Issue 36, September 12, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 36, September 12, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      • Developing a public health response to Mycoplasma genitaliumExternal
        Golden MR, Workowski KA, Bolan G.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;216(suppl_2):S420-s426.

        Although Mycoplasma genitalium is increasingly recognized as a sexually transmitted pathogen, at present there is no defined public health response to this relatively newly identified sexually transmitted infection. Currently available data are insufficient to justify routinely screening any defined population for M. genitalium infection. More effective therapies, data on acceptability of screening and its impact on clinical outcomes, and better information on the natural history of infection will likely be required before the value of potential screening programs can be adequately assessed. Insofar as diagnostic tests are available or become available in the near future, clinicians and public health agencies should consider integrating M. genitalium testing into the management of persons with sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromes associated with the infection (ie urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease) and their sex partners. Antimicrobial-resistant M. genitalium is a significant problem and may require clinicians and public health authorities to reconsider the management of STI syndromes in an effort to prevent the emergence of ever more resistant M. genitalium infections.

      • Etiology of severe acute watery diarrhea in children in the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network using quantitative polymerase chain reactionExternal
        Operario DJ, Platts-Mills JA, Nadan S, Page N, Seheri M, Mphahlele J, Praharaj I, Kang G, Araujo IT, Leite JP, Cowley D, Thomas S, Kirkwood CD, Dennis F, Armah G, Mwenda JM, Wijesinghe PR, Rey G, Grabovac V, Berejena C, Simwaka CJ, Uwimana J, Sherchand JB, Thu HM, Galagoda G, Bonkoungou IJ, Jagne S, Tsolenyanu E, Diop A, Enweronu-Laryea C, Borbor SA, Liu J, McMurry T, Lopman B, Parashar U, Gentsch J, Steele AD, Cohen A, Serhan F, Houpt ER.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;216(2):220-227.

        Background: The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013-2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs). Results: Rotavirus remained the leading etiology (overall weighted AF, 40.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 37.6%-44.3%]), though the AF was substantially lower in the Americas (AF, 12.2 [95% CI, 8.9-15.6]), based on samples from a country with universal rotavirus vaccination. Norovirus GII (AF, 6.2 [95% CI, 2.8-9.2]), Cryptosporidium (AF, 5.8 [95% CI, 4.0-7.6]), Shigella (AF, 4.7 [95% CI, 2.8-6.9]), heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ST-ETEC) (AF, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.0-6.1]), and adenovirus 40/41 (AF, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.9-5.5]) were also important. In the Africa Region, the rotavirus AF declined from 54.8% (95% CI, 48.3%-61.5%) in rotavirus vaccine age-ineligible children to 20.0% (95% CI, 12.4%-30.4%) in age-eligible children. Conclusions: Rotavirus remained the leading etiology of acute watery diarrhea despite a clear impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction. Norovirus GII, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, ST-ETEC, and adenovirus 40/41 were also important. Prospective surveillance can help identify priorities for further reducing the burden of diarrhea.

      • The burden and clinical presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults with severe respiratory illness in a high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence setting, 2012-2014External
        Walaza S, Tempia S, Dreyer A, Dawood H, Variava E, Martinson NA, Moyes J, Cohen AL, Wolter N, von Mollendorf C, von Gottberg A, Haffejee S, Treurnicht F, Hellferscee O, Ismail N, Cohen C.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Summer;4(3):ofx116.

        BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden and clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI) has important implications for anticipating treatment requirements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients aged >/=15 years with SRI at 2 public teaching hospitals in periurban areas in 2 provinces (Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province and Tshepong Hospital in Klerksdorp, North West Province) were enrolled prospectively from 2012 to 2014. Tuberculosis testing included smear microscopy, culture, or Xpert MTB/Rif. RESULTS: We enrolled 2486 individuals with SRI. Of these, 2097 (84%) were tested for tuberculosis, 593 (28%) were positive. Tuberculosis detection rate was 18% (133 of 729) in individuals with acute (</=14 days) presentation and 34% (460 of 1368) in those with chronic (>14 days) presentation. Among laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis cases, those with acute presentation were less likely to present with cough (88% [117 of 133] vs 97% [447 of 460]; ajusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5), night sweats (57% [75 of 132] vs 73% [337 of 459]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7), or be started on tuberculosis treatment on admission (63% [78 of 124] vs 81% [344 of 423]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7), but they were more likely to be coinfected with pneumococcus (13% [16 of 124] vs 6% [26 of 411]; aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-5.3) than patients with chronic presentation. Annual incidence of acute and chronic tuberculosis-associated SRI per 100000 population was 28 (95% CI = 22-39) and 116 (95% CI = 104-128), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, tuberculosis, including acute presentation, is common in patients hospitalized with SRI.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      • Medicolegal death scene investigations after natural disaster- and weather-related events: A review of the literatureExternal
        Rocha LA, Fromknecht CQ, Redman SD, Brady JE, Hodge SE, Noe RS.
        Acad Forensic Pathol. 2017 Jun 01;7(2):221-239.

        BACKGROUND: The number of disaster-related deaths recorded by vital statistics departments often differs from that reported by other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Weather Service storm database and the American Red Cross. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched an effort to improve disaster-related death scene investigation reporting practices to make data more comparable across jurisdictions, improve accuracy of reporting disaster-related deaths, and enhance identification of risk and protective factors. We conducted a literature review to examine how death scene data are collected and how such data are used to determine disaster relatedness. METHODS: Two analysts conducted a parallel search using Google and Google Scholar. We reviewed published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished documents including relevant forms, protocols, and worksheets from coroners, medical examiners, and death scene investigators. RESULTS: We identified 177 documents: 32 published peer-reviewed articles and 145 other documents (grey literature). Published articles suggested no consistent approach for attributing deaths to a disaster. Researchers generally depended on death certificates to identify disaster-related deaths; several studies also drew on supplemental sources, including medical examiner, coroner, and active surveillance reports. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the critical importance of consistent, accurate data collection during a death investigation. Review of the grey literature found variation in use of death scene data collection tools, indicating the potential for widespread inconsistency in data captured for routine reporting and public health surveillance. Findings from this review will be used to develop guidelines and tools for capturing disaster-related death investigation data.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      • Revisiting the taxonomy of the genus Elizabethkingia using whole-genome sequencing, optical mapping, and MALDI-TOF, along with proposal of three novel Elizabethkingia species: Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov., Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov., and Elizabethkingia occulta sp. novExternal
        Nicholson AC, Gulvik CA, Whitney AM, Humrighouse BW, Graziano J, Emery B, Bell M, Loparev V, Juieng P, Gartin J, Bizet C, Clermont D, Criscuolo A, Brisse S, McQuiston JR.
        Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2017 Aug 30.

        The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus. Genomospecies 1 and 2 contain the type strains E. anophelis and E. miricola, respectively. Genomospecies 3 and 4 are herein proposed as novel species named as Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov. (type strain, G0146T = DSM 2975T = CCUG 69503T = CIP 111191T) and Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov. (type strain, G4122T = DSM 2974T = CCUG 69496T = CIP 111192T), respectively. Finally, the new species Elizabethkingia occulta sp. nov. (type strain G4070T = DSM 2976T = CCUG 69505T = CIP 111193T), is proposed.

    • Health Economics
      • Evidence of dietary improvement and preventable costs of cardiovascular diseaseExternal
        Zhang D, Cogswell ME, Wang G, Bowman BA.
        Am J Cardiol. 2017 Aug 01.

