Issue 31, August 8, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 31, August 8, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
    • Immunity and Immunization

      This week’s featured articles highlight selected articles from the “Polio Endgame and Legacy: Implementation, Best Practices, and Lessons Learned” supplementExternal for The Journal of Infectious Diseases.  Additional articles from the supplement can be found under CDC-Authored Publications in the Immunity and Immunization section.

      The end of polio is in sight, with fewer cases of wild polio virus being reported yearly. Today, polio is on the cusp of eradication, with cases in only a few high-risk areas of three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This brings the eradication effort to its final chapter, otherwise known as the polio endgame. The successful elimination and eventual eradication of the remaining wild polio viruses is related to the efforts of effective global, regional, and local partnerships. As a result of these partnerships, eradication of polio means much more for global public health initiatives than the end of this debilitating disease. The supplement provides a valuable record of the collaborative experiences and lessons learned from these partnerships during the polio endgame. Specifically, the supplement provides a straightforward assessment of successes and shortfalls of the endgame activities, and provides further insight into the synergistic relationship between polio eradication efforts and immunization systems around the world.

      1. The public health legacy of polio eradication in AfricaExternal
        Craig AS, Haydarov R, O’Malley H, Galway M, Dao H, Ngongo N, Baranyikwa MT, Naqvi S, Abid NS, Pandak C, Edwards A.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S343-S350.

        The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure.

      2. Monitoring and validation of the global replacement of tOPV with bOPV, April-May 2016External
        Farrell M, Hampton LM, Shendale S, Menning L, Gonzalez AR, Garon J, Dolan SB, Du Chatellier GM, Wanyoike S, Chang Blanc D, Patel MM.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S193-S201.

        The phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) associated with the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 began with the synchronized global replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV) during April – May 2016, a transition referred to as the “switch.” The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended conducting this synchronized switch in all 155 OPV-using countries and territories (which collectively administered several hundred million doses of tOPV each year via several hundred thousand facilities) to reduce risks of re-emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses. Safe execution of this switch required implementation of an associated independent monitoring strategy, the primary objective of which was verification that tOPV was no longer available for administration post-switch. This strategy had to be both practical and rigorous such that tOPV withdrawal could be reasonably employed and confirmed in all countries and territories within a discreet timeframe. Following these principles, WHO recommended that designated monitors in each of the 155 countries and territories visit all vaccine stores as well as a 10% sample of highest-risk health facilities within two weeks of the national switch date, removing any tOPV vials found. National governments were required to provide the WHO with formal validation of execution and monitoring of the switch. In practice, all countries reported cessation of tOPV by 12 May 2016 and 95% of countries and territories submitted detailed monitoring data to WHO. According to these data, 272 out of 276 (99%) national stores, 3,741 out of 3.968 (94%) regional stores, 16,144 out of 22,372 (72%) district level stores, and 143,050 out of 595,401 (24%) of health facilities were monitored. These data, along with field reports suggest that monitoring and validation of the switch was efficient and effective, and that the strategies used during the process could be adapted to future stages of OPV withdrawal.

      3. Lessons learned and legacy of the Stop Transmission of Polio ProgramExternal
        Kerr Y, Mailhot M, Williams AJ, Swezy V, Quick L, Tangermann RH, Ward K, Benke A, Callaghan A, Clark K, Emery B, Nix J, Aydlotte E, Newman C, Nkowane B.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S316-S323.

        In 1988, the by the World Health Assembly established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which consisted of a partnership among the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United Nations Children’s Fund. By 2016, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99.9%, compared with 1988, and at the time of writing, only 3 countries in which wild poliovirus circulation has never been interrupted remain: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. A key strategy for polio eradication has been the development of a skilled and deployable workforce to implement eradication activities across the globe. In 1999, the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was developed and initiated by the CDC, in collaboration with the WHO, to train and mobilize additional human resources to provide technical assistance to polio-endemic countries. STOP has also informed the development of other public health workforce capacity to support polio eradication efforts, including national STOP programs. In addition, the program has diversified to address measles and rubella elimination, data management and quality, and strengthening routine immunization programs. This article describes the STOP program and how it has contributed to polio eradication by building global public health workforce capacity.

      4. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a “diagonal approach.”

      5. Laboratory networks were established to provide accurate and timely laboratory confirmation of infections, an essential component of disease surveillance systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including polio, measles and rubella, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus, and invasive bacterial diseases. In addition to providing high-quality laboratory surveillance data to help guide disease control, elimination, and eradication programs, these global networks provide capacity-building and an infrastructure for public health laboratories. There are major challenges with sustaining and expanding the global laboratory surveillance capacity: limited resources and the need for expansion to meet programmatic goals. Here, we describe the WHO-coordinated laboratory networks supporting VPD surveillance and present a plan for the further development of these networks.

      6. The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis certified the eradication of type 2 poliovirus in September 2015, making type 2 poliovirus the first human pathogen to be eradicated since smallpox. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2 component, introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, strengthening of routine immunization in countries with extensive polio resources, and initiating activities to transition polio resources, program experience, and lessons learned to other global health initiatives. This supplement focuses on efforts by global partners to successfully launch polio endgame activities to permanently secure and sustain the enormous gains of polio eradication forever.

      7. Transition planning for after polio eradicationExternal
        Rutter PD, Hinman AR, Hegg L, King D, Sosler S, Swezy V, Hussey AL, Cochi SL.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S287-S292.

        The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has been in operation since 1988, now spends $1 billion annually, and operates through thousands of staff and millions of volunteers in dozens of countries. It has brought polio to the brink of eradication. After eradication is achieved, what should happen to the substantial assets, capabilities, and lessons of the GPEI? To answer this question, an extensive process of transition planning is underway. There is an absolute need to maintain and mainstream some of the functions, to keep the world polio-free. There is also considerable risk – and, if seized, substantial opportunity – for other health programs and priorities. And critical lessons have been learned that can be used to address other health priorities. Planning has started in the 16 countries where GPEI’s footprint is the greatest and in the program’s 5 core agencies. Even though poliovirus transmission has not yet been stopped globally, this planning process is gaining momentum, and some plans are taking early shape. This is a complex area of work – with difficult technical, financial, and political elements. There is no significant precedent. There is forward motion and a willingness on many sides to understand and address the risks and to explore the opportunities. Very substantial investments have been made, over 30 years, to eradicate a human pathogen from the world for the second time ever. Transition planning represents a serious intent to responsibly bring the world’s largest global health effort to a close and to protect and build upon the investment in this effort, where appropriate, to benefit other national and global priorities. Further detailed technical work is now needed, supported by broad and engaged debate, for this undertaking to achieve its full potential.

      8. Background. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, “GPEI-funded personnel”) should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. Methods. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. Results. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. Conclusion. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine immunization programs and the control of measles and rubella. In certain countries with very weak immunization systems, GPEI-funded personnel provide critical support for the immunization programs, and sudden discontinuation of their employment would potentially disrupt the immunization programs in their countries and create a setback in capacity and effectiveness that would put children at higher risk for vaccine-preventable diseases.

      9. Using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance as a platform for vaccine-preventable disease surveillanceExternal
        Wassilak SG, Williams CL, Murrill CS, Dahl BA, Ohuabunwo C, Tangermann RH.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S293-S298.

        Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases.

      10. Polio Endgame: Lessons learned from the Immunization Systems Management GroupExternal
        Zipursky S, Vandelaer J, Brooks A, Dietz V, Kachra T, Farrell M, Ottosen A, Sever JL, Zaffran MJ.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S9-S14.

        The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, namely, (1) introduction of >=1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in all 126 countries using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) only as of 2012, (2) full withdrawal of OPV, starting with the withdrawal of its type 2 component, and (3) using polio assets to strengthen immunization systems in 10 priority countries. The IMG’s inclusive, transparent, and partnership-focused approach proved an effective means of leveraging the comparative and complementary strengths of each IMG member agency. This article outlines 10 key factors behind the IMG’s success, providing a potential set of guiding principles for the establishment and implementation of other interagency collaborations and initiatives beyond the polio sphere.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of 13 chronic conditions and fair/poor health among people aged >/=65 years in the U.S. with and without vision impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study from the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Survey METHODS: We examined hypertension, heart disease, high cholesterol, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, weak/failing kidneys, diabetes, hepatitis, depression, and hearing impairment. We used logistic regression to show the association between vision impairment and chronic conditions and the association between vision impairment and poor health for those with chronic conditions. RESULTS: People aged >/=65 years with vision impairment reported greater prevalence of chronic conditions compared to people without vision impairment. After controlling for covariates (age, sex, education, race, smoking, physical activity, and obesity), people with vision impairment were more likely than those without to report chronic conditions (hypertension: OR [odds ratio] 1.43; heart disease: OR 1.68; high cholesterol: OR 1.26; stroke: OR 1.99; arthritis; OR 1.71; asthma: OR 1.56; COPD: OR 1.65; cancer: OR 1.23; weak/failing kidneys: OR 2.29; diabetes: OR 1.56; hepatitis: OR 1.30; depression: OR 1.47; hearing impairment: OR 1.91) (all P<0.05). Among older people with chronic conditions, those with vision impairment and chronic conditions compared to people without vision impairment and chronic conditions were 1.66 to 2.98 times more likely to have fair/poor health than those without vision impairment (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence of chronic conditions is strongly associated with vision impairment among the older people and poor health is strongly associated with vision impairment and chronic conditions.

      2. Comorbid arthritis is associated with lower health-related quality of life in older adults with other chronic conditions, United States, 2013-2014External
        Havens E, Slabaugh SL, Helmick CG, Cordier T, Zack M, Gopal V, Prewitt T.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2017 Jul 27;14:E60.

        INTRODUCTION: Arthritis is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults aged 18 years or older. We sought to determine whether this relationship persisted in an older population using claims-based arthritis diagnoses and whether people who also had arthritis and at least 1 of 5 other chronic conditions had lower HRQoL. METHODS: We identified adults aged 65 years or older with Medicare Advantage coverage in November or December 2014 who responded to an HRQoL survey (Healthy Days). For respondents with and without arthritis, we used linear regression to compare mean physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days, overall and in 5 comorbidity subgroups (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and hypertension), accounting for age, sex, dual Medicaid/Medicare eligibility, rural/urban commuting area, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: Of the 58,975 survey respondents, 44% had arthritis diagnosed through claims. Respondents with arthritis reported significantly more adjusted mean physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days than those without arthritis (P < .001). Older adults with arthritis and either congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or hypertension reported significantly more adjusted physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days than older adults without arthritis but with the same chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, having arthritis is associated with lower HRQoL and even lower HRQoL among those with at least 1 of 5 other common chronic conditions. Because arthritis is so common among older adults, improving HRQoL depends on managing both underlying chronic conditions and any accompanying arthritis.

