Disability and Health Data System (DHDS) Data Guide Prevention & Screenings

Mammogram in Past 2 Years

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents who were female were asked, “Have you ever had a mammogram?” Those who responded “Yes” then were asked, “How long has it been since you had your last mammogram?” Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No. Respondents who reported having had a mammogram during the past 2 years were defined as Yes.

Analyses excluded respondents younger than 50 or older than 74 years of age.

Mammogram in Past 2 Years data available: 2016, 2018, and 2020.

Related Indicators: Up-to-date Cervical Cancer Screening

Defined based on

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breast cancer screening among adult women—Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(Supplement):46–50.

Courtney-Long E, Armour B, Frammartino B, Miller J. Factors associated with self-reported mammography use for women with and women without a disability. J Womens Health. 2011;20(9):1279-86.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Breast Cancer [Internet]. Rockville, MD: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; 2016. [Updated 2016 January; Cited 2020 August 13]. Available from: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/breast-cancer-screeningexternal icon.

Up-to-date Cervical Cancer Screening

Screening with Pap test (cervical cytology) alone, HPV (human papillomavirus) test alone, or HPV test in combination with Pap test can detect high-grade cervical cancer. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents who were female were asked,

  • “Have you ever had a Pap test?”. Those who responded “Yes” were then asked, “How long has it been since you had your last Pap test?”.
  • “An HPV test is sometimes given with the Pap test for cervical cancer screening. Have you ever had an HPV test?”. Those who responded “Yes” were then asked, “How long has it been since you had your last HPV test?”.

Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No. Respondents 21 to 29 years of age who reported having had a Pap test within the past 3 years, and respondents 30 to 65 years of age who reported having had a Pap test within the past 3 years or an HPV test within the past 5 years were defined as Yes.

Analyses excluded respondents younger than 21 years of age, or older than 65 years of age, and those who reported having had a hysterectomy.

Up-to-date Cervical Cancer Screening data available: 2016, 2018, and 2020.

Related Indicators: Mammogram in Past 2 Years

Definition based on

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Cervical Cancer Screening [Internet]. Rockville, MD: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; 2018. [Updated 2018 August; Cited 2022 March 13]. Available from: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/cervical-cancer-screeningexternal icon.

Up-to-date Colorectal Cancer Screening

Stool-based tests are tests to detect blood, DNA, or chemicals in the stool sample. Direct visualization tests are the exams used to detect colorectal cancer by uses of colonoscopy, CT colonography, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. By using both stool-based and visualization tests colorectal cancer is screened.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents 50 years of age or older were asked about five different tests,

  • “A colonoscopy checks the entire colon. You are usually given medication through a needle in your arm to make you sleepy and told to have someone else drive you home after the test. Have you ever had a colonoscopy (virtual colonoscopy excluded)?”
  • “A sigmoidoscopy checks part of the colon, and you are fully awake. Have you ever had a sigmoidoscopy?”
  • “For a virtual colonoscopy, your colon is filled with air, and you are moved through a donut shaped X-ray machine as you lie on your back and then on your stomach. Have you ever had a virtual colonoscopy?”
  • “Another test uses a special kit to obtain a small amount of stool at home to determine whether the stool contains blood and returns the kit to the doctor or the lab. This is also called a fecal immunochemical test or F.I.T. or a guaiac-based fecal occult blood test also known as gFOBT. Have you ever had this test using a home kit?”
  • “Another test uses a special kit to obtain an entire bowel movement at home and returns the kit to a lab. This is also called a FIT-DNA test, a stool DNA test, or a Cologuard test. Have you ever had this test?”

For these five questions, those who responded “Yes” were subsequently asked, “How long has it been since you had this test?”

Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No. Respondents who reported having had a colonoscopy within the past 10 years, a sigmoidoscopy within the past 5 years, a virtual colonoscopy within the past 5 years, a gFOBT within the past year, or a stool DNA test within the past 3 years were defined as Yes.

Analyses excluded respondents younger than 50 years of age or older than 75 years of age.

Up-to-date Colorectal Cancer Screening data available: 2016, 2018, and 2020.

Definition based on

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: Colorectal cancer screening test use―United States, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:881–8.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Colorectal Cancer: Screening [Internet]. Rockville, MD: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; 2016. [Updated 2016 June; Cited 2022 March 13]. Available from: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/colorectal-cancer-screeningexternal icon.

Routine Check-up in Past Year

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents were asked, “About how long has it been since you last visited a doctor for a routine checkup? A routine checkup is a general physical exam, not an exam for a specific injury, illness, or condition.” Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No. Respondents who reported having had a routine checkup during the past year were defined as Yes.

Routine Check-up in Past Year data available: 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020.

Related Indicators: Could Not See a Doctor Due to Cost in Past 12 Months, Have a Personal Doctor, and Have Health Care Coverage

Defined based on

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas―Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(No. SS-7):2–3, 11.

Visited Dentist in Past Year

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents were asked, “How long has it been since you last visited a dentist or a dental clinic for any reason? Include visits to dental specialists, such as orthodontists.” Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No. Respondents who reported having visited a dentist during the past year were defined as Yes.

Visited Dentist in Past Year data available: 2016, 2018, and 2020.

Defined based on

Armour BS, Swanson M, Waldman HB, and Perlman SP. A profile of state-level differences in the oral health of people with and without disabilities, in the U.S., in 2004. Public Health Rep. 2008;123:67–75.

Flu Vaccine in Past 12 Months

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents were asked, “There are two ways to get the flu vaccine, one is a shot in the arm and the other is a spray, mist, or drop in the nose called FluMist™. During the past 12 months, have you had either a flu shot or a flu vaccine that was sprayed in your nose?” Responses were grouped into two categories: Yes and No.

Flu Vaccine in Past 12 Months data available: 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020.

Defined based on

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas―Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011;60(No. SS-9):5.

Communication with the National Center of Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)