        We conducted a review to summarize preventable medical costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with improved diet, as defined by the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal of the American Heart Association. We searched databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and ABI/INFORM to identify population-based studies published from January 1995 to December 2015 on CVD medical costs related to excess intake of salt/sodium or sugar-sweetened beverages, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, fish/fish oils/omega-3 fatty acids, or whole grains/fiber/dietary fiber. Based on the American Heart Association’s secondary dietary metrics, we also searched the literature on inadequate intake of nuts and excess intake of processed meat and saturated fat. For each component, we evaluated the CVD cost savings if consumption levels were changed. The cost savings were adjusted into 2013 US dollars. Among 330 studies focusing on diet and economic consequences, 16 studies evaluated CVD costs associated with 1 or more dietary components: salt/sodium (n = 13), fruits and vegetables (n = 1), meat (n = 1), and saturated fat (n = 3). In the United States, reducing individual sodium intake to 2,300 mg/day from the current level could potentially save $1,990.9/person per year for hypertension treatment, based on a simulation study. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables from <0.5 cup/day to >1.5 cups/day could save $1,568.0/person per year in treatment costs for CVD, based on a cohort study. Potential CVD cost savings associated with diet improvement are substantial. Interventions for reducing sodium intake and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption could be viable means to alleviate the increasing national medical expenditures.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Pathogenicity testing of influenza candidate vaccine viruses in the ferret modelExternal
        Belser JA, Johnson A, Pulit-Penaloza JA, Pappas C, Pearce MB, Tzeng WP, Hossain MJ, Ridenour C, Wang L, Chen LM, Wentworth DE, Katz JM, Maines TR, Tumpey TM.
        Virology. 2017 Aug 25;511:135-141.

        The development of influenza candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) for pre-pandemic vaccine production represents a critical step in pandemic preparedness. The multiple subtypes and clades of avian or swine origin influenza viruses circulating world-wide at any one time necessitates the continuous generation of CVVs to provide an advanced starting point should a novel zoonotic virus cross the species barrier and cause a pandemic. Furthermore, the evolution and diversity of novel influenza viruses that cause zoonotic infections requires ongoing monitoring and surveillance, and, when a lack of antigenic match between circulating viruses and available CVVs is identified, the production of new CVVs. Pandemic guidelines developed by the WHO Global Influenza Program govern the design and preparation of reverse genetics-derived CVVs, which must undergo numerous safety and quality tests prior to human use. Confirmation of reassortant CVV attenuation of virulence in ferrets relative to wild-type virus represents one of these critical steps, yet there is a paucity of information available regarding the relative degree of attenuation achieved by WHO-recommended CVVs developed against novel viruses with pandemic potential. To better understand the degree of CVV attenuation in the ferret model, we examined the relative virulence of six A/Puerto Rico/8/1934-based CVVs encompassing five different influenza A subtypes (H2N3, H5N1, H5N2, H5N8, and H7N9) compared with the respective wild-type virus in ferrets. Despite varied virulence of wild-type viruses in the ferret, all CVVs examined showed reductions in morbidity and viral shedding in upper respiratory tract tissues. Furthermore, unlike the wild-type counterparts, none of the CVVs spread to extrapulmonary tissues during the acute phase of infection. While the magnitude of virus attenuation varied between virus subtypes, collectively we show the reliable and reproducible attenuation of CVVs that have the A/Puerto Rico/9/1934 backbone in a mammalian model.

      • Nonspecific effects of oral polio vaccine on diarrheal burden and etiology among Bangladeshi infantsExternal
        Upfill-Brown A, Taniuchi M, Platts-Mills JA, Kirkpatrick B, Burgess SL, Oberste MS, Weldon W, Houpt E, Haque R, Zaman K, Petri WA.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 01;65(3):414-419.

        Background: As the global polio eradication initiative prepares to cease use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in 2020, there is increasing interest in understanding if oral vaccination provides non-specific immunity to other infections so that the consequences of this transition can be effectively planned for and mitigated. Methods: Data were collected from infants in an urban slum in Bangladesh (Mirpur, Dhaka) as part of the performance of rotavirus and oral polio vaccines in developing countries (PROVIDE) study. Following vaccination with trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks, infants were randomly assigned to receive tOPV (n = 315) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (n = 299) at 39 weeks. Episodes of diarrhea were documented through clinic visits and twice-weekly house visits through 52 weeks. In sum, 14 pathogens associated with diarrhea were analyzed with TaqMan Array Cards. Results: Although the proportion of children experiencing diarrhea was not different between the tOPV and IPV groups (P = .18), the number of days with diarrhea (P = .0037) and the number of separate diarrheal episodes (P = .054) trended lower in the OPV arm. Etiological analysis revealed that male tOPV recipients were less likely to have diarrhea of bacterial etiology (P = .0099) compared to male IPV recipients but equally likely to experience diarrhea due to viruses (P = .57) or protozoa (P = .14). Among the 6 bacterial enteric pathogens tested, only Campylobacter jejuni/coli detection was significantly reduced in the OPV arm (P = .0048). Conclusions: Our results suggest that OPV may cause nonspecific reductions in mortality, as has been studied elsewhere, by reducing etiology-specific diarrheal burden. This is likely driven by reductions in bacterial diarrhea. Further study of nonspecific OPV effects before global cessation is supported. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01375647.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      • Food consumption patterns among U.S. children from birth to 23 months of age, 2009-2014External
        Hamner HC, Perrine CG, Gupta PM, Herrick KA, Cogswell ME.
        Nutrients. 2017 Aug 26;9(9).

        Early dietary patterns can have long-term health consequences. This study describes food consumption patterns among US children </=23 months. We used one 24 h dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 to estimate the percentage of children </=23 months who consumed selected food/beverage categories on any given day by age and race/Hispanic origin. Among 0 to 5 month olds, 42.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 37.0%, 49.1%) consumed breast milk, with non-Hispanic blacks less likely (21.2%, 95% CI: 13.2%, 32.2%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (49.0%, 95% CI: 39.0%, 59.1%) (p < 0.001). The percentage of children consuming vegetables was 57.4%, 48.2%, and 45.1% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend). The percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages was 6.6%, 31.8% and 38.3% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend). Among children aged >/=6 months, lower percentages of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children consumed vegetables, and higher percentages consumed sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% juice compared with non-Hispanic white children, although differences were not always statistically significant. Compared with children in the second year of life, a higher percentage of children 6 to 11 months of age consumed vegetables and a lower percentage consumed 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, or sweets; with differences by race/Hispanic origin. These data may be relevant to the upcoming 2020-2025 federal dietary guidelines.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      • Resurgence of malaria following discontinuation of indoor residual spraying of insecticide in an area of Uganda with previously high-transmission intensityExternal
        Raouf S, Mpimbaza A, Kigozi R, Sserwanga A, Rubahika D, Katamba H, Lindsay SW, Kapella BK, Belay KA, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Dorsey G.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 01;65(3):453-460.

        Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tools for malaria prevention in Africa. It is not known whether reductions in malaria can be sustained after IRS is discontinued. Our aim in this study was to assess changes in malaria morbidity in an area of Uganda with historically high transmission where IRS was discontinued after a 4-year period followed by universal LLIN distribution. Methods: Individual-level malaria surveillance data were collected from 1 outpatient department and 1 inpatient setting in Apac District, Uganda, from July 2009 through November 2015. Rounds of IRS were delivered approximately every 6 months from February 2010 through May 2014 followed by universal LLIN distribution in June 2014. Temporal changes in the malaria test positivity rate (TPR) were estimated during and after IRS using interrupted time series analyses, controlling for age, rainfall, and autocorrelation. Results: Data include 65 421 outpatient visits and 13 955 pediatric inpatient admissions for which a diagnostic test for malaria was performed. In outpatients aged <5 years, baseline TPR was 60%-80% followed by a rapid and then sustained decrease to 15%-30%. During the 4-18 months following discontinuation of IRS, absolute TPR values increased by an average of 3.29% per month (95% confidence interval, 2.01%-4.57%), returning to baseline levels. Similar trends were seen in outpatients aged >/=5 years and pediatric admissions. Conclusions: Discontinuation of IRS in an area with historically high transmission intensity was associated with a rapid increase in malaria morbidity to pre-IRS levels.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Exploring barriers to the receipt of necessary medical care among cancer survivors under age 65 yearsExternal
        Banegas MP, Dickerson JF, Kent EE, de Moor JS, Virgo KS, Guy GP, Ekwueme DU, Zheng Z, Nutt S, Pace L, Varga A, Waiwaiole L, Schneider J, Robin Yabroff K.
        J Cancer Surviv. 2017 Aug 29.