      3. 2015 Revised Utstein-Style Recommended Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning-Related Resuscitation: An ILCOR Advisory StatementExternal
        Idris AH, Bierens J, Perkins GD, Wenzel V, Nadkarni V, Morley P, Warner DS, Topjian A, Venema AM, Branche CM, Szpilman D, Morizot-Leite L, Nitta M, Lofgren B, Webber J, Grasner JT, Beerman SB, Youn CS, Jost U, Quan L, Dezfulian C, Handley AJ, Hazinski MF.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017 Jul;10(7).

        BACKGROUND: Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first “Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning” were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially. The purpose of this report is to provide updated guidelines for reporting data from studies of resuscitation from drowning. METHODS: An international group with scientific expertise in the fields of drowning research, resuscitation research, emergency medical services, public health, and development of guidelines met in Potsdam, Germany, to determine the data that should be reported in scientific articles on the subject of resuscitation from drowning. At the Utstein-style meeting, participants discussed data elements in detail, defined the data, determined data priority, and decided how data should be reported, including scoring methods and category details. RESULTS: The template for reporting data from drowning research was revised extensively, with new emphasis on measurement of quality of resuscitation, neurological outcomes, and deletion of data that have proved to be less relevant or difficult to capture. CONCLUSIONS: The report describes the consensus process, rationale for selecting data elements to be reported, definitions and priority of data, and scoring methods. These guidelines are intended to improve the clarity of scientific communication and the comparability of scientific investigations.

      4. Greater cognitive deficits with sleep-disordered breathing among individuals with genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of AtherosclerosisExternal
        Johnson DA, Lane J, Wang R, Reid M, Djonlagic I, Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Charles LE, O’Hara R, Saxena R, Redline S.
        Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Jul 21.

        RATIONALE: There are conflicting findings regarding the link between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations between indicators of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein epsilon-4 (APOE-epsilon4) allele. METHODS: A diverse population (N=1,752) underwent Type 2 in-home polysomnography, which included measurement of % sleep time <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation (%Sat<90%) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ESS) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS; AHI > 5 and ESS> 10) were also analyzed. Cognitive outcomes included the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI); Digit Symbol Coding Test (DSC); and Digit Span Tests (DST) Forward and Backward. RESULTS: Participants were 45.4% male, age 68.1(standard deviation: 9.1) years with a median AHI=9.0 and mean ESS=6.0. Approximately, 9.7% had SAS and 26.8% had at least one copy of the APOepsilon4 allele. In adjusted analyses, a one standard deviation increase in %Sat<90% and ESS score were associated with a poorer attention and memory assessed by the DST Forward score (beta=-0.12 (standard error: 0.06) and beta=-0.13 (0.06), respectively; P<0.05). SAS and higher ESS scores were also associated with poorer attention and processing speed as measured by the DSC, beta=-0.69 (0.35) and beta=-1.42 (0.35), respectively (P<0.05). The presence of APOE-epsilon4 allele modified the associations of %Sat<90% with DST forward and of ESS with DSCT, Pinteraction<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Overnight hypoxemia and sleepiness were associated with cognition. The average effect estimates were small, similar to effects estimated for several other individual dementia risk factors. Associations were strongest in APOE-epsilon4 risk allele carriers. Our results: 1) suggest that SDB be considered among a group of modifiable dementia risk factors; and 2) highlight the potential vulnerability of APOE-epsilon4 risk allele carriers with SDB.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. High levels of adherence to a rectal microbicide gel and to oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) achieved in MTN-017 among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender womenExternal
        Carballo-Dieguez A, Balan IC, Brown W, Giguere R, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Marzinke MA, Hendrix CW, Piper JM, Richardson BA, Grossman C, Johnson S, Gomez K, Horn S, Kunjara Na Ayudhya RP, Patterson K, Jacobson C, Bekker LG, Chariyalertsak S, Chitwarakorn A, Gonzales P, Holtz TH, Liu A, Mayer KH, Zorrilla C, Lama J, McGowan I, Cranston RD.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(7):e0181607.

        Trials to assess microbicide safety require strict adherence to prescribed regimens. If adherence is suboptimal, safety cannot be adequately assessed. MTN-017 was a phase 2, randomized sequence, open-label, expanded safety and acceptability crossover study comparing 1) daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), 2) daily use of reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir (RG-TFV) gel applied rectally, and 3) RG-TFV gel applied before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI)-if participants had no RAI in a week, they were asked to use two doses of gel within 24 hours. Product use was assessed by mixed methods including unused product return count, text messaging reports, and qualitative plasma TFV pharmacokinetic (PK) results. Convergence interviews engaged participants in determining the most accurate number of doses used based on product count and text messaging reports. Client-centered adherence counseling was also used. Participants (N = 187) were men who have sex with men and transgender women enrolled in the United States (42%), Thailand (29%), Peru (19%) and South Africa (10%). Mean age was 31.4 years (range 18-64 years). Based on convergence interviews, over an 8-week period, 94% of participants had >/=80% adherence to daily tablet, 41% having perfect adherence; 83% had >/=80% adherence to daily gel, 29% having perfect adherence; and 93% had >/=80% adherence to twice-weekly use during the RAI-associated gel regimen, 75% having perfect adherence and 77% having >/=80% adherence to gel use before and after RAI. Only 4.4% of all daily product PK results were undetectable and unexpected (TFV concentrations <0.31 ng/mL) given self-reported product use near sampling date. The mixed methods adherence measurement indicated high adherence to product use in all three regimens. Adherence to RAI-associated rectal gel use was as high as adherence to daily oral PrEP. A rectal microbicide gel, if efficacious, could be an alternative for individuals uninterested in daily oral PrEP.

      2. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan – 2011-2013External
        Cowger TL, Burns CC, Sharif S, Gary HE, Iber J, Henderson E, Malik F, Zahoor Zaidi SS, Shaukat S, Rehman L, Pallansch MA, Orenstein WA.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(7):e0180608.

        BACKGROUND: More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. METHODS: Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of ‘orphan viruses’ (>/=1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (>/=99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. FINDINGS: A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011-2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy.

      3. Antiretroviral nonadherence and condomless sex in the HIV Outpatient Study, USA, 2007-2014External
        Durham MD, Hart R, Buchacz K, Hammer J, Young B, Yang D, Wood K, Yangco B, Brooks JT.
        Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Jan 01:956462417720547.

        Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) to undetectable levels and its effectiveness depends on consistent adherence. Consistent adherence and use of safe sex practices may substantially decrease the risk of HIV transmission. We sought to explore the potential association between self-reported nonadherence to ART and engaging in unsafe sexual practices capable of transmitting HIV. Using clinical and audio computer-assisted self-interview data from the prospective HIV Outpatient Study from 2007 to 2014, we assessed the frequency of self-reported ART nonadherence during the three days prior to the survey among HIV-infected persons in care and factors associated with self-reported ART nonadherence. Of 1729 patients included in this analysis (median age = 48 years, 74.3% men who have sex with men), 17% were nonadherent, 15% had a detectable VL, and 42% reported condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past six months. In multivariable analysis, self-reported nonadherence was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8 per additional ten years, [95% CI] 0.7-1.0), non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (aOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6 versus white), public health insurance (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3 compared with private), survey date in 2011-2014 versus 2007-2010 (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), CD4 cell count >/= 500 versus < 200 cells/mm3 (aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5), greater number of ART regimen doses (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.2), and binge drinking (aOR 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). In this analysis, self-reported nonadherence was not associated with engaging in condomless sex.

      4. Variations in antibiotic and azithromycin prescribing for children by geography and specialty – United States, 2013External
        Fleming-Dutra KE, Demirjian A, Bartoces M, Roberts RM, Taylor TH, Hicks LA.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Jul 19.

        BACKGROUND: Using antibiotics appropriately is critical to slow spread of antibiotic resistance, a major public health problem. Children, especially young children, receive more antibiotics than other age groups. Our objective was to describe antibiotic use in children in the United States (US) and use of azithromycin, which is recommended infrequently for pediatric conditions. METHODS: We used QuintilesIMS Xponent 2013 data to calculate the number and rate of oral antibiotic prescriptions for children by age (0-2, 3-9 and 10-19 years) and agent. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted prevalence rations (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if specialty and patient age were associated with azithromycin selection when an antibiotic was prescribed. RESULTS: In 2013, 66.8 million antibiotics were prescribed to US children aged </=19 years (813 antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 children). Amoxicillin and azithromycin were the two most commonly prescribed agents (23.1 million courses, 35% of all antibiotics; 12.2 million, 18%; respectively). Most antibiotics for children were prescribed by pediatricians (39%) and family practitioners (15%). Family practitioners were more likely to select azithromycin when an antibiotic was prescribed in all age groups than pediatricians (for children aged 0-2 years: PR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.78-1.80; 3-9 years: 1.40, 1.40-1.40; and 10-19 years: 1.18, 1.18-1.18). CONCLUSION: Despite infrequent pediatric recommendations, variations in pediatric azithromycin use may suggest inappropriate antibiotic selection. Public health interventions focused on improving antibiotic selection in children as well as reducing antibiotic overuse are needed.

      5. Scaling up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural USA – model projections for tackling an increasing epidemicExternal
        Fraser H, Zibbell J, Hoerger T, Hariri S, Vellozzi C, Martin NK, Kral AH, Hickman M, Ward JW, Vickerman P.
        Addiction. 2017 Jul 22.

        BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Effective strategies are needed to address dramatic increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural settings of the United States (US). We determined the required scale-up of HCV treatment with or without scale-up of HCV prevention interventions to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025 and 2030 in a rural US setting. DESIGN: An ordinary differential equation model of HCV transmission calibrated to HCV epidemiological data obtained primarily from a HIV-outbreak investigation in Indiana. SETTING: Scott County, Indiana (population 24,181), USA, a rural setting with negligible baseline interventions, increasing HCV epidemic since 2010, and 55.3% chronic HCV prevalence amongst PWID in 2015 PARTICIPANTS: PWID MEASUREMENTS: Required annual HCV treatments per 1000 PWID (and initial annual percentage of infections treated) to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025/30, either with or without scaling-up syringe service programs (SSPs) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) to 50% coverage. Sensitivity analyses considered whether this impact could be achieved without retreatment of reinfections, and whether greater intervention scale-up was required due to the increasing epidemic in this setting. FINDINGS: To achieve a 90% reduction in incidence and prevalence by 2030, without MAT and SSP scale-up, 159 per 1000 PWID (initially 25% of infected PWID) need to be HCV-treated annually. However, with MAT and SSP scaled-up, treatment rates are halved (89 per 1000 annually or 15%). To reach the same target by 2025 with MAT and SSP scaled-up, 121 per 1000 PWID (20%) need treatment annually. These treatment requirements are 3-fold higher than if the epidemic was stable, and the impact targets are unattainable without retreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined scale-up of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment and prevention interventions is needed to decrease the increasing burden of HCV incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30.

      6. Race, age, and geography impact hepatitis C genotype distribution in the United StatesExternal
        Gordon SC, Trudeau S, Li J, Zhou Y, Rupp LB, Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Spradling PR, Teshale E, Boscarino JA, Daida YG, Schmidt MA, Lu M.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Jul 21.

        GOALS: To determine the impact of geography and patient characteristics on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and subtype distribution in a large sample of patients under routine clinical care BACKGROUND:: HCV genotype impacts disease course and response to treatment. Although several studies have reported genotype distribution within specific US populations, there are no comprehensive descriptions in large, geographically diverse cohorts. STUDY: Using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study, we present the distribution of HCV genotypes (GT) and subtypes (ST) among a racially diverse cohort of over 8000 HCV-infected patients from four large US health systems. RESULTS: Genotype distribution varied significantly by geographic and demographic factors. In age-adjusted analyses, African American patients had significantly higher prevalence of GT1 (85%) than other racial categories, largely driven by a markedly higher proportion of GT1 subtype b ( approximately 34%) than in Asian/other (24%) and white (21%) patients. GT3 represented an increasing proportion of infections as birth decade progressed, from 4% in patients born before 1946 to 18% of those born after 1976. Within the cohort of “living/uncured” patients, highly elevated alanine aminotransferase (>2 times the upper limit of normal) was significantly more common in GT3 patients, whereas Fibrosis-4 Index scores indicative of cirrhosis were most common in the combined group of GT4&6 patients. CONCLUSION: Distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in the United States is more variable than suggested by previous national-level estimates and single-center studies. “Real-world” prevalence data may improve targeting of prevention, screening, and treatment efforts for hepatitis C.

      7. The acceptability and validity of self-collected nasal swabs for detection of influenza virus infection among older adults in ThailandExternal
        Goyal S, Prasert K, Praphasiri P, Chittaganpitch M, Waicharoen S, Ditsungnoen D, Jaichuang S, Lindblade KA.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2017 Jul 25.

        BACKGROUND: Self-collection of nasal swabs could improve the timeliness of influenza virus detection in older adults. OBJECTIVES: Measure the acceptability, adequacy, timeliness and validity of self-collected nasal swabs among adults >/=65 years in Thailand. METHODS: Our evaluation consisted of two parts: a one-month study among randomly-selected, community-dwelling older adults to simulate community-based surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI); and a clinic study of older adults with ARI to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of self-collected nasal swabs for influenza virus infection compared with healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: In the community study, 24% of participants experienced an ARI during the observation period. All (100%) participants with an ARI self-collected nasal swabs within 72 hours of symptom onset of which 92% were considered adequate samples. In the clinic study, 45% of patients with ARI presented within 72 hours of symptom onset. The sensitivity of self-collected nasal swabs for detection of influenza virus infection was 78% (95% CI 40-97) compared to nasopharyngeal and 88% (95% CI 47-100) compared to nasal swabs collected by HCW. Specificity was 100% (95% CI 97-100) compared to both methods. Self-collection of nasal swabs was found acceptable by 99% of participants in both studies. CONCLUSIONS: Self-collection of nasal swabs was acceptable to older adults in Thailand who were able to take adequate samples. Self-collection of nasal swabs may improve the timeliness of sample collection but lower sensitivity will need to be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      8. Rates of primary and secondary syphilis among white and black non-Hispanic men who have sex with men, US states, 2014External
        Grey JA, Bernstein KT, Sullivan PS, Kidd SE, Gift TL, Hall EW, Hankin-Wei A, Weinstock HS, Rosenberg ES.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 26.

        BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States experience an approximately 100-fold greater rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis diagnoses compared to men who have sex with women only. As in the general population, racial/ethnic disparities in P&S syphilis diagnosis rates may exist among MSM, but MSM-specific P&S syphilis rates by race/ethnicity are unavailable. We enhanced a published modeling approach to estimate area-level MSM populations by race/ethnicity and provide the first estimates of P&S syphilis among black and white non-Hispanic MSM. METHODS: We used data from the American Community Survey (ACS), published findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and national syphilis surveillance data to estimate state-level rates of P&S syphilis diagnoses among MSM, overall and for black and white non-Hispanic MSM. We also used variability around ACS and NHANES estimates to calculate 95% confidence intervals for each rate. RESULTS: Among 11,359 cases of P&S syphilis among MSM with known race/ethnicity in 2014, 72.5% were among white (40.3%) or black (32.2%) MSM. The national rate of P&S syphilis diagnosis was 168.4/100,000 for white MSM and 583.9/100,000 for black MSM. Regional rates for black MSM ranged from 602.0/100,000 (South) to 521.5/100,000 (Midwest) and were consistently higher than those for white MSM. CONCLUSIONS: Although white MSM accounted for the majority of P&S syphilis diagnoses in 2014, when evaluating diagnoses based on rate per 100,000, black MSM had consistently and markedly higher rates than white MSM, with the highest-impacted states located in the US South.

      9. Treatment outcomes of children with HIV infection and drug-resistant TB in three provinces in South Africa, 2005-2008External
        Hall EW, Morris SB, Moore BK, Erasmus L, Odendaal R, Menzies H, van der Walt M, Smith SE.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Jul 19.

        OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of HIV-infected pediatric patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from pediatric patient charts treated for DR TB during 2005-2008 were collected retrospectively from five MDR TB hospitals in South Africa. Data were summarized and Pearson’s chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test were used to assess differences in variables of interest by HIV status. A time-to-event analysis was conducted using days from start of treatment to death. Variables of interest were first assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were fit to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of 423 eligible participants, 398 (95%) had culture-confirmed DR-TB and 238 (56%) were HIV-infected. A total of 54% were underweight, 42% were male and median age was 10.7 years (IQR: 5.5-15.3). Of the 423 participants, 245 (58%) were successfully treated, 69 (16%) died, treatment failed in 3 (1%), 36 (9%) were lost to follow-up, and 70 (17%) were still on treatment, transferred or had unknown outcomes. Time to death differed by HIV status (p=0.008), sex (p<0.001), year of TB diagnosis (p=0.05) and weight status (p=0.002). Over the two-year risk period, the adjusted rate of death was 2-fold higher among participants with HIV compared to HIV-negative participants (aHR=2.28; 95% CI: 1.11, 4.68). CONCLUSIONS: Male, underweight, and HIV-infected children with DR TB were more likely to experience death when compared to other children with DR TB within this study population.

      10. Outbreak of sudden death with acute encephalitis syndrome among children associated with exposure to lychee orchards in northern Bangladesh, 2012External
        Islam MS, Sharif AR, Sazzad HM, Khan A, Hasan M, Akter S, Rahman M, Luby SP, Heffelfinger JD, Gurley ES.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jul 24.

        Recurrent outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children in lychee growing areas in Asia highlight the need to better understand the etiology and the context. We conducted a mixed-methods study to identify risk factors for disease, and behaviors and practices around lychee cultivation in an AES outbreak community in northern Bangladesh in 2012. The outbreak affected 14 children; 13 died. The major symptoms included unconsciousness, convulsion, excessive sweating, and frothy discharge. The median time from illness onset to unconsciousness was 2.5 hours. The outbreak corresponded with lychee harvesting season. Multiple pesticides including some banned in Bangladesh were frequently used in the orchards. Visiting a lychee orchard within 24 hours before onset (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 11.6 [1.02-109.8]) and 3 days (aOR = 7.2 [1.4-37.6]), and family members working in a lychee orchard (aOR = 7.2 [1.7-29.4]) and visiting any garden while pesticides were being applied (aOR = 4.9 [1.0-19.4]) in 3 days preceding illness onset were associated with illness in nearby village analysis. In neighborhood analysis, visiting an orchard that used pesticides (aOR = 8.4 [1.4-49.9]) within 3 days preceding illness onset was associated with illness. Eating lychees was not associated with illness in the case-control study. The outbreak was linked to lychee orchard exposures where agrochemicals were routinely used, but not to consumption of lychees. Lack of acute specimens was a major limitation. Future studies should target collection of environmental and food samples, acute specimens, and rigorous assessment of community use of pesticides to determine etiology.

      11. Network-centric interventions to contain the syphilis epidemic in San FranciscoExternal
        Juher D, Saldana J, Kohn R, Bernstein K, Scoglio C.
        Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 25;7(1):6464.

        The number of reported early syphilis cases in San Francisco has increased steadily since 2005. It is not yet clear what factors are responsible for such an increase. A recent analysis of the sexual contact network of men who have sex with men with syphilis in San Francisco has discovered a large connected component, members of which have a significantly higher chance of syphilis and HIV compared to non-member individuals. This study investigates whether it is possible to exploit the existence of the largest connected component to design new notification strategies that can potentially contribute to reducing the number of cases. We develop a model capable of incorporating multiple types of notification strategies and compare the corresponding incidence of syphilis. Through extensive simulations, we show that notifying the community of the infection state of few central nodes appears to be the most effective approach, balancing the cost of notification and the reduction of syphilis incidence. Additionally, among the different measures of centrality, the eigenvector centrality reveals to be the best to reduce the incidence in the long term as long as the number of missing links (non-disclosed contacts) is not very large.

