,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3650 mg/kg/26W- intermittentLiver: Multiple effectsVCVGK* -,68,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/8W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
IJEBA6 35,1132,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91250 µg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightJAFCAU 3,402,1955
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 754 mg/kg/52D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
AECTCV 10,459,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/26W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
GISAAA 33(1),42,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4300 mg/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
APTOA6 28,149,1970
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 462 mg/kg/22W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
BECTA6 39,827,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6510 mg/kg/14D- continuousBehavioral: Tremor

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,171,1970
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/35D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BCPCA6 62,161,2001
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/20D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JEPOEC 9,283,1989

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 5,83,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 53,179,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 5,83,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 53,179,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 53,179,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJSIRAC 34,462,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAABIAV 35,505,1948
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWATXKA8 29,1,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADCSAJ 1,160,1950
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENVRAL 7,243,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 48,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 59,119,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 61,37,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNOALA4 41,271,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMZUZA8 (8),90,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCNDQA8 10(3),43,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWECMAAI 14,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 56,107,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJDDAL 20,331,1953
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWETOXAC 7,1,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIRGGAJ 24,193,1968
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBISNAS 20,958,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPHTHDT 7,513,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEESADV 1,89,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEESADV 1,503,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGISAAA 42(9),66,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** PB82-922903
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAECTCV 41,386,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 109(Suppl 1),35,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJIND8 93,768,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSCIEAS 93,768,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 526,85,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,144,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWLANCAO 366,763,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,164,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,93,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 27,579,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBPCEM* 16,105,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLBIAS 39,762,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,725,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,258,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOXIA6 49,413,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOXIA6 49,490,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,337,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 17,69,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 26,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,155,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,316,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,17,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 29,116,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 29,322,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,36,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTSCDR 33,389,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,157,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 26,13,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFESTAS 90,911,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,337,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 23,1011,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,98,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 38,1,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,605,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,461,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 760,1,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764-765,46,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 201,152,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 202,36,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 49,117,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,1473,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,35,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,42,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,66,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,74,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,89,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,123,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,136,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 311,41,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 230,146,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 765,19,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 268,157,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 314,51,2013

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESCancelledRBREV* -,170,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average (1 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,67,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 1 mg/m3;KZW 10 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 mg/m3, C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 1 mg/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3 (resp), Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.8 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 1 mg/m3, carc 3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DDT-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (0.1 mg/m3 LOQ)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 73750; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 160; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 160

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100137/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-nondisjunction; Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Host-mediated assay; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-131,1978
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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