        PURPOSE: With increasing cancer care costs and greater patient cost-sharing in the USA, understanding access to medical care among cancer survivors is imperative. This study aims to identify financial, psychosocial, and cancer-related barriers to the receipt of medical care, tests, or treatments deemed necessary by the doctor or patient for cancer among cancer survivors age < 65 years. METHODS: We used data on 4321 cancer survivors aged 18-64 years who completed the 2012 LIVESTRONG Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the receipt of necessary medical care, including sociodemographic, financial hardship, debt amount, caregiver status, and cancer-related variables. RESULTS: Approximately 28% of cancer survivors were within 1 year, and 43% between 1 and 5 years, since their last treatment at the time of survey. Nearly 9% of cancer survivors reported not receiving necessary medical care. Compared to survivors without financial hardship, the likelihood of not receiving necessary medical care significantly increased as the amount of debt increased among those with financial hardship (RRFinancial hardship w/< $10,000 debt = 1.94, 95% CI 1.55-2.42, and RR RRFinancial hardship w/>/= $10,000 debt = 3.41, 95% CI 2.69-4.33, p < 0.001). Survivors who reported lack of a caregiver, being uninsured, and not receiving help understanding medical bills were significantly more likely to not receive necessary medical care. CONCLUSION: We identified key financial and insurance risk factors that may serve as significant barriers to the receipt of necessary medical care among cancer survivors age < 65 in the USA IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The majority of cancer survivors reported receiving medical care either they or their doctors deemed necessary. However, identifying potentially modifiable barriers to receipt of necessary medical cancer care among cancer survivors age < 65 is imperative for developing interventions to ensure equitable access to care and reducing cancer disparities.

      2. Sagittal abdominal diameter predicts cardiovascular eventsExternal
        Kahn HS.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Jul 08.

        [No abstract]

      3. Increasing awareness of gynecologic cancer risks and symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-associated Pacific Island JURISDICTIONSExternal
        Novinson D, Puckett M, Townsend J, Reichhardt M, Tareg A, Palemar J, Wichilib R, Stewart SL.
        Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017 Aug 27;18(8):2127-2133.

        Background: Gynecologic cancers are common among Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (A/NH/PI) women. Prevention is important in United States associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPIJ) because there are limited resources to treat cancer. The objective of this study was to educate A/NH/PI women and providers about evidence-based interventions to prevent and control gynecologic cancers in Yap, one of four major islands comprising the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This was done through a partnership between Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer national campaign and the Yap comprehensive cancer control program, both funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods: Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer. Results: Twenty-nine providers and 326 adult women participated in sessions. All participants demonstrated significant increases in knowledge across all measured domains post-session. Public knowledge that HPV causes cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer increased from 4.9% pre-session to 51.4% post-session (p<0.0001); provider knowledge increased from 17.2% to 96.6% (p<0.0001). Significantly more women identified smoking as a cervical cancer risk factor post-session (increased from 53.8% to 98.7% [p<0.0001]). An average of 61.4% of providers said they were extremely or somewhat confident in their gynecologic cancer knowledge pre-session compared to 91.7% post-session. Conclusion: Targeted education about gynecologic cancer symptoms and risk factors can be effective at increasing awareness, behavioral intention, confidence and knowledge. These increases can lead to more widespread prevention of these five cancers.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. HIV testing and risk perceptions: A qualitative analysis of secondary school students in Kampala, UgandaExternal
        Aluzimbi G, Lubwama G, Muyonga M, Hladik W.
        J Public Health Afr. 2017 ;8(1):54-59.

        The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of self-reported HIV testing and risk behavior among sexually active adolescents and youth in secondary schools in Kampala Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between June and October 2010 among secondary school students in Kampala, Uganda. Forty eight (48) students across the 54 schools were purposively selected for the qualitative sub-study based on their responses to particular questions. We thematically analyzed 28 interviews for our qualitative study using Nvivo software. Drug and alcohol use coupled with peers pressure impaired students? perceptions towards HIV risk and therefore increased their susceptibility to HIV risk behaviors. Of the 28 scripts analyzed, 82% (23/28) had ever had sexual partners, 79% (22/28) were currently sexually active, and 57% (16/28) had ever been tested for HIV. In conclusion, most adolescents interviewed did not perceive HIV testing to be important to HIV prevention and reported low perception of susceptibility to HIV infection. Development of an adolescent HIV prevention model is important in improving uptake of HIV services.

      2. Geographic disparities in access to syringe services programs among young persons with hepatitis C virus infection in the United StatesExternal
        Canary L, Hariri S, Campbell C, Young R, Whitcomb J, Kaufman H, Vellozzi C.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 01;65(3):514-517.

        Using commercial laboratory data, we found 80% of 29382 young persons currently infected with hepatitis C virus lived >10 miles from a syringe services program. The median distance was 37 miles, with greater distances in rural areas and Southern and Midwestern states. Strategies to improve access to preventive services are warranted.

      3. Facilitators and barriers to community acceptance of safe, dignified medical burials in the context of an Ebola epidemic, Sierra Leone, 2014External
        Lee-Kwan SH, DeLuca N, Bunnell R, Clayton HB, Turay AS, Mansaray Y.
        J Health Commun. 2017 ;22(sup1):24-30.

        Sierra Leone was heavily affected by the Ebola epidemic, with over 14,000 total cases. Given that corpses of people who have died from Ebola are highly infectious and given the extremely high risk of Ebola transmission associated with direct contact with bodies of people who have died of Ebola, community acceptance of safe, dignified medical burials was one of the important components of efforts to stop the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. Information on barriers and facilitators for community acceptance of safe, dignified medical burials is limited. A rapid qualitative assessment using focus group discussions (FGDs) explored community knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards safe and dignified burials in seven chiefdoms in Bo District, Sierra Leone. In total, 63 FGDs were conducted among three groups: women >25 years of age, men >25 years of age, and young adults 19-25 years of age. In addition to concerns about breaking cultural traditions, barriers to safe burial acceptance included concerns by family members about being able to view the burial, perceptions that bodies were improperly handled, and fear that stigma may occur if a family member receives a safe, dignified medical burial. Participants suggested that providing opportunities for community members to participate in safe and dignified burials would improve community acceptance.

      4. Resilience is an understudied intrapersonal factor that may reduce HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of sexual risk behaviors, HIV prevalence, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with resilience scores in a population-based study among 364 black MSM in the Deep South. Participants with higher resilience scores had a lower prevalence of condomless anal sex with casual sexual partners in past 12 months (PR = 0.80, p value = 0.001) and during their last sexual encounter (PR = 0.81; p value = 0.009). Resilience was inversely associated with a lower prevalence of condomless anal sex with main sexual partners, participating in a sex party/orgy and having a STI in the past 12 months. Resilience may have a protective effect on HIV among black MSM, especially in the Deep South, and should be further explored in studies with prospective designs.

      5. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015External
        Mlotshwa M, Smit S, Williams S, Reddy C, Medina-Marino A.
        Glob Health Action. 2017 ;10(1):1360560.

        BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the attributes of Eden District’s TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District’s ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. RESULTS: TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District’s ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well-structured quality control and assurance system.

      6. Acute rhabdomyolysis and delayed pericardial effusion in an Italian patient with Ebola virus disease: a case reportExternal
        Nicastri E, Brucato A, Petrosillo N, Biava G, Uyeki TM, Ippolito G.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 30;17(1):597.

        BACKGROUND: During the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, some EVD patients, mostly health care workers, were evacuated to Europe and the USA. CASE PRESENTATION: In May 2015, a 37-year old male nurse contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. After Ebola virus detection in plasma, he was medically-evacuated to Italy. At admission, rhabdomyolysis was clinically and laboratory-diagnosed and was treated with aggressive hydration, oral favipiravir and intravenous investigational monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus. The recovery clinical phase was complicated by a febrile thrombocytopenic syndrome with pericardial effusion treated with corticosteroids for 10 days and indomethacin for 2 months. No evidence of recurrence is reported. CONCLUSIONS: A febrile thrombocytopenic syndrome with pericardial effusion during the recovery phase of EVD appears to be uncommon. Clinical improvement with corticosteroid treatment suggests that an immune-mediated mechanism contributed to the pericardial effusion.