      12. Tuberculosis trends in California correctional facilities, 1993-2013External
        McDaniel CJ, Chitnis AS, Barry PM, Shah N.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 ;21(8):922-929.

        BACKGROUND: Incarcerated persons are disproportionately diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). California has the second highest inmate population in the United States, but reports the highest number of cases. OBJECTIVE: To describe the TB epidemiology among incarcerated patients in California. METHODS : Trends in incidence were assessed using Poisson regression, and trends in percentage were assessed using weighted linear regression. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared using v2 or Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: During 1993-2013, of the 64 090 TB cases reported, 2323 (4%) were correctional facility residents. Incidence in correctional facilities decreased until 2006 (annual per cent change [APC] -12.3%, 95%CI -14.4 to -10.1), but has since stabilized (APC 4.4%, 95%CI -2.1 to 11.4). Compared with state prisoners, federal prisoners were more likely to be male (98%, P<0.03), persons arriving in the United States within 5 years of diagnosis (62%, P< 0.001), and born in Mexico (88%, P=0.02), whereas local jail inmates were more likely to have a history of substance use (75%, P<0.001) and homelessness (35%, P< 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in correctional facilities had steadily declined over the last two decades, but has recently leveled out. To promote further reduction in incidence among diverse incarcerated populations, health departments and correctional facilities should strengthen collaboration by conducting TB risk-based assessments.

      13. HCV elimination – lessons learned from a small Eurasian country, GeorgiaExternal
        Nasrullah M, Sergeenko D, Gamkrelidze A, Averhoff F.
        Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jul 26;14(8):447-448.

        [No abstract]

      14. The role of screening and treatment in national progress toward hepatitis C elimination – Georgia, 2015-2016External
        Nasrullah M, Sergeenko D, Gvinjilia L, Gamkrelidze A, Tsertsvadze T, Butsashvili M, Metreveli D, Sharvadze L, Alkhazashvili M, Shadaker S, Ward JW, Morgan J, Averhoff F.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 28;66(29):773-776.

        Georgia, a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, has a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In April 2015, with technical assistance from CDC, Georgia embarked on the world’s first program to eliminate hepatitis C, defined as a 90% reduction in HCV prevalence by 2020 (1,2). The country committed to identifying infected persons and linking them to care and curative antiviral therapy, which was provided free of charge through a partnership with Gilead Sciences (1,2). From April 2015 through December 2016, a total of 27,595 persons initiated treatment for HCV infection, among whom 19,778 (71.7%) completed treatment. Among 6,366 persons tested for HCV RNA >/=12 weeks after completing treatment, 5,356 (84.1%) had no detectable virus in their blood, indicative of a sustained virologic response (SVR) and cure of HCV infection. The number of persons initiating treatment peaked in September 2016 at 4,595 and declined during October-December. Broader implementation of interventions that increase access to HCV testing, care, and treatment for persons living with HCV are needed for Georgia to reach national targets for the elimination of HCV.

      15. Antibiotic prescribing for adults hospitalized in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community StudyExternal
        Tomczyk S, Jain S, Bramley AM, Self WH, Anderson EJ, Trabue C, Courtney DM, Grijalva CG, Waterer GW, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Hicks LA.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Spring;4(2):ofx088.

        BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP. METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2012, adults hospitalized with clinical and radiographic CAP were enrolled in a prospective Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study across 5 US hospitals. Patients were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire, and medical charts were reviewed. Antibiotics prescribed were classified according to defined nonrecommended CAP antibiotics. We assessed factors associated with nonrecommended CAP antibiotics using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among enrollees, 1843 of 1874 (98%) ward and 440 of 446 (99%) ICU patients received >/=1 antibiotic </=24 hours after admission. Ward patients were prescribed a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone (n = 613; 33%), or beta-lactam plus macrolide (n = 365; 19%), beta-lactam alone (n = 240; 13%), among other antibiotics, including vancomycin (n = 235; 13%) or piperacillin/tazobactam (n = 157; 8%) </=24 hours after admission. Ward patients with known risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), recent outpatient antibiotic use, and in-hospital antibiotic use <6 hours after admission were significantly more likely to receive nonrecommended CAP antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Although more than half of ward patients received antibiotics concordant with IDSA/ATS guidelines, a number received nonrecommended CAP antibiotics, including vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam; risk factors for HCAP, recent outpatient antibiotic, and rapid inpatient antibiotic use contributed to this. This hypothesis-generating descriptive epidemiology analysis could help inform antibiotic stewardship efforts, reinforces the need to harmonize guidelines for CAP and HCAP, and highlights the need for improved diagnostics to better equip clinicians.

      16. Diarrhea is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the challenge of blinding most water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, diarrheal disease outcome measures in WASH intervention trials are subject to potential bias and misclassification. Using the platform of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a household-based drinking water filter in western province, Rwanda, we assessed the impact of the drinking water filter on enteric seroconversion in young children as a health outcome and examined the association between serological responses and caregiver-reported diarrhea. Among the 2,179 children enrolled in the trial, 189 children 6-12 months of age were enrolled in a nested serology study. These children had their blood drawn at baseline and 6-12 months after the intervention was distributed. Multiplex serologic assays for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, norovirus, Campylobacter, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were performed. Despite imperfect uptake, receipt of the water filter was associated with a significant decrease in seroprevalence of IgG directed against Cryptosporidium parvum Cp17 and Cp23 (relative risk [RR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.89). Serologic responses were positively associated with reported diarrhea in the previous 7 days for both Giardia intestinalis (RR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04-3.63) and C. parvum (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.09-4.50). Serological responses for all antigens generally increased in the follow-up round, rising sharply after 12 months of age. The water filter is associated with reduced serological responses against C. parvum, a proxy for exposure and infection; therefore, serological responses against protozoa may be a suitable health outcome measure for WASH trials among children with diarrhea.

      17. Migrant screening for tuberculosis and LTBI in EuropeExternal
        Zellweger JP, Posey DL.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 ;21(8):835.

        [No abstract]

    • Environmental Health
      1. Advanced automobile technology, developed infrastructure, and changing economic markets have resulted in increasing commute times. Traffic is a major source of harmful pollutants and consequently daily peak exposures tend to occur near roadways or while travelling on them. The objective of this study was to measure simultaneous real-time particulate matter (particle numbers, lung-deposited surface area, PM2.5, particle number size distributions) and CO concentrations outside and in-cabin of an on-road car during regular commutes to and from work. Data was collected for different ventilation parameters (windows open or closed, fan on, AC on), whilst travelling along different road-types with varying traffic densities. Multiple predictor variables were examined using linear mixed-effects models. Ambient pollutants (NOx, PM2.5, CO) and meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, dew point) explained 5?44% of outdoor pollutant variability, while the time spent travelling behind a bus was statistically significant for PM2.5 lung-deposited SA, and CO (adj-R2 values = 0.12, 0.10, 0.13). The geometric mean diameter (GMD) for outdoor aerosol was 34 nm. Larger cabin GMDs were observed when windows were closed compared to open (b = 4.3, p-value = &lt;0.01). When windows were open, cabin total aerosol concentrations tracked those outdoors. With windows closed, the pollutants took longer to enter the vehicle cabin, but also longer to exit it. Concentrations of pollutants in cabin were influenced by outdoor concentrations, ambient temperature, and the window/ventilation parameters. As expected, particle number concentrations were impacted the most by changes to window position/ventilation, and PM2.5 the least. Car drivers can expect their highest exposures when driving with windows open or the fan on, and their lowest exposures during windows closed or the AC on. Final linear mixed-effects models could explain between 88 and 97% of cabin pollutant concentration variability. An individual may control their commuting exposure by applying dynamic behavior modification to adapt to changing pollutant scenarios.

      2. Paternal and maternal preconception urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and child behaviorExternal
        Messerlian C, Bellinger D, Minguez-Alarcon L, Romano ME, Ford JB, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R, Braun JM.
        Environ Res. 2017 Jul 21;158:720-728.

        BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with behavioral problems and lower performance on measures of cognitive ability in children. However, the potential effect of phthalate exposure during the sensitive preconception period is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association of maternal and paternal preconception urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with child behavior and evaluate potential modification by child sex. METHODS: We used data from 166 children (111 singletons, 26 pairs of twins, and 1 set of triplets) born to 134 mothers and 100 fathers participating in a prospective preconception cohort study of subfertile couples from the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. We estimated mean maternal and paternal preconception exposures by averaging individual phthalate metabolite concentrations in multiple urine samples collected before pregnancy. We assessed children’s behavior at 2-9 years of age by parent report using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2). We estimated the covariate-adjusted association between individual phthalate metabolite concentrations and the sum of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites ( summation operator DEHP) and behavior scores, and evaluated differences in associations by child sex using linear regression with Generalized Estimating Equations. Models were further adjusted for prenatal phthalate concentrations in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Each loge-unit increase in maternal and paternal preconception concentrations of summation operatorDEHP was associated with a 2.0 (95% CI: – 3.2, – 0.7) and 1.8 (95% CI: – 3.1, – 0.4) point decrease in BASC-2 internalizing behavior scores among all children, respectively. We observed sex-specific associations for some phthalate biomarkers: among boys, maternal monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) was positively associated with externalizing behaviors, and paternal MiBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate were positively associated with internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, paternal and maternal preconception concentrations of some phthalate biomarkers were associated with specific aspects of child behavior, even after adjustment for prenatal concentrations. While additional research is warranted to confirm these results, our findings suggest that the preconception period of exposure may be a critical window for offspring neurodevelopment.

      3. Childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and neurobehavior in children at 8 yearsExternal
        Vuong AM, Yolton K, Xie C, Webster GM, Sjodin A, Braun JM, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Chen A.
        Environ Res. 2017 Jul 19;158:677-684.

