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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzidine

RTECS #

DC9625000

CAS #

92-87-5

Updated

April 2017

Molecular Weight

184.26

Molecular Formula

C12H12N2

Synonyms

(1,1'-Biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (9CI)
4,4'-Bianiline
4,4'-Biphenyldiamine
4,4'-Biphenylenediamine
4,4'-Diamino-1,1'-biphenyl
4,4'-Diaminobiphenyl
4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl
4,4'-Diphenylenediamine
Benzidin
Benzidin (Czech)
Benzidina (Italian)
Benzidine (ACGIH:OSHA)
Benzydyna (Polish)
Biphenyl, 4,4'-diamino-
C.I. 37225
C.I. Azoic Diazo Component 112
Fast Corinth Base B
NCI-C03361
p,p-Bianiline
p,p'-Diaminobiphenyl
p,p'-Dianiline
p-Diaminodiphenyl
RCRA waste number U021

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat250 µmol/kgTXCYAC 21,223,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/rat12500 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,570,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat250 mg/kgMUREAV 182,309,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/other fish10 mg/kgCBPCEE 82,489,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse25 mg/kgMUREAV 320,69,1994
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse100 mg/LMUREAV 320,69,1994
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster160 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
DNA adductoral/mouse9600 µg/kgCNREA8 42,2678,1982
DNA adductliver/mouse60 µmol/LJJIND8 62,947,1979
DNA adductoral/Dog60 µmol/kgEVHPAZ 49,125,1983
DNA adductother cell types/Dog100 µmol/LCNREA8 44,1893,1984
DNA adductlymphocyte/human30 µmol/LPNASA6 85,3513,1988
DNA adductparenteral/rat11600 µg/kgCNREA8 42,2678,1982
DNA Damageoral/rat200 mg/kgENMUDM 4,667,1982
DNA Damageliver/rat3 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat63 mg/kgCRNGDP 6,1285,1985
DNA Damagefibroblast/human3 mmol/LENMUDM 7,267,1985
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis2 mg/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human100 µmol/L/2HTOSCF2 72,283,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human0.37 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA Damageoral/mouse160 mg/kgMUREAV 440,1,1999
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse150 mg/kgBSIBAC 56,1673,1980
DNA Damagelung/hamster100 µmol/L/2HBBRCA9 72,732,1976
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse200 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibitionoral/rat100 µmol/kgCRNGDP 8,1433,1987
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human600 µmol/L/30M-continuousJEPTDQ 2(1),65,1978
DNA repair/Escherichia coli1 mg/plateMUREAV 54,101,1978
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
DNA repairother cell types/human0.37 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,491,1981
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat1 mmol/kgMUREAV 93,317,1982
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse220 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse6400 µg/kgPMRSDJ 1,686,1981
micronucleus testoral/mouse300 mg/kgMUTAEX 2,267,1987
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/other fish10 mg/kgCYTBAI 47,147,1986
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/rat410 mg/kgMUREAV 40,43,1976
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat25 mg/kgTXCYAC 57,217,1989
morphological transformembryo/mouse2500 µg/LTCMUD8 3,101,1983
morphological transformembryo/hamster50 µg/LCALEDQ 3,45,1977
morphological transformkidney/hamster80 µg/LBJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse1 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse500 µg/LMUREAV 125,291,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium3 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)TOSCF2 56,351,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 nmol/plate/20MEMMUEG 38,268,2001
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium4 mg/L/72H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,181,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium50 µmol/L/3HTCMUD8 23,47,2003
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium400 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 175,11,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli100 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,387,1981
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium567 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systemsother cell types/Dog100 µmol/LCNREA8 44,1893,1984
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse25 mg/kgMUREAV 268,255,1992
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 319,19,1993
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli100 mmol/LMDMIAZ 31,11,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/LMUREAV 56,31,1977
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae50 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/man7 µg/m3/27WPOLEAQ 35,53,1980
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human2 mg/LMUREAV 241,109,1990
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse7700 µg/kgMUREAV 108,225,1983
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster5 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
specific locus testovary/hamster600 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,594,1981
specific locus testovary/hamster25 mg/L/9DEMMUEG 16,260,1990
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/L/48HMUREAV 222,359,1989
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/human10 mg/LMUREAV 206,91,1988
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human100 µmol/LCNREA8 38,2621,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human160 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,528,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat200 mg/kgENMUDM 4,553,1982
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 nmol/LMUREAV 136,255,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rabbit100 µmol/LCRNGDP 8,401,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rabbit1 µmol/LCNREA8 43,3120,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/hamster20 nmol/LMUREAV 136,255,1984

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 17600 µg/m3/14Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
AEHLAU 27,1,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/56W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
BEXBAN 69,68,1970
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 315 mg/kg/34WTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BEXBAN 69,68,1970
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
85DAAC 5,129,1966
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg/27D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 28,924,1968
oral/rat toxic dose: 25560 ng/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
EKSODD 9(4),73,1987
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/35W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
VOONAW 17(5),61,1971
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 1620 gm/kg/45W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
AICCA6 7,46,1950
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 850 mg/kg/32W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONAW 20(2),53,1974
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/60W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Blood: Tumors
VOONAW 20(8),69,1974
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 2025 mg/kg/27W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CANCAR 3,789,1950
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/26W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
VOONAW 10(5),50,1964
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1425 mg/kg/57W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONC* 37,60,1991

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kgPMRSDJ 1,682,1981
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgAEXPBL 58,167,1907
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 214 mg/kgNTIS** PB214-270
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgAEXPBL 58,167,1907
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 309 mg/kgNTIS** PB214-270

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Control as low as possible, skinDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 1,80,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 1,80,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 29,149,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 29,149,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 99,245,2010
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,61,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 99,245,2010
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,61,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMSUDL 7,123,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100F,61,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 99,245,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEAHB** -,38,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKHZHAZ 12(2),85,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADCSAJ 13,271,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLFSBY 24,253,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,321,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,39,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 19,547,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),187,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 612,58,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,255,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,104,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 18,69,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,205,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,39,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,14,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDskin-HUMAN CARCINOGEN, NO ASSIGNED time-weighted averageDTLWS* 3,11,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIA(Prohibited) Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMSkin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.001 ppm (0.008 mg/m3), C1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.008 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAcarcinogen, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDcarcinogen, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup A Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDcarc 1, JAN2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1110CFRGBR 29,1926,55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1910.1010CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1915.1010CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cancer suspect agentCFRGBR 29,1910.1010,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZIDINE-airCarcinogen use 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1010NIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 09830; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 252; Number of Occupations 8; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1554; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 426
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 09830; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 263; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1166

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/2001/109102)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS in rat liver
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Benzidine, 5509; in urine, 8306
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-65
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