      7. The contribution of respiratory pathogens to fatal and non-fatal respiratory hospitalizations: a pilot study of Taqman Array Cards (TAC) in KenyaExternal
        Njuguna HN, Chaves SS, Emukule GO, Nyawanda B, Omballa V, Juma B, Onyango CO, Mott JA, Fields B.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 25;17(1):591.

        BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Identifying etiologies of respiratory disease is important to inform cost effective treatment, prevention and control strategies. Testing for all of the different pathogens that are potentially associated with respiratory illnesses is challenging. We piloted the use of a multi-pathogen respiratory Taqman Array Cards (TAC) to identify pathogens in respiratory samples collected from non-fatal and fatal cases and their matched asymptomatic controls. METHODS: This is a case control study comparing viral and bacterial pathogens detected among non-fatal and fatal cases to those detected among age and time matched asymptomatic controls. We used McNemar’s test to compare proportions of pathogens detected among cases (non-fatal and fatal) to their matched asymptomatic controls. We used Mann-Whitney test to compare the distribution of median Cycle threshold (Ct) values among non-fatal and fatal cases to their corresponding asymptomatic controls. RESULTS: There were 72 fatal and 72 non-fatal cases matched to 72 controls. We identified at least one pathogen in 109/144 (76%) cases and 59/72 (82%) controls. For most pathogens, the median Ct values were lower among cases (fatal and non-fatal) compared to asymptomatic controls. CONCLUSIONS: Similar rates of pathogen detection among cases and controls make interpretation of results challenging. Ct-values might be helpful in interpreting clinical relevance of detected pathogens using multi-pathogen diagnostic tools.

      8. Evaluation of sampling recommendations from the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap for IdahoExternal
        Rosenthal M, Anderson K, Tengelsen L, Carter K, Hahn C, Ball C.
        JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017 Aug 24;3(3):e57.

        BACKGROUND: The Right Size Roadmap was developed by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve influenza virologic surveillance efficiency. Guidelines were provided to state health departments regarding representativeness and statistical estimates of specimen numbers needed for seasonal influenza situational awareness, rare or novel influenza virus detection, and rare or novel influenza virus investigation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare Roadmap sampling recommendations with Idaho’s influenza virologic surveillance to determine implementation feasibility. METHODS: We calculated the proportion of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) from Idaho’s influenza-like illness surveillance among outpatients during October 2008 to May 2014, applied data to Roadmap-provided sample size calculators, and compared calculations with actual numbers of specimens tested for influenza by the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL). We assessed representativeness among patients’ tested specimens to census estimates by age, sex, and health district residence. RESULTS: Among outpatients surveilled, Idaho’s mean annual proportion of MA-ILI was 2.30% (20,834/905,818) during a 5-year period. Thus, according to Roadmap recommendations, Idaho needs to collect 128 specimens from MA-ILI patients/week for situational awareness, 1496 influenza-positive specimens/week for detection of a rare or novel influenza virus at 0.2% prevalence, and after detection, 478 specimens/week to confirm true prevalence is </=2% of influenza-positive samples. The mean number of respiratory specimens Idaho tested for influenza/week, excluding the 2009-2010 influenza season, ranged from 6 to 24. Various influenza virus types and subtypes were collected and specimen submission sources were representative in terms of geographic distribution, patient age range and sex, and disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient numbers of respiratory specimens are submitted to IBL for influenza laboratory testing. Increased specimen submission would facilitate meeting Roadmap sample size recommendations.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Molybdenum-based diazotrophy in a Sphagnum peatland in northern MinnesotaExternal
        Warren MJ, Lin X, Gaby JC, Kretz CB, Kolton M, Morton PL, Pett-Ridge J, Weston DJ, Schadt CW, Kostka JE, Glass JB.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Jun 30.

        Microbial N2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO2 and susceptible to changing climate. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in a ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O2, CO2, CH4) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C2H2) reduction and 15N2 incorporation. Molecular analysis of metabolically active microbial communities suggested that diazotrophy in surface peat was primarily mediated by Alphaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobiaceae and Beijerinckiaceae). Despite higher dissolved vanadium (V; 11 nM) than molybdenum (Mo; 3 nM) in surface peat, a combination of metagenomic, amplicon sequencing and activity measurements indicated that Mo-containing nitrogenases dominate over the V-containing form. Acetylene reduction was only detected in surface peat exposed to light, with the highest rates observed in peat collected from hollows with the highest water content. Incorporation of 15N2 was suppressed 90% by O2 and 55% by C2H2, and was unaffected by CH4 and CO2 amendments. These results suggest that peatland diazotrophy is mediated by a combination of C2H2-sensitive and C2H2-insensitive microbes that are more active at low O2 and show similar activity at high and low CH4Importance Previous studies indicate that diazotrophy provides an important nitrogen source and is linked to methanotrophy in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. However, the environmental controls and enzymatic pathways of peatland diazotrophy, as well as the metabolically active microbial populations that catalyze this process remain in question. Our findings indicate that oxygen levels and photosynthetic activity override low nutrient availability in limiting diazotrophy, and that members of the Alphaproteobacteria (Rhizobiales) catalyze this process at the bog surface using the molybdenum-based form of the nitrogenase enzyme.

    • Geology
      1. Erionite occurs in volcaniclastic rocks and soils; in some villages in Turkey the presence of erionite in local rocks is associated with mesothelioma, a disease also associated with inhalation of airborne asbestos. Since volcaniclastic rocks containing erionite are widely present in the western U.S.A., there is a concern over potential health issues following inhalation of dust particles in these areas and thus there is a need to identify and quantify erionite particles found in air samples during hygienic investigations. Previous attempts to analyze the few micrometer-sized erionite particles found on air sample filters under transmission electron microscope (TEM) encountered difficulties due to electron beam damage. Recommendations are presented for accurate analysis by both energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Much of the work previously published to establish the crystal chemistry of erionite has involved the relatively large crystals found in vesicles in extrusive volcanic rocks. Analysis of these crystals gives a weight percent ratio of Si to Al in a narrow range around 2.7 (molar ratio 2.6), consistent with a unit-cell formula Al10Si26. In addition, the cation contents of these crystals generally meet the charge balance error formula for zeolites. However, erionites formed in volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks (tuffs) have very different Si:Al weight percent ratios, around 4.0, which is above the upper range for the analyses of the crystals found in vesicles. Analysis of many particles in samples from different locations reveal two other major differences between the erionites from the sedimentary situations and those found in vesicles. (1) The extra-framework alkali cation (Na, K, Ca) contents are lower than required for a stoichiometric balance with framework Al substitution for Si so that the cation charge balance error formula limits for zeolites are not met. (2) There is a large variability in measured cation contents from particle to particle from the same source as well as substantial differences in average compositions from different sources. However, sedimentary erionites cannot be termed a separate mineral species because the crystallographic data are consistent with erionite and new zeolite names cannot be proposed on the basis of Si:Al ratios alone. In addition to chemical differences between erionite from different sources, there are also morphological differences. By analogy with asbestos minerals, differences in composition and morphology may have implications for relative toxicity, and future research should include consideration of these aspects.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, 2017-18 influenza seasonExternal
        Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Broder KR, Walter EB, Bresee JS, Fry AM, Jernigan DB.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(2):1-20.

        This report updates the 2016-17 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65[No. RR-5]). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged >/=6 months who do not have contraindications. A licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate vaccine should be used.For the 2017-18 season, quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccines will be available. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in trivalent (RIV3) and quadrivalent (RIV4) formulations. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) is not recommended for use during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against (H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons. Recommendations for different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is available.Updates to the recommendations described in this report reflect discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 20, 2016; February 22, 2017; and June 21, 2017. New and updated information in this report includes the following:*Vaccine viruses included in the 2017-18 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain these three viruses and an additional influenza B vaccine virus, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).* Information on recent licensures and labelling changes is discussed, including licensure of Afluria Quadrivalent (IIV4; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia); Flublok Quadrivalent (RIV4; Protein Sciences, Meriden, Connecticut); and expansion of the age indication for FluLaval Quadrivalent (IIV4; ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada), previously licensed for >/=3 years, to >/=6 months.* Pregnant women may receive any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza vaccine.* Afluria (IIV3; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) may be used for persons aged >/=5 years, consistent with Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling.* FluMist Quadrivalent (LAIV4; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland) should not be used during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 influenza seasons.This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2017-18 season in the United States. A Background Document containing further information and a summary of these recommendations are available at These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. Updates and other information are available at CDC’s influenza website ( Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC’s influenza website periodically for additional information.