        BACKGROUND: Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. METHODS: We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. Child serum PBDEs were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years; missing serum PBDE concentrations were estimated via multiple imputation. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 was used to assess intelligence and externalizing behavior, respectively, in children at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate associations between repeated lipid-adjusted PBDEs and child neurobehavior and to test for windows of susceptibility. RESULTS: Postnatal exposure to PBDE congeners (- 28, – 47, – 99, – 100, and – 153) at multiple ages was inversely associated with FSIQ at 8 years. For instance, a 10-fold increase in BDE-153 concentrations at 2, 3, 5, and 8 years were all related to lower FSIQ at age 8 (beta for 3 years: – 7.7-points, 95% CI – 12.5, – 2.9; beta for 8 years: – 5.6-points, 95% CI – 10.8, – 0.4). Multiple PBDE congeners at 8 years were associated with increased hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors at 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal PBDE exposure was associated with decrements in FSIQ and increases in hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Finished whole-genome sequences of Clostridium butyricum toxin subtype E4 and Clostridium baratii toxin subtype F7 strainsExternal
        Halpin JL, Hill K, Johnson SL, Bruce DC, Shirey TB, Dykes JK, Luquez C.
        Genome Announc. 2017 Jul 20;5(29).

        Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii species have been known to produce botulinum toxin types E and F, respectively, which can cause botulism, a rare but serious neuroparalytic disease. Here, we present finished genome sequences for two of these clinically relevant strains.

      2. Revisiting the genotyping scheme for varicella-zoster viruses based on whole-genome comparisonsExternal
        Jensen NJ, Rivailler P, Tseng HF, Quinlivan ML, Radford K, Folster J, Harpaz R, LaRussa P, Jacobsen S, Schmid DS.
        J Gen Virol. 2017 Jun;98(6):1434-1438.

        We report whole-genome sequences (WGSs) for four varicella-zoster virus (VZV) samples from a shingles study conducted by Kaiser Permanente of Southern California. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of all published VZV WGSs revealed that strain KY037798 is in clade IX, which shall henceforth be designated clade 9. Previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-based genotyping schemes fail to discriminate between clades 6 and VIII and employ positions that are not clade-specific. We provide an updated list of clade-specific positions that supersedes the list determined at the 2008 VZV nomenclature meeting. Finally, we propose a new targeted genotyping scheme that will discriminate the circulating VZV clades with at least a twofold redundancy. Genotyping strategies using a limited set of targeted SNPs will continue to provide an efficient ‘first pass’ method for VZV strain surveillance as vaccination programmes for varicella and zoster influence the dynamics of VZV transmission.

      3. Cascade screening for familial hypercholesterolemia and the use of genetic testingExternal
        Knowles JW, Rader DJ, Khoury MJ.
        Jama. 2017 Jul 25;318(4):381-382.

        [No abstract]

    • Health Communication and Education
      1. Training employers to implement health promotion programs: Results from the CDC Work@Health(R) ProgramExternal
        Cluff LA, Lang JE, Rineer JR, Jones-Jack NH, Strazza KM.
        Am J Health Promot. 2017 Jan 01:890117117721067.

        PURPOSE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Work@Health Program to teach employers how to improve worker health using evidence-based strategies. Program goals included (1) determining the best way(s) to deliver employer training, (2) increasing employers’ knowledge of workplace health promotion (WHP), and (3) increasing the number of evidence-based WHP interventions at employers’ worksites. This study is one of the few to examine the effectiveness of a program designed to train employers how to implement WHP programs. DESIGN: Pre- and posttest design. SETTING: Training via 1 of 3 formats hands-on, online, or blended. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred six individual participants from 173 employers of all sizes. INTERVENTION: Eight-module training curriculum to guide participants through building an evidence-based WHP program, followed by 6 to 10 months of technical assistance. MEASURES: The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard and knowledge, attitudes, and behavior survey. ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and mixed linear models. RESULTS: Participants’ posttraining mean knowledge scores were significantly greater than the pretraining scores (61.1 vs 53.2, P < .001). A year after training, employers had significantly increased the number of evidence-based interventions in place (47.7 vs 35.5, P < .001). Employers’ improvements did not significantly differ among the 3 training delivery formats. CONCLUSION: The Work@Health Program provided employers with knowledge to implement WHP interventions. The training and technical assistance provided structure, practical guidance, and tools to assess needs and select, implement, and evaluate interventions.

    • Health Disparities
      1. CDC Grand Rounds: Addressing health disparities in early childhoodExternal
        Robinson LR, Bitsko RH, Thompson RA, Dworkin PH, McCabe MA, Peacock G, Thorpe PG.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 28;66(29):769-772.

        Research suggests that many disparities in overall health and well-being are rooted in early childhood (1,2). Stressors in early childhood can disrupt neurologic, metabolic, and immunologic systems, leading to poorer developmental outcomes (1). However, consistent, responsive caregiving relationships and supportive community and health care environments promote an optimal trajectory (3,4). The first 8 years of a child’s life build a foundation for future health and life success (5-7). Thus, the cumulative and lifelong impact of early experiences, both positive and negative, on a child’s development can be profound. Although the health, social service, and education systems that serve young children and their families and communities provide opportunities to support responsive relationships and environments, efforts by these systems are often fragmented because of restrictions that limit the age groups they can serve and types of services they can provide. Integrating relationship-based prevention and intervention services for children early in life, when the brain is developing most rapidly, can optimize developmental trajectories (4,7). By promoting collaboration and data-driven intervention activities, public health can play a critical role in both the identification of at-risk children and the integration of systems that can support healthy development. These efforts can address disparities by reducing barriers that might prevent children from reaching their full potential.

    • Health Economics
      1. BACKGROUND: Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) is recommended treatment for acute ischemic stroke patients, but the cost-effectiveness of IV rtPA within different time windows after the onset of acute ischemic stroke is not well reviewed. AIMS: To conduct a literature review of the cost-effectiveness studies about IV rtPA by treatment times. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, with the key words acute ischemic stroke, tissue plasminogen activator, cost, economic benefit, saving, and incremental cost-effectiveness analysis. The review is limited to original research articles published during 1995-2016 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We found 16 studies meeting our criteria for this review. Nine of them were cost-effectiveness studies of IV rtPA treatment within 0-3 hours after stroke onset, 2 studies within 3-4.5 hours, 3 studies within 0-4.5 hours, and 2 study within 0-6 hours. IV rtPA is a cost-saving or a cost-effectiveness strategy from most of the study results. Only one study showed incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of IV rtPA within one year was marginally above $50,000 per QALY threshold. IV rtPA within 0-3 hours after stroke led to cost savings for lifetime or 30 years, and IV rtPA within 3-4.5 hours after stroke increased costs but still was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The literature generally showed that intravenous IV rtPA was a dominant or a cost-effective strategy compared to traditional treatment for acute ischemic stroke patients without IV rtPA. The findings from the literature lacked generalizability because of limited data and various assumptions.

      2. We assessed the US state-level budget and societal impact of implementing two child abuse and neglect (CAN) primary prevention programs. CAN cost estimates and data from two prevention programs (Child-Parent Centers and Nurse-Family Partnership) were combined with current population, cost, and CAN incidence data by US state. A cost-benefit mathematical model for each program by US state compared program costs with the future monetary value of benefits from reduced CAN. The models used a lifetime time horizon from government payer and societal perspectives. Both programs could potentially avert CAN among tens of thousands of children across the country. Lower costs from reduced CAN may substantially offset, but not always entirely eliminate, payers’ program implementation cost. Results are sensitive to the rate of CAN in each US state. Given the considerable lifetime societal cost of CAN, including victims’ lost work productivity, the programs were cost saving from the societal perspective in all US states using base case methods. This analysis represents an overall minimum return on payers’ investment because averted CAN is just one of many positive health and educational outcomes associated with these programs and non-monetary benefits from reduced CAN were not included. Translating cost and effectiveness research on injury prevention programs for local conditions might increase decision makers’ adoption of effective programs.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Outbreak of septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections at an outpatient practice – New Jersey, 2017External
        Ross K, Mehr J, Carothers B, Greeley R, Benowitz I, McHugh L, Henry D, DiFedele L, Adler E, Naqvi S, Lifshitz E, Tan C, Montana B.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 28;66(29):777-779.

        On March 6, 2017, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) was notified of three cases of septic arthritis in patients who had received intra-articular injections for osteoarthritic knee pain at a private outpatient practice. The practice voluntarily closed the next day. NJDOH, in conjunction with the local health department and the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners, conducted an investigation and identified 41 cases of septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections administered during 250 patient visits at the same practice, including 30 (73%) patients who required surgery. Bacterial cultures of synovial fluid or tissue from 15 (37%) patients were positive; all recovered organisms were oral flora. An infection prevention assessment of the practice identified multiple breaches of recommended infection prevention practices, including inadequate hand hygiene, inappropriate use of pharmacy bulk packaged (PBP) products as multiple-dose containers and handling PBP products outside of required pharmacy conditions, and preparation of syringes up to 4 days in advance of their intended use. No additional septic arthritis cases were identified after infection prevention recommendations were implemented within the practice.

      2. Survival, persistence, and isolation of the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris on a plastic healthcare surfaceExternal
        Welsh RM, Bentz ML, Shams A, Houston H, Lyons A, Rose LJ, Litvintseva AP.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Jul 26.

        The emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris represents a serious threat to global health. Unlike most other Candida species, this organism appears to be commonly transmitted within healthcare facilities and is capable of causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. To better understand the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen we investigated the ability of C. auris to persist on plastic surfaces common in healthcare settings and compared with that of Candida parapsilosis, a species known to colonize the skin and plastics. Specifically, we compiled comparative and quantitative data essential to understanding the vehicles of spread and the ability of both species to survive and persist on plastic surfaces under controlled conditions (25 degrees C & 57% relative humidity), such as those found in healthcare settings. When a test suspension of 104 cells was applied and dried on plastic surfaces, C. auris remained viable for at least 14 days and C. parapsilosis 28 days, as measured by colony forming units (CFU). However, survival measured by esterase activity was higher for C. auris than C. parapsilosis throughout the 28 day study. Given the notable length of time Candida survive and persist outside their host, we developed methods to more effectively culture C. auris from patients and their environment. Using our enrichment protocol, public health laboratories and researchers can now readily isolate C. auris from complex microbial communities (such as patient skin, nasopharynx, and stool) as well as environmental biofilms, in order to better understand and prevent C. auris colonization and transmission.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Estimating direct and indirect protective effect of influenza vaccination in the United StatesExternal
        Arinaminpathy N, Kim IK, Gargiullo P, Haber M, Foppa IM, Gambhir M, Bresee J.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Mar 25:1-9.

        With influenza vaccination rates in the United States recently exceeding 45% of the population, it is important to understand the impact that vaccination is having on influenza transmission. In this study, we used a Bayesian modeling approach, combined with a simple dynamical model of influenza transmission, to estimate this impact. The combined framework synthesized evidence from a range of data sources relating to influenza transmission and vaccination in the United States. We found that, for seasonal epidemics, the number of infections averted ranged from 9.6 million in the 2006-2007 season (95% credible interval (CI): 8.7, 10.9) to 37.2 million (95% CI: 34.1, 39.6) in the 2012-2013 season. Expressed in relative terms, the proportion averted ranged from 20.8% (95% CI: 16.8, 24.3) of potential infections in the 2011-2012 season to 47.5% (95% CI: 43.7, 50.8) in the 2008-2009 season. The percentage averted was only 1.04% (95% CI: 0.15, 3.2) for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, owing to the late timing of the vaccination program in relation to the pandemic in the Northern hemisphere. In the future, further vaccination coverage, as well as improved influenza vaccines (especially those offering better protection in the elderly), could have an even stronger effect on annual influenza epidemics.

      2. Protection against cholera from killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
        Bi Q, Ferreras E, Pezzoli L, Legros D, Ivers LC, Date K, Qadri F, Digilio L, Sack DA, Ali M, Lessler J, Luquero FJ, Azman AS.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 17.

        BACKGROUND: Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (kOCVs) are becoming a standard cholera control and prevention tool. However, vaccine efficacy and direct effectiveness estimates have varied, with differences in study design, location, follow-up duration, and vaccine composition posing challenges for public health decision making. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to generate average estimates of kOCV efficacy and direct effectiveness from the available literature. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Review Library on July 9, 2016, and ISI Web of Science on July 11, 2016, for randomised controlled trials and observational studies that reported estimates of direct protection against medically attended confirmed cholera conferred by kOCVs. We included studies published on any date in English, Spanish, French, or Chinese. We extracted from the published reports the primary efficacy and effectiveness estimates from each study and also estimates according to number of vaccine doses, duration, and age group. The main study outcome was average efficacy and direct effectiveness of two kOCV doses, which we estimated with random-effect models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016048232. FINDINGS: Seven trials (with 695 patients with cholera) and six observational studies (217 patients with cholera) met the inclusion criteria, with an average two-dose efficacy of 58% (95% CI 42-69, I2=58%) and effectiveness of 76% (62-85, I2=0). Average two-dose efficacy in children younger than 5 years (30% [95% CI 15-42], I2=0%) was lower than in those 5 years or older (64% [58-70], I2=0%; p<0.0001). Two-dose efficacy estimates of kOCV were similar during the first 2 years after vaccination, with estimates of 56% (95% CI 42-66, I2=45%) in the first year and 59% (49-67, I2=0) in the second year. The efficacy reduced to 39% (13 to 57, I2=48%) in the third year, and 26% (-46 to 63, I2=74%) in the fourth year. INTERPRETATION: Two kOCV doses provide protection against cholera for at least 3 years. One kOCV dose provides at least short-term protection, which has important implications for outbreak management. kOCVs are effective tools for cholera control. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

      3. Cold-chain adaptability during introduction of inactivated polio vaccine in Bangladesh, 2015External
        Billah MM, Zaman K, Estivariz CF, Snider CJ, Anand A, Hampton LM, Bari TI, Russell KL, Chai SJ.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S114-S121.

        Background. Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. Methods. We evaluated the cold chain in 23 health facilities and 36 outreach vaccination sessions in 8 districts and cities of Bangladesh, using purposive sampling during August-October 2015. We interviewed immunization and cold-chain staff, assessed equipment, and recorded temperatures during vaccine storage and transportation. Results. All health facilities had functioning refrigerators, and 96% had freezers. Temperature monitors were observed in all refrigerators and freezers but in only 14 of 66 vaccine transporters (21%). Recorders detected temperatures >8degreeC for >60 minutes in 5 of 23 refrigerators (22%), 3 of 6 cold boxes (50%) transporting vaccines from national to subnational depots, and 8 of 48 vaccine carriers (17%) used in outreach vaccination sites. Temperatures <2degreeC were detected in 4 of 19 cold boxes (21%) transporting vaccine from subnational depots to health facilities and 14 of 48 vaccine carriers (29%). Conclusions. Bangladesh has substantial cold-chain storage and transportation capacity after inactivated polio vaccine introduction, but temperature fluctuations during vaccine transport could cause vaccine potency loss that could go undetected. Bangladesh and other countries should strive to ensure consistent and sufficient cold-chain storage and monitor the cold chain during vaccine transportation at all levels.

      4. Individually linked household and health facility vaccination survey in 12 at-risk districts in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: Methods and metadataExternal
        Burnett E, Wannemuehler K, Ngoie Mwamba G, Yolande M, Guylain K, Muriel NN, Cathy N, Patrice T, Wilkins K, Yoloyolo N.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S237-S243.

        Health facility (HF) and household (HH) data can complement each other to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to vaccination status. In 12 zones with low vaccination coverage within Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, we conducted 2 surveys: (1) a linked HH and HF survey among 6-11-month-old infants, and (2) a HH survey among 12-23-month-old children. Linked survey objectives were to identify factors associated with vaccination status and to explore methodological considerations for linked survey implementation. To provide linked HH and HF data, we enrolled 6-11-month-old infants in HH clusters in each zone and then surveyed HFs located within the 12 zones and cited by caregivers of the enrolled infants as the most recent HF visited for vaccination or curative care. To provide vaccination coverage estimates for the 12-zone area, we enrolled 12-23-month-old children in every fourth HH. Of the HHs with a child aged 6-23 months, 16% were ineligible because they had resided in the neighborhood for <3 months or were unavailable to be interviewed, 4% refused, and 80% were eligible and participated. Of 1224 enrolled infants 6-11 months of age, records of 879 (72%) were linked to one of the 182 surveyed HFs. For the coverage survey, 710 children aged 12-23 months participated. Home-based vaccination cards were available for 1210 of 1934 children (63%) surveyed. The surveys were successful in assessing HH information for 2 age groups, documenting written vaccination history for a large proportion of 6-23-month-old children, linking the majority of infants with their most recently visited HF, and surveying identified HFs. The implementation of the individually linked survey also highlighted the need for a comprehensive list of HFs and an analysis plan that addresses cross-classified clusters with only 1 child.

      5. National, regional and global certification bodies for polio eradication: A framework for verifying measles eliminationExternal
        Deblina Datta S, Tangermann RH, Reef S, William Schluter W, Adams A.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S351-S354.

        The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally.

      6. Administering multiple injectable vaccines during a single visit – summary of findings from the accelerated introduction of inactivated polio vaccine globallyExternal
        Dolan SB, Patel M, Hampton LM, Burnett E, Ehlman DC, Garon J, Cloessner E, Chmielewski E, Hyde TB, Mantel C, Wallace AS.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S152-S160.

        Background. In 2013, the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In many countries, the addition of IPV would necessitate delivery of multiple injectable vaccines (hereafter, “multiple injections”) during a single visit, with infants receiving IPV alongside pentavalent vaccine (which covers diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis; hepatitis B; and Haemophilus influenzae type b) and pneumococcal vaccine. Unanticipated concerns emerged from countries over acceptability of multiple injections, sites of administration, and safety. We contextualized the issues surrounding multiple injections by documenting concerns associated with administration of >=3 injections, existing evidence in the published literature, and findings of a systematic review on administration practices and techniques. Methods. Concerns associated with multiple-injection visits were documented from meetings and personal communications with immunization program managers. Published literature on the acceptability of multiple injections by providers and caregivers was summarized, and a systematic review of the literature on administration practices was completed on the following topics: spacing between injection sites (ie, vaccine spacing), site of injection, route of injection, and procedural preparedness. WHO and United Nations Children’s Fund data from 2013-2015 were used to assess multiple-injection visits included in national immunization schedules. Results. Healthcare provider and caregiver attitudes and practices indicated concerns about infant pain, potential adverse effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness with multiple-injection visits. Published literature reinforced the record of safety and acceptance of the recommended schedule of IPV by the SAGE, but the evidence was largely from developed countries. Parental acceptance of multiple injections was associated with a positive provider recommendation to the caregiver. Findings of the systematic review identified that the intramuscular route is preferred over the subcutaneous route for vaccine administration and that the vastus lateralis muscle is preferred over the deltoid muscle for intramuscular injections. Recommendations on vaccine spacing and procedural preparedness were based on practical necessities, but comparative evidence was not identified. During 2013-2015, 85 countries added IPV to their immunization schedules, 46 (55%) of which adopted a schedule resulting in 3 injectable vaccines being administered in a single visit. Conclusion. The multiple-injection experience identified gaps in guidance for future vaccine introductions. Global partner organizations quickly mobilized to assess, document, and communicate the existing global experience on multiple-injection visits. This evidence-based approach provided reassurance to opinion leaders, health workers, and professional societies, thus encouraging uptake of IPV as a second or third injection in an accelerated manner globally.

      7. Lessons learned from the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in BangladeshExternal
        Estivariz CF, Snider CJ, Anand A, Hampton LM, Bari TI, Billah MM, Chai SJ, Wassilak SG, Heffelfinger JD, Zaman K.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S122-S129.

        Background We assessed programmatic adaptations and infants’ uptake of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) after its introduction into the routine immunization schedule in Bangladesh. Methods Using convenience and probability sampling, we selected 23 health facilities, 36 vaccinators, and 336 caregivers, within 5 districts and 3 city corporations. We collected data during August-October 2015 by conducting interviews, reviewing vaccination records, and observing activities. Results Knowledge about IPV was high among vaccinators (94%). No problems with IPV storage, transport, or waste disposal were detected, but shortages were reported in 20 health facilities (87%). Wastage per 5-dose vaccine vial was above the recommended 30% in 20 health facilities (87%); all were related to providing <5 doses per open vial. Among eligible infants, 87% and 86% received the third dose of pentavalent and oral poliovirus vaccine, respectively, but only 65% received IPV at the same visit. Among 73 infants not vaccinated with IPV, 58% of caregivers reported that vaccine was unavailable. Conclusions Bangladesh successfully introduced IPV, but shortages related to insufficient global supply and high vaccine wastage in small outreach immunization sessions might reduce its impact on population immunity. Minimizing wastage and use of a 2-dose fractional-IPV schedule could extend IPV immunization to more children.