      2. Generalisability of vaccine effectiveness estimates: an analysis of cases included in a postlicensure evaluation of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USAExternal
        Link-Gelles R, Westreich D, Aiello AE, Shang N, Weber DJ, Rosen JB, Motala T, Mascola L, Eason J, Scherzinger K, Holtzman C, Reingold AL, Barnes M, Petit S, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Zansky S, Thomas A, Schaffner W, McGee L, Whitney CG, Moore MR.
        BMJ Open. 2017 Aug 28;7(8):e017715.

        OBJECTIVES: External validity, or generalisability, is the measure of how well results from a study pertain to individuals in the target population. We assessed generalisability, with respect to socioeconomic status, of estimates from a matched case-control study of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the USA. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Thirteen active surveillance sites for invasive pneumococcal disease in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were identified from active surveillance and controls were age and zip code matched. OUTCOME MEASURES: Socioeconomic status was assessed at the individual level via parent interview (for enrolled individuals only) and birth certificate data (for both enrolled and unenrolled individuals) and at the neighbourhood level by geocoding to the census tract (for both enrolled and unenrolled individuals). Prediction models were used to determine if socioeconomic status was associated with enrolment. RESULTS: We enrolled 54.6% of 1211 eligible cases and found a trend toward enrolled cases being more affluent than unenrolled cases. Enrolled cases were slightly more likely to have private insurance at birth (p=0.08) and have mothers with at least some college education (p<0.01). Enrolled cases also tended to come from more affluent census tracts. Despite these differences, our best predictive model for enrolment yielded a concordance statistic of only 0.703, indicating mediocre predictive value. Variables retained in the final model were assessed for effect measure modification, and none were found to be significant modifiers of vaccine effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that although enrolled cases are somewhat more affluent than unenrolled cases, our estimates are externally valid with respect to socioeconomic status. Our analysis provides evidence that this study design can yield valid estimates and the assessing generalisability of observational data is feasible, even when unenrolled individuals cannot be contacted.

      3. Implementing the synchronized global switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccines-lessons learned from the global perspectiveExternal
        Ramirez Gonzalez A, Farrell M, Menning L, Garon J, Everts H, Hampton LM, Dolan SB, Shendale S, Wanyoike S, Veira CL, Chatellier GM, Kurji F, Rubin J, Boualam L, Chang Blanc D, Patel M.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 01;216(suppl_1):S183-s192.

        In 2015, the Global Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication certified the eradication of type 2 wild poliovirus, 1 of 3 wild poliovirus serotypes causing paralytic polio since the beginning of recorded history. This milestone was one of the key criteria prompting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to begin withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV), beginning with the type 2 component (OPV2), through a globally synchronized initiative in April and May 2016 that called for all OPV using countries and territories to simultaneously switch from use of trivalent OPV (tOPV; containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (bOPV; containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus), thus withdrawing OPV2. Before the switch, immunization programs globally had been using approximately 2 billion tOPV doses per year to immunize hundreds of millions of children. Thus, the globally synchronized withdrawal of tOPV was an unprecedented achievement in immunization and was part of a crucial strategy for containment of polioviruses. Successful implementation of the switch called for intense global coordination during 2015-2016 on an unprecedented scale among global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, regulatory agencies, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) regional offices, and national governments. Priority activities included cessation of tOPV production and shipment, national inventories of tOPV, detailed forecasting of tOPV needs, bOPV licensing, scaling up of bOPV production and procurement, developing national operational switch plans, securing funding, establishing oversight and implementation committees and teams, training logisticians and health workers, fostering advocacy and communications, establishing monitoring and validation structures, and implementing waste management strategies. The WHO received confirmation that, by mid May 2016, all 155 countries and territories that had used OPV in 2015 had successfully withdrawn OPV2 by ceasing use of tOPV in their national immunization programs. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing this unprecedented global initiative, including (1) coordination and tracking of key global planning milestones, (2) guidance facilitating development of country specific plans, (3) challenges for planning and implementing the switch at the global level, and (4) best practices and lessons learned in meeting aggressive switch timelines. Lessons from this monumental public health achievement by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when bOPV is withdrawn after polio eradication but also could be relevant for other global health initiatives with similarly complex mandates and accelerated timelines.

      4. Vaccine exemptions and the kindergarten vaccination coverage gapExternal
        Smith PJ, Shaw J, Seither R, Lopez A, Hill HA, Underwood M, Knighton C, Zhao Z, Ravanam MS, Greby S, Orenstein WA.
        Vaccine. 2017 Aug 24.

        BACKGROUND: Vaccination requirements for kindergarten entry vary by state, but all states require 2 doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) at kindergarten entry. OBJECTIVE: To assess (i) national MCV vaccination coverage for children who had attended kindergarten; (ii) the extent to which undervaccination after kindergarten entry is attributable to parents’ requests for an exemption; (iii) the extent to which undervaccinated children had missed opportunities to be administered missing vaccine doses among children whose parent did not request an exemption; and (iv) the vaccination coverage gap between the “highest achievable” MCV coverage and actual MCV coverage among children who had attended kindergarten. METHODS: A national survey of 1465 parents of 5-7year-old children was conducted during October 2013 through March 2014. Vaccination coverage estimates are based provider-reported vaccination histories. Children have a “missed opportunity” for MCV if they were not up-to-date and if there were dates on which other vaccines were administered but not MCV. The “highest achievable” MCV vaccination coverage rate is 100% minus the sum of the percentages of (i) undervaccinated children with parents who requested an exemption; and (ii) undervaccinated children with parents who did not request an exemption and whose vaccination statuses were assessed during a kindergarten grace period or period when they were provisionally enrolled in kindergarten. RESULTS: Among all children undervaccinated for MCV, 2.7% were attributable to having a parent who requested an exemption. Among children who were undervaccinated for MCV and whose parent did not request an exemption, 41.6% had a missed opportunity for MCV. The highest achievable MCV coverage was 98.6%, actual MCV coverage was 90.9%, and the kindergarten vaccination gap was 7.7%. CONCLUSION: Vaccination coverage may be increased by schools fully implementing state kindergarten vaccination laws, and by providers assessing children’s vaccination status at every clinic visit, and administering missed vaccine doses.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. About 1 in 5 child deaths is a result of unintentional injury. The leading causes of unintentional injury death vary by age. This report provides national fatal and nonfatal data for children and teens by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Prevention strategies for the most common causes are highlighted. Opportunities for lifestyle clinicians to effectively guide their patients and their parents are discussed.

      2. Increases in United States life expectancy through reductions in injury-related deathExternal
        Kegler SR, Baldwin GT, Rudd RA, Ballesteros MF.
        Popul Health Metr. 2017 Aug 30;15(1):32.

        BACKGROUND: During the previous century the average lifespan in the United States (US) increased by over 30 years, with much of this increase attributed to public health initiatives. This report examines further gains that might be achieved through reduced occurrence of injury-related death. METHODS: US life tables and injury death rate data were used to estimate potential increases in life expectancy assuming various reductions in the rate of fatal injuries. Corresponding numbers of deaths potentially averted annually were also estimated; unit (per death) medical and lifetime work loss costs were employed to estimate total costs potentially averted annually. RESULTS: Through elimination of injury as a cause of death, average US life expectancy at birth could be increased by approximately 1.5 years, with notable variations by sex, ethnicity, and race. More conservatively, average life expectancy at birth could be increased by 0.41 years assuming that the national injury death rate could be brought into line with the lowest state-specific rate. Under this more conservative but plausible assumption, an estimated 48,400 injury deaths and $61 billion in medical and work loss costs would be averted annually. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in life expectancy of the magnitude considered in this report are arguably attainable based on long-term historical reductions in the US injury death rate, as well as significant continuing reductions seen in other developed countries. Contemporary evidence-based interventions can play an important role in reducing injury-related deaths, such as those due to drug overdoses and older adult falls, as well as suicides.