      8. Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine, withdrawal of type 2 oral polio vaccine, and routine immunization strengthening in the Eastern Mediterranean RegionExternal
        Fahmy K, Hampton LM, Langar H, Patel M, Mir T, Soloman C, Hasman A, Yusuf N, Teleb N.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S86-S93.

        The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent oral polio vaccine (“the switch”). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (DTP3) was >=90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple countries. To strengthen their immunization systems, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Somalia developed draft plans to integrate Polio Eradication Initiative assets, staff, structure, and activities with their Expanded Programmes on Immunization, particularly in high-risk districts and regions. Between 2014 and 2016, 11 EMR countries introduced IPV in their routine immunization program, including all of the countries at highest risk for polio transmission (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen). As a result, by the end of 2016 all EMR countries were using IPV except Egypt, where introduction of IPV was delayed by a global shortage. The switch was successfully implemented in EMR due to the motivation, engagement, and cooperation of immunization staff and decision makers across all national levels. Moreover, the switch succeeded because of the ability of even the immunization systems operating under hardship conditions of conflict to absorb the switch activities.

      9. The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained its polio-free status since 2000. The emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), however, remains a risk, as oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still used in many of the region’s countries, and pockets of unimmunized or underimmunized children exist in some countries. From 2014 to 2016, the region participated in the globally coordinated efforts to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into all countries that did not yet include it in their national immunization schedules, and to “switch” from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries still using OPV in 2016. As of September 2016, 15 of 17 countries and areas that did not use IPV by the end of 2014 had introduced IPV. Introduction in the remaining 2 countries has been delayed because of the global shortage of IPV, making it unavailable to select lower-risk countries until the fourth quarter of 2017. All 16 countries using OPV as of 2016 successfully withdrew tOPV during the globally synchronized switch from April to May 2016, and 15 of 16 countries introduced bOPV at the same time, with the remaining country introducing it within 30 days. While countries were primarily responsible for self-funding these activities, additional support was provided. The main challenges encountered in the Western Pacific Region with both IPV introduction and the tOPV-bOPV switch were related to overcoming regulatory policies and challenges with vaccine procurement. As a result, substantial lead time was needed to resolve procurement and regulatory issues before the introductions of IPV and bOPV. As the global community prepares for the full removal of all OPV from immunization programs, this need for lead time and consideration of the impact on national policies should be considered.

      10. Considerations for the full global withdrawal of oral polio vaccine after eradication of polioExternal
        Hampton LM, Du Chatellier GM, Fournier-Caruana J, Ottosen A, Rubin J, Menning L, Farrell M, Shendale S, Patel M.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S217-S225.

        Eliminating the risk of polio from vaccine-derived polioviruses is essential for creating a polio-free world, and eliminating that risk will require stopping use of all oral polio vaccines (OPVs) once all types of wild polioviruses have been eradicated. In many ways, the experience with the global switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) can inform the eventual full global withdrawal of OPV. Significant preparation will be needed for a thorough, synchronized, and full withdrawal of OPV, and such preparation would be aided by setting a reasonably firm date for OPV withdrawal as far in advance as possible, ideally at least 24 months. A shorter lead time would provide valuable flexibility for decisions about when to stop use of OPV in the context of uncertainty about whether or not all types of wild polioviruses had been eradicated, but it might increase the cost of OPV withdrawal.

      11. Resource needs for the trivalent oral polio to bivalent oral polio vaccine switch in IndonesiaExternal
        Holmes M, Abimbola T, Lusiana M, Pallas S, Hampton LM, Widyastuti R, Muas I, Karlina K, Kosen S.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S209-S216.

        Background. We present an empirical economic cost analysis of the April 2016 switch from trivalent (tOPV) to bivalent (bOPV) oral polio vaccine at the national-level and 3 provinces (Bali, West Sumatera and Nusa Tenggara) for Indonesia’s Expanded Program on Immunization. Methods. Data on the quantity and prices of resources used in the 4 World Health Organization guideline phases of the switch were collected at the national-level and in each of the sampled provinces, cities/districts, and health facilities. Costs were calculated as the sum of the value of resources reportedly used in each sampled unit by switch phase. Results. Estimated national-level costs were $46 791. Costs by health system level varied from $9062 to $34 256 at the province-level, from $4576 to $11 936 at the district-level, and from $3488 to $29 175 at the city-level. Estimated national costs ranged from $4 076 446 (Bali, minimum cost scenario) to $28 120 700 (West Sumatera, maximum cost scenario). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the majority of tPOV to bOPV switch costs were borne at the subnational level. Considerable variation in reported costs among health system levels surveyed indicates a need for flexibility in budgeting for globally synchronized public health activities.

      12. Routine immunization service delivery through the basic package of health services program in Afghanistan: Gaps, challenges, and opportunitiesExternal
        Mbaeyi C, Kamawal NS, Porter KA, Azizi AK, Sadaat I, Hadler S, Ehrhardt D.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S273-S279.

        Background. The Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) program has increased access to immunization services for children living in rural Afghanistan. However, multiple surveys have indicated persistent immunization coverage gaps. Hence, to identify gaps in implementation, an assessment of the BPHS program was undertaken, with specific focus on the routine immunization (RI) component. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 on a representative sample drawn from a sampling frame of 1858 BPHS health facilities. Basic descriptive analysis was performed, capturing general characteristics of survey respondents and assessing specific RI components, and ++ 2 tests were used to evaluate possible differences in service delivery by type of health facility. Results. Of 447 survey respondents, 27% were health subcenters (HSCs), 30% were basic health centers, 32% were comprehensive health centers, and 12% were district hospitals. Eighty-seven percent of all respondents offered RI services, though only 61% of HSCs did so. Compared with other facility types, HSCs were less likely to have adequate stock of vaccines, essential cold-chain equipment, or proper documentation of vaccination activities. Conclusions. There is an urgent need to address manpower and infrastructural deficits in RI service delivery through the BPHS program, especially at the HSC level.

      13. Polio legacy in action: Using the polio eradication infrastructure for measles elimination in Nigeria – the National Stop Transmission of Polio ProgramExternal
        Michael CA, Waziri N, Gunnala R, Biya O, Kretsinger K, Wiesen E, Goodson JL, Esapa L, Gidado S, Uba B, Nguku P, Cochi S.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S373-S379.

        From 2012 to date, Nigeria has been the focus of intensified polio eradication efforts. Large investments made by multiple partner organizations and the federal Ministry of Health to support strategies and resources, including personnel, for increasing vaccination coverage and improved performance monitoring paid off, as the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases detected in Nigeria were reduced significantly, from 122 in 2012 to 6 in 2014. No WPV cases were detected in Nigeria in 2015 and as at March 2017, only 4 WPV cases had been detected. Given the momentum gained toward polio eradication, these resources seem well positioned to help advance other priority health agendas in Nigeria, particularly the control of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles. Despite implementation of mass measles vaccination campaigns, measles outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Nigeria, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates for children <5 years of age. The National Stop Transmission of Polio (NSTOP) program was collaboratively established in 2012 to create a network of staff working at national, state, and district levels in areas deemed high risk for vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. As an example of how the polio legacy can create long-lasting improvements to public health beyond polio, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will transition >180 NSTOP officers to provide technical experience to improve measles surveillance, routine vaccination coverage, and outbreak investigation and response in high-risk areas.

      14. Assessing inactivated polio vaccine introduction and utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015External
        Osadebe LU, Macneil A, Elmousaad H, Davis L, Idris JM, Haladu SA, Adeoye OB, Nguku P, Aliu-Mamudu U, Hassan E, Vertefeuille J, Bloland P.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S137-S145.

        Background. Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Methods. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). Results. By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). Conclusion. The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions.

      15. Monitoring results in routine immunization: Development of routine immunization dashboard in selected African countries in the context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic PlanExternal
        Poy A, Van Den Ent MM, Sosler S, Hinman AR, Brown S, Sodha S, Ehlman DC, Wallace AS, Mihigo R.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S226-S236.

        Background. To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. Methods. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. Results. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Discussion. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. Conclusion. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system.

      16. Acceptance of the administration of multiple injectable vaccines in a single immunization visit in AlbaniaExternal
        Preza I, Subaiya S, Harris JB, Ehlman DC, Wannemuehler K, Wallace AS, Huseynov S, Hyde TB, Nelaj E, Bino S, Hampton LM.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S146-S151.

        Background. Albania introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its immunization system in May 2014, increasing the maximum recommended number of injectable vaccines given in a single visit from 2 to 3. Methods. Health-care providers and caregivers were interviewed at 42 health facilities in Albania to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding injectable vaccine administration. Immunization register data were abstracted from December 2014 to July 2015 at the same facilities to explore the number of injectable vaccines children received during their 2- and 4-month visits. Results. The majority of children (87%) identified in the record review at either their 2- or 4-month immunization visit received all 3 injectable vaccines in a single visit. Almost all children who did not receive the vaccines in a single visit were subsequently fully immunized, most within a 2-week period. Over half of caregivers whose children got 3 or more injectable vaccines in a single visit reported being only comfortable with 1 or 2 injectable vaccines in a single visit. Conclusions. Despite most caregivers expressing hesitation regarding children receiving multiple injectable vaccines in a single visit, most children received vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Almost all children eventually received all recommended vaccines.

      17. Mapping for health in Cameroon: Polio legacy and beyondExternal
        Rosencrans LC, Sume GE, Kouontchou JC, Voorman A, Anokwa Y, Fezeu M, Seaman VY.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S337-S342.

        During the poliovirus outbreak in Cameroon from October 2013 to April 2015, the Ministry of Public Health’s Expanded Program on Immunization requested technical support to improve mapping of health district boundaries and health facility locations for more effective planning and analysis of polio program data. In December 2015, teams collected data on settlements, health facilities, and other features using smartphones. These data, combined with high-resolution satellite imagery, were used to create new health area and health district boundaries, providing the most accurate health sector administrative boundaries to date for Cameroon. The new maps are useful to and used by the polio program as well as other public health programs within Cameroon such as the District Health Information System and the Emergency Operations Center, demonstrating the value of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s legacy.