      3. There has been burgeoning parenting intervention research specifically addressing fathers in recent decades. Corresponding research examining their participation and engagement in evidence-based parent training programs, which have almost exclusively targeted mothers, is just emerging. The current study used mixed methods to examine factors that influenced completion of an augmented version of an evidence-based child maltreatment prevention program developed for male caregivers called SafeCare Dad to Kids (Dad2K) in a pilot study. The current sample comprised 50 male caregivers (Mage = 29.42 years, SD = 8.18) of a child between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Fathers participated in a baseline assessment and were considered program completers (n = 27) if they participated in the program’s six home visiting sessions. A subsample of completers (n = 11) was recruited to participate in qualitative interviews that provided in-depth information about fathers’ experiences in Dad2K. Logistic regression indicated that, in the context of other demographic predictors, fathers with an education beyond high school were over 5 times more likely to complete Dad2K program compared to fathers with a high school education or less. Qualitative analyses revealed that interviewed father completers were motivated to enroll and participate in a fathering program because of an interest to learn and obtain skills to make them a better parent. Fathers with a high school education or less may require additional engagement strategies to help proactively encourage their enrollment and completion of parent training programs.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Particle emissions from laboratory activities involving carbon nanotubesExternal
        Lo LM, Tsai CS, Heitbrink WA, Dunn KH, Topmiller J, Ellenbecker M.
        Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2017 ;19(8).

        This site study was conducted in a chemical laboratory to evaluate nanomaterial emissions from 20?30-nm-diameter bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during product development activities. Direct-reading instruments were used to monitor the tasks in real time, and airborne particles were collected using various methods to characterize released nanomaterials using electron microscopy and elemental carbon (EC) analyses. CNT clusters and a few high-aspect-ratio particles were identified as being released from some activities. The EC concentration (0.87??g/m3) at the source of probe sonication was found to be higher than other activities including weighing, mixing, centrifugation, coating, and cutting. Various sampling methods all indicated different levels of CNTs from the activities; however, the sonication process was found to release the highest amounts of CNTs. It can be cautiously concluded that the task of probe sonication possibly released nanomaterials into the laboratory and posed a risk of surface contamination. Based on these results, the sonication of CNT suspension should be covered or conducted inside a ventilated enclosure with proper filtration or a glovebox to minimize the potential of exposure.

      2. Interlaboratory validation of an improved method for detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in produce using a real-time PCR assayExternal
        Murphy HR, Cinar HN, Gopinath G, Noe KE, Chatman LD, Miranda NE, Wetherington JH, Neal-McKinney J, Pires GS, Sachs E, Stanya KJ, Johnson CL, Nascimento FS, Santin M, Molokin A, Samadpour M, Janagama H, Kahler A, Miller C, da Silva AJ.
        Food Microbiology. 2018 ;69:170-178.

        A collaborative validation study was performed to evaluate the performance of a new U.S. Food and Drug Administration method developed for detection of the protozoan parasite, Cyclospora cayetanensis, on cilantro and raspberries. The method includes a sample preparation step in which oocysts are recovered from produce using an enhanced produce washing solution containing 0.1% Alconox and a commercially available method to disrupt the C. cayetanensis oocysts and extract DNA. A real-time PCR assay targeting the C. cayetanensis 18S rDNA gene with an internal amplification control to monitor PCR inhibition provides species-specific identification. Five laboratories blindly analyzed a total of 319 samples consisting of 25 g of cilantro or 50 g of raspberries which were either uninoculated or artificially contaminated with C. cayetanensis oocysts. Detection rates for cilantro inoculated with 200, 10, and 5 oocysts, were 100%, 80%, and 31%, respectively. For raspberries, the detection rates for samples inoculated with 200, 10, and 5 oocysts were 100%, 90% and 50%, respectively. All uninoculated samples, DNA blank extracts, and no-template PCR controls were negative. Reproducibility between laboratories and analysts was high and the method was shown to be an effective analytical tool for detection of C. cayetanensis in produce.

      3. Current methods for detecting Flavivirus antibodies are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and neutralization tests, both of which require laboratories and trained staff. We evaluated the VectorTest West Nile Virus Antigen Assay in an inhibition platform (VecTest-inhibition assay [VIA]) as a simpler screening method for detecting antibodies for a variety of flaviviruses among a population of equines from Brazil. We found that the VIA is a field-deployable rapid method with 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity compared with blocking ELISA for the detection of group-specific Flavivirus antibodies in equine serum samples. The VIA is a potentially useful field test for rapid field-based Flavivirus antibody detection in equine serum samples.

      4. The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). RFFIT has a long history of reproducible and reliable results. The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 muL minimum volume of test serum. To conduct pathogenesis studies, small laboratory animals such as mice are regularly tested for rVNA, but the minimum volume for a standard RFFIT may be impossible to obtain, particularly in scenarios of repeated sampling. To address this problem, a micro-neutralization test was developed previously. In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. Using a cut-off value of 0.1 IU/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the micro-neutralization test were 100%, 97.5%, and 98%, respectively. The geometric mean titer of all samples above the cut-off was 2.0 IU/mL using RFFIT and 3.4 IU/mL using the micro-neutralization test, indicating that titers determined using the micro-neutralization test are not equivalent to RFFIT titers. Based on four rVNA-positive hamster serum samples, the intra-assay coefficient of variability was 24% and inter-assay coefficient of variability was 30.4 %. These results support continued use of the micro-neutralization test to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers for low-volume serum samples.

      5. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: A brief updateExternal
        Wang Y, Su H, Gu Y, Song X, Zhao J.
        Onco Targets Ther. 2017 ;10:4065-4079.

        Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]). Cr(VI), a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V]), tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV]) or Cr(III) via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA?protein cross-links. Although Cr(III) complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) and chemoprevention with different antioxidants.

      6. Subtype analysis of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium skunk genotypeExternal
        Yan W, Alderisio K, Roellig DM, Elwin K, Chalmers RM, Yang F, Wang Y, Feng Y, Xiao L.
        Infect Genet Evol. 2017 Aug 23.

        Cryptosporidium skunk genotype is a zoonotic pathogen commonly identified in surface water. Thus far, no subtyping tool exists for characterizing its transmission in humans and animals and transport in environment. In this study, a subtyping tool based on the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene previously developed for Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I was used in the characterization of Cryptosporidium skunk genotype in animal and storm runoff samples from a watershed in New York. Altogether, 17 positive samples from this watershed and 5 human and animal specimens from other areas were analyzed. We identified 14 subtypes of Cryptosporidium skunk genotype, 11 of which were seen in the watershed. In phylogenetic analysis, these subtypes belonged to 4 subtype families (XVIa, XVIb, XVIc, and XVId). No host-adapted subtypes were identified and the two subtypes in humans were genetically similar to some in raccoons, otters, and storm runoff samples from the watershed. The characteristics of gp60 protein sequences of the Cryptosporidium skunk genotype are similar to those of other Cryptosporidium species, but only its XVIb subtype family has a putative furin cleavage site. This subtyping tool might be useful in characterizing Cryptosporidium skunk genotype in clinical and environmental samples.

      7. Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental chemical classified as a human carcinogen. It is highly reactive and can bind covalently with hemoglobin (Hb) to produce Hb adducts. Measurement of these Hb adducts provides valuable information about exposure to this chemical. We developed a robust, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying FA-Hb adducts in red blood cells. The method measures the FA-VHLTPEEK peptide after trypic digestion. The peptide is a FA adduct at the N-terminus of the beta chain of human Hb. Method mean (+/-SD) accuracy, determined by recovery in quality control and blank material was 103.2% +/- 8.11. The mean among-day and within-day coefficients of variation determined at three concentration levels (%CV) were 9.2% (range: 7.2-10.2%) and 4.9% (range 3.1-7.3%), respectively. The limit of detection was 3.4 nmol/g Hb. This method was applied to the analysis of 135 human blood samples, and FA-VHLTPEEK was detected in all study samples. FA-VHLTPEEK concentrations were not significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. This work is the first validated UPLC-MS/MS method in which a FA peptide derived from a FA-Hb adduct could be used to monitor exposure to FA in population studies.

      8. Identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusExternal
        Zivcec M, Guerrero LI, Albarino CG, Bergeron E, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF.
        Antiviral Res. 2017 Aug 22.

        Despite the serious public health impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the efficacy of antivirals targeting the causative agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), remains debatable. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting the CCHFV glycoprotein Gc have been reported to protect mice against challenge with the prototype CCHFV strain, IbAr10200. However, due to extensive sequence diversity of CCHFV glycoproteins, it is unknown whether these MAbs neutralize other CCHFV strains. We initially used a CCHF virus-like particle (VLP) system to generate 11 VLP moieties, each possessing a glycoprotein from a genetically diverse CCHFV strain isolated in either Africa, Asia, the Middle East, or southeastern Europe. We used these VLPs in biosafety level 2 conditions to efficiently screen MAb cross-neutralization potency. Of the 16 MAbs tested, 3 (8A1, 11E7, and 30F7) demonstrated cross-neutralization activity with most CCHF VLPs, with 8A1 neutralizing all VLPs tested. Although binding studies suggest that none of the MAbs compete for the same epitope, combining 11E7, 30F7, or both 11E7 and 30F7 with 8A1 had no additive effect on increasing neutralization in this system. To confirm our findings from the VLP system, the 3 MAbs capable of strain cross-neutralization were confirmed to effectively neutralize 5 diverse CCHFV strains in vitro. Passaging CCHFV strains in the presence of sub-neutralizing concentrations of MAbs did not generate escape mutants resistant to subsequent neutralization. This study demonstrates the utility of the VLP system for screening neutralizing MAbs against multiple CCHFV strains, and provides the first evidence that a single MAb can effectively neutralize a number of diverse CCHFV strains in vitro, which may lead to development of future CCHF therapeutics.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Screening for autism with the SRS and SCQ: Variations across demographic, developmental and behavioral factors in preschool childrenExternal
        Moody EJ, Reyes N, Ledbetter C, Wiggins L, DiGuiseppi C, Alexander A, Jackson S, Lee LC, Levy SE, Rosenberg SA.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 Aug 30.

        The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scales (SRS) are commonly used screeners for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data from the Study to Explore Early Development were used to examine variations in the performance of these instruments by child characteristics and family demographics. For both instruments, specificity decreased as maternal education and family income decreased. Specificity was decreased with lower developmental functioning and higher behavior problems. This suggests that the false positive rates of the SRS and the SCQ are associated with child characteristics and family demographic factors. There is a need for ASD screeners that perform well across socioeconomic and child characteristics. Clinicians should be mindful of differential performance of these instruments in various groups of children.

      2. BACKGROUND: Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. METHODS: The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. RESULTS: Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours regardless of the type of transportation used, upgrading EmONC capacity among nearby non-EmONC facilities may be required to improve accessibility.

    • Medicine
      1. Estimating Tanzania’s national met and unmet blood demand from a survey of a representative sample of hospitalsExternal
        Drammeh B, De A, Bock N, Pathak S, Juma A, Kutaga R, Mahmoud M, Haule D, Sembucha S, Chang K, Nkya E, Kuehnert M, Marfin AA.
        Transfus Med Rev. 2017 Jul 21.

        Estimating blood demand to determine collection goals challenges many low-income countries. We sampled Tanzanian hospitals to estimate national blood demand. A representative sample based on probability proportional to size sampling of 42 of 273 (15%) Tanzanian transfusing hospitals was selected. Blood bank registers, patient medical records, and blood component disposition records were reviewed prospectively from June to September 2013 to determine the number of components requested and the number and proportion issued, not issued due to nonavailability, and not issued for other reasons. Data were estimated for an annual national estimate. Of an estimated 278 371 components requested in 2013, 6648 (2.4%) were not issued due to nonavailability, 34 591 (12.4%) were not issued for other reasons, and 244 535 (87.8%) were issued. Of these 278 371 components, 86 753 (31.2%) were requested by adult medical, 74 499 (26.8%) by pediatric medical, and 57 312 (20.6%) by obstetric units. In these 3 units, the proportion of units not issued due to nonavailability was 1.8%. Private (4.1%) and large (6%) hospitals had the largest proportion of units not issued because of nonavailability. Of 244 535 issued components, 91 690 (37.5%) were collected, tested, and issued from blood banks that are not part of the Tanzania National Blood Transfusion Services (TNBTS). Nearly 98% of blood component demand was met. However, a large portion of the blood supply for the hospitals came from non-TNBTS blood banks. TNBTS could increase availability of safe blood through assuring the quality of donor selection and donation testing at non-TNBTS blood banks.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. The effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV-infected Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkersExternal
        Hampel D, Shahab-Ferdows S, Gertz E, Flax VL, Adair LS, Bentley ME, Jamieson DJ, Tegha G, Chasela CS, Kamwendo D, van der Horst CM, Allen LH.
        Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Aug 29.

        We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV-infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post-partum and blood during pregnancy (</=30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant-pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post-partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80-90% of copper and zinc and <50% of iron concentrations met the current adequate intake for infants at 2 weeks and only 1-19% at 24 weeks. Pregnancy haemoglobin was negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = -.18, p < .02 for both). The associations of the milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11-.47, p < .05 for all); none were found with infant biomarkers. At 2 weeks, moderately anaemic women produced milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Objective: The quantification of inter-segmental spine joint reaction forces during common workplace physical demands. Background: Many spine reaction force models have focused on the L5/S1 or L4/L5 joints to quantify the vertebral joint reaction forces. However, the L5/S1 or L4/L5 approach neglects most of the intervertebral joints. Methods: The current study presents a clinically applicable and noninvasive model which calculates the spinal joint reaction forces at six different regions of the spine. Subjects completed four ambulatory activities of daily living: level walking, obstacle crossing, stair ascent, and stair descent. Results: Peak joint spinal reaction forces were compared between tasks and spine regions. Differences existed in the bodyweight normalized vertical joint reaction forces where the walking (8.05?3.19N/kg) task had significantly smaller peak reaction forces than the stair descent (12.12?1.32N/kg) agreeing with lower extremity data comparing walking and stair descent tasks. Conclusion: This method appears to be effective in estimating the joint reaction forces using a segmental spine model. The results suggesting the main effect of peak reactions forces in the segmental spine can be influenced by task.

      2. Survey of guidelines and current practices for safe handling of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs used in 24 countriesExternal
        Mathias PI, MacKenzie BA, Toennis CA, Connor TH.
        J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2017 Jan 01:1078155217726160.

        Purpose A survey of guidelines and current practices was conducted to examine the safe handling procedures for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs that are used in 24 countries including the Americas, Europe, the Mideast, Far East, and Australia. Methods Subject experts were asked to complete a brief survey regarding safe handling guidelines and practices for hazardous drugs in their countries. Questions addressed practices for handling monoclonal antibodies, the use of closed-system transfer devices, medical surveillance practices, and measurements of compliance with existing guidelines. Results Responses from 37 subject experts representing 24 countries revealed considerable variation in the content and scope of safe handling guidelines and pharmacy practices among the participating countries. Guidelines in the majority of countries used the term “cytotoxics,” while others referred to “hazardous” or “antineoplastic” drugs. The International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practice standard was cited by six countries, and five cited the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Alert. Others cited international guidelines other than International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, or they have created their own guidelines. Approximately half reported that their guidelines were mandatory under federal, state, or provincial legislation. Only 11 countries reported that monoclonal antibodies were covered in their guidelines. Closed-system drug-transfer devices are widely used, but were not specifically recommended in four countries, while one country required their use. Medical surveillance programs are in place in 20 countries, but only in The Netherlands is surveillance mandatory. Nine countries reported that they have completed recent updates or revisions of guidelines, and the measures for their adoption have been initiated. Conclusions Although the overall goals in the participating countries were similar, the approaches taken to assure safe handling of hazardous drugs varied considerably in some cases.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets lead to high levels of LLIN access and use in Madagascar, 2010: A cross-sectional observational studyExternal
        Finlay AM, Butts J, Ranaivoharimina H, Cotte AH, Ramarosandratana B, Rabarijaona H, Tuseo L, Chang M, Vanden Eng J.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(8):e0183936.

        BACKGROUND: Madagascar conducted the first two phases of a national free mass distribution campaign of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) during a political crisis in 2009 aiming to achieve coverage of two LLINs per household as part of the National Malaria Control Strategy. The campaign targeted households in 19 out of 91 total health districts. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional household survey using a three-stage cluster sample design was conducted four months post campaign to assess LLIN ownership, access and use. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with household LLIN access and individual LLIN use. RESULTS: A total of 2211 households were surveyed representing 8867 people. At least one LLIN was present in 93.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.6-95.5%) of households and 74.8% (95% CI, 71.0-78.6%) owned at least two LLINs. Access measured as the proportion of the population that could potentially be covered by household-owned LLINs was 77.2% (77.2% (95% CI, 72.9-81.3%) and LLIN use by all individuals was 84.2% (95% CI, 81.2-87.2%). LLIN use was associated with knowledge of insecticide treated net use to prevent malaria (OR = 3.58, 95% CI, 1.85-6.94), household ownership of more LLINs (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.85-4.3), presence of children under five (OR = 2.05, 95% CI, 1.67-2.51), having traveled to the distribution point and receiving information about hanging a bednet (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.41-1.74), and having received a post-campaign visit by a community mobilizer (OR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.26-2.43). Lower LLIN use was associated with increasing household size (OR = 0.81 95% CI 0.77-0.85) and number of sleeping spaces (OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.44-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: A large scale free mass LLIN distribution campaign was feasible and effective at achieving high LLIN access and use in Madagascar. Campaign process indicators highlighted potential areas for strengthening implementation to optimize access and equity.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Contraceptive vaginal ring experiences among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya: A qualitative studyExternal
        McLellan-Lemal E, Ondeng’e K, Gust DA, Desai M, Otieno FO, Madiega PA, Nyagol B, Makanga EM.
        Front Womens Health. 2017 ;2.

        BACKGROUND: Future HIV prevention options for women will likely include Antiretroviral (ARV)-based intravaginal rings. Valuable insights may be gained by examining user experiences with a similar licensed technology, a contraceptive ring, especially in settings where this technology may not be currently available. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 24 females enrolled in a trial assessing acceptability and use of a contraceptive ring, and 20 male sexual partners were conducted September 2014-April 2015. Elements of ethnography and phenomenological anthropology were used to collect, analyze, interpret, and describe ring users’ experiences. Thematic analysis was completed in MaxQDA-10. RESULTS: Experiences with the contraceptive ring reflected a broader Family Planning (FP) paradigm that centered around three themes: latitudes and drawbacks of FP (being free); an FP method needs to be compatible with a woman’s body (feeling normal); and dealing with fertility control uncertainties (how well does it really work). FP intentions and disclosure practices were influenced by partner support, socioeconomic factors, religion, cultural beliefs, and societal norms, including female sexuality. A user-friendly FP design was emphasized. Non-suppression of menstruation was favored by most. Unease with vaginal insertion as well as ring placement issues (slippage, expulsion) created initial challenges requiring clinician assistance and practice for some participants. While minor side-effects were described, concerns centered on ring efficacy, negative effect on a woman’s sexual desire, and future fertility issues. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the multiple contexts in ring users’ experience may inform the development, education, and promotion approaches for future ARV rings.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA’s) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015.dagger In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Notes from the Field: Fatal yellow fever in a traveler returning from Peru – New York, 2016External
        Newman AP, Becraft R, Dean AB, Hull R, Backenson B, Hale G, Laven J, Bhatnagar J, Staples JE.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Sep 01;66(34):914-915.

        [No abstract]

      2. The formation of the Eastern Africa Rabies Network: A sub-regional approach to rabies eliminationExternal
        Pieracci EG, Scott TP, Coetzer A, Athman M, Mutembei A, Kidane AH, Bekele M, Ayalew G, Ntegeyibizaza S, Assenga J, Markalio G, Munyua P, Nel LH, Blanton J.
        Trop Med Infect Dis. 2017 ;2(3):29.

        International rabies networks have been formed in many of the canine-rabies endemic regions around the world to create unified and directed regional approaches towards elimination. The aim of the first sub-regional Eastern Africa rabies network meeting, which included Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, was to discuss how individual country strategies could be coordinated to address the unique challenges that are faced within the network. The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination and the Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway tool were used to stimulate discussion and planning to achieve the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Our analysis estimated a total dog population of 18.3 million dogs in the Eastern Africa region. The current dog vaccination coverage was estimated to be approximately 5% (915,000 dogs), with an estimated 4910 vaccinators available. Assuming that every vaccinator performs rabies vaccination, this equated to each vaccinator currently vaccinating 186 dogs per year, whilst the target would be to vaccinate 2609 dogs every year for the community to reach 70% coverage. In order to achieve the World Health Organization-recommended 70% vaccination coverage, an additional 11 million dogs need to be vaccinated each year, pointing to an average annual shortfall of $ 23 million USD in current spending to achieve elimination by 2030 across the region. Improved vaccination efficiency within the region could be achieved by improving logistics and/or incorporating multiple vaccination methods to increase vaccinator efficiency, and could serve to reduce the financial burden associated with rabies elimination. Regional approaches to rabies control are of value, as neighboring countries can share their unique challenges while, at the same time, common approaches can be developed and resource-saving strategies can be implemented.

      3. Awareness, beliefs, and actions concerning Zika virus among pregnant women and community members – U.S. Virgin Islands, November-December 2016External
        Prue CE, Roth JN, Garcia-Williams A, Yoos A, Camperlengo L, DeWilde L, Lamtahri M, Prosper A, Harrison C, Witbart L, Guendel I, Wiegand DM, Lamens NR, Hillman B, Davis MS, Ellis EM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Sep 01;66(34):909-913.

        As of May 2, 2017, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), comprising St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, had reported 1,021 probable or confirmed cases* of Zika virus disease in its population of approximately 100,000 (1); 222 symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women in the USVI had tested positive for Zika virus. In January 2016, USVI Department of Health (USVI DOH) initiated Zika response measures, including surveillance, vector control, and a communications program. Interventions included education and outreach, distribution of Zika prevention kitsdagger to pregnant women in the USVI, and provision of free Zika virus laboratory testing and vector control services. In November 2016, USVI DOH staff members conducted interviews with convenience samples of community members and pregnant women to gather feedback about current and proposed interventions (2). Pregnant women reported taking a median of two actions to protect themselves from Zika, with repellent use being the most commonly reported action. Community members reported taking a median of one action and were supportive of several proposed vector control approaches. Whereas multiple pregnant women and community members reported hearing messages about the cause and consequences of Zika virus infections, few recalled messages about specific actions they could take to protect themselves. Integrating evaluation into response measures permits ongoing assessment of intervention effectiveness and supports improvement to serve the population’s needs.

      4. Increased rates of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Zika virus outbreak in the Salvador metropolitan area, BrazilExternal
        Styczynski AR, Malta JM, Krow-Lucal ER, Percio J, Nobrega ME, Vargas A, Lanzieri TM, Leite PL, Staples JE, Fischer MX, Powers AM, Chang GJ, Burns PL, Borland EM, Ledermann JP, Mossel EC, Schonberger LB, Belay EB, Salinas JL, Badaro RD, Sejvar JJ, Coelho GE.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Aug 30;11(8):e0005869.

        In mid-2015, Salvador, Brazil, reported an outbreak of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), coinciding with the introduction and spread of Zika virus (ZIKV). We found that GBS incidence during April-July 2015 among those >/=12 years of age was 5.6 cases/100,000 population/year and increased markedly with increasing age to 14.7 among those >/=60 years of age. We conducted interviews with 41 case-patients and 85 neighborhood controls and found no differences in demographics or exposures prior to GBS-symptom onset. A higher proportion of case-patients (83%) compared to controls (21%) reported an antecedent illness (OR 18.1, CI 6.9-47.5), most commonly characterized by rash, headache, fever, and myalgias, within a median of 8 days prior to GBS onset. Our investigation confirmed an outbreak of GBS, particularly in older adults, that was strongly associated with Zika-like illness and geo-temporally associated with ZIKV transmission, suggesting that ZIKV may result in severe neurologic complications.

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Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019