      18. Financial support to eligible countries for the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine – lessons learnedExternal
        Shendale S, Farrell M, Hampton LM, Harris JB, Kachra T, Kurji F, Patel M, Ramirez Gonzalez A, Zipursky S.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S57-S63.

        The global switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) (“the switch”) presented an unprecedented challenge to countries. In order to mitigate the risks associated with country-level delays in implementing the switch, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative provided catalytic financial support to specific countries for operational costs unique to the switch. Between November 2015 and February 2016, a total of approximately US$19.4 million in financial support was provided to 67 countries. On average, country budgets allocated 20% to human resources, 23% to trainings and meetings, 8% to communications and advocacy, 9% to logistics, 15% to monitoring, and 5% to waste management. All 67 funded countries successfully switched from tOPV to bOPV during April-May 2016. This funding provided target countries with the necessary catalytic support to facilitate the execution of the switch on an accelerated timeline, and the mechanism offers a model for similar support to future global health efforts, such as the eventual global withdrawal of bOPV.

      19. BACKGROUND: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children have experienced higher otitis media (OM) outpatient visit rates than other United States (US) children. To understand recent trends, we evaluated AI/AN OM rates before and after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: We analyzed outpatient visits listing OM as a diagnosis among AI/AN children <5 years of age from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System for 2010-2013. OM outpatient visits for the general US child population < 5 years of age were analyzed using the National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Surveys for 2010-2011. RESULTS: The 2010-2011 OM-associated outpatient visit rate for AI/AN children (63.5 per 100/year) was similar to 2010-2011 rate for same-aged children in the general US population (62.8), and decreased from the 2003-2005 AI/AN rate (91.4). Further decline in AI/AN OM visit rates were seen for 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 (p-value<0.0001). The AI/AN infant OM visit rate (130.5) was 1.6 fold higher than the US infant population. For 2010-2011, the highest AI/AN OM visit rate for <5 year olds was from Alaska (135.0). CONCLUSION: AI/AN < 5 year old OM visits declined by one-third from 2003-2005 to 2010-2011 to a rate similar to the US general population <5 years. However, the AI/AN infant OM rate remained higher than the US infant population. The highest AI/AN < 5 year old OM rate occurred in Alaska.

      20. Using the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program to develop a South Sudan expanded program on immunization workforceExternal
        Tchoualeu DD, Hercules MA, Mbabazi WB, Kirbak AL, Usman A, Bizuneh K, Sandhu HS.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S362-S367.

        In 2009, the international Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program began supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the Republic of South Sudan to address shortages of human resources and strengthen acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. Workforce capacity support is provided to the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization by STOP volunteers, implementing partners, and non-governmental organizations. In 2013, the Polio Technical Advisory Group recommended that South Sudan transition key technical support from external partners to national staff as part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018. To assist in this transition, the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization human resources development project was launched in 2015. This 3-year project aims to build national workforce capacity as a legacy of the STOP program by training 56 South Sudanese at national and state levels with the intent that participants would become Ministry of Health staff on their successful completion of the project.

      21. Experiences and lessons from polio eradication applied to immunization in 10 focus countries of the Polio Endgame Strategic PlanExternal
        Van Den Ent M, Mallya A, Sandhu H, Anya BP, Yusuf N, Ntakibirora M, Hasman A, Fahmy K, Agbor J, Corkum M, Sumaili K, Siddique AR, Bammeke J, Braka F, Andriamihantanirina R, Ziao AM, Djumo C, Yapi MD, Sosler S, Eggers R.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S250-S259.

        Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015. Government leadership, evidence-based programming, country-driven comprehensive operational annual plans, community partnership and strong accountability systems are critical for all programs and polio eradication has illustrated these can be leveraged to increase immunization coverage and equity and enhance global health security in the focus countries.

      22. Impact of an intervention to use a measles, rubella, and polio mass vaccination campaign to strengthen routine immunization services in NepalExternal
        Wallace AS, Bohara R, Stewart S, Subedi G, Anand A, Burnett E, Giri J, Shrestha J, Gurau S, Dixit S, Rajbhandari R, Schluter WW.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S280-S286.

        Background. The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. Methods. The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers’ RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal. In 1 region (Central Region) we surveyed the same 100 randomly selected health facilities before and after the SIA and evaluated the following RI process measures: vaccine safety, RI planning, RI service delivery, vaccine supply chain, and RI data recording practices. Data collection included observations of vaccination sessions, interviews with the primary healthcare provider who administered vaccines at each facility, and administrative record reviews. Pair-matched analytical methods were used to determine whether statistically significant changes in the selected RI process measures occurred over time. Results. After the SIA, significant positive changes were measured in healthcare provider knowledge of adverse events following immunization (11% increase), availability of RI microplans (+17%) and maps (+12%), and awareness of how long a reconstituted measles vial can be used before it must be discarded (+14%). For the SIA, 42% of providers created an SIA high-risk villages list, and >50% incorporated this information into RI outreach session site planning. Significant negative changes occurred in correct knowledge of measles vaccination contraindications ( -11%), correct definition for a measles outbreak ( -21%), and how to treat a child with a severe adverse event following immunization ( -10%). Twenty percent of providers reported cancelling >=1 RI sessions during the SIA. Many RI process measures were at high proportions (>90%) before the SIA and remained high afterward, including proper vaccine administration techniques, proper vaccine waste management, and availability of vaccine carriers and vaccine registers. Conclusions. Focusing on activities that are easily linked between SIAs and RI services, such as using SIA high-risk village list to strengthen RI microplanning and examining ways to minimize the impact of an SIA on RI session scheduling, should be prioritized when implementing SIAs.

      23. Disposing of excess vaccines after the withdrawal of oral polio vaccineExternal
        Wanyoike S, Ramirez Gonzalez A, Dolan SB, Garon J, Veira CL, Hampton LM, Chang Blanc D, Patel MM.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S202-S208.

        Until recently, waste management for national immunization programs was limited to sharps waste, empty vaccine vials, or vaccines that had expired or were no longer usable. However, because wild-type 2 poliovirus has been eradicated, the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization deemed that all countries must simultaneously cease use of the type 2 oral polio vaccine and recommended that all countries and territories using oral polio vaccine (OPV) “switch” from trivalent OPV (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses) to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 polioviruses) during a 2-week period in April 2016. Use of tOPV after the switch would risk outbreaks of paralysis related to type 2-circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2). To minimize risk of vaccine-derived polio countries using OPV were asked to dispose of all usable, unexpired tOPV after the switch to bOPV. In this paper, we review the rationale for tOPV disposal and describe the global guidelines provided to countries for the safe and appropriate disposal of tOPV. These guidelines gave countries flexibility in implementing this important task within the confines of their national regulations, capacities, and resources. Steps for appropriate disposal of tOPV included removal of all tOPV vials from the cold chain, placement in appropriate bags or containers, and disposal using a recommended approach (ie, autoclaving, boiling, chemical inactivation, incineration, or encapsulation) followed by burial or transportation to a designated waste facility. This experience with disposal of tOPV highlights the adaptability of national immunization programs to new procedures, and identifies gaps in waste management policies and strategies with regard to disposal of unused vaccines. The experience also provides a framework for future policies and for developing programmatic guidance for the ultimate disposal of all OPV after the eradication of polio.

      24. High-dose influenza vaccine in nursing home residents: not to be sneezed atExternal
        Widdowson MA, Bresee JS.
        Lancet Respir Med. 2017 Jul 20.

        [No abstract]

      25. Lessons learned from managing the planning and implementation of inactivated polio vaccine introduction in support of the Polio EndgameExternal
        Zipursky S, Patel M, Farrell M, Gonzalez AR, Kachra T, Folly Y, Kurji F, Veira CL, Wootton E, Hampton LM.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 01 Jul;216:S15-S23.

        The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan. This objective called for the introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine immunization programs of all countries using oral polio vaccine (OPV) only. Despite global vaccine shortages, which limited countries’ abilities to access IPV in a timely manner, 105 of 126 countries using OPV only introduced IPV within a 2.5-year period, making it the fastest rollout of a new vaccine in history. This achievement can be attributed to several factors, including the coordination work of the IMG; high-level engagement and advocacy across partners; the strong foundations of the Expanded Programme on Immunization at all levels; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance’s vaccine introduction experiences and mechanisms; innovative approaches; and proactive communications. In many ways, the IMG’s work on IPV introduction can serve as a model for other vaccine introductions, especially in an accelerated context.

    • Informatics
      1. Natural language processing systems for capturing and standardizing unstructured clinical information: A systematic reviewExternal
        Kreimeyer K, Foster M, Pandey A, Arya N, Halford G, Jones SF, Forshee R, Walderhaug M, Botsis T.
        J Biomed Inform. 2017 Jul 17.

        We followed a systematic approach based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to identify existing clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that generate structured information from unstructured free text. Seven literature databases were searched with a query combining the concepts of natural language processing and structured data capture. Two reviewers screened all records for relevance during two screening phases, and information about clinical NLP systems was collected from the final set of papers. A total of 7,149 records (after removing duplicates) were retrieved and screened, and 86 were determined to fit the review criteria. These papers contained information about 71 different clinical NLP systems, which were then analyzed. The NLP systems address a wide variety of important clinical and research tasks. Certain tasks are well addressed by the existing systems, while others remain as open challenges that only a small number of systems attempt, such as extraction of temporal information or normalization of concepts to standard terminologies. This review has identified many NLP systems capable of processing clinical free text and generating structured output, and the information collected and evaluated here will be important for prioritizing development of new approaches for clinical NLP.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Violent firearm-related conflicts among high-risk youth: An event-level and daily calendar analysisExternal
        Carter PM, Walton MA, Goldstick J, Epstein-Ngo QM, Zimmerman MA, Mercado MC, Williams AG, Cunningham RM.
        Prev Med. 2017 Jul 17;102:112-119.

        Firearm homicide is the leading cause of violence-related youth mortality. To inform prevention efforts, we analyzed event-level data to identify unique precursors to firearm conflicts. Youth (ages:14-24) seeking Emergency Department (ED) treatment for assault or for other reasons and reporting past 6-month drug use were enrolled in a 2-year longitudinal study. Time-line follow-back substance use/aggression modules were administered at baseline and each 6-month follow-up. Violent non-partner conflicts were combined across time-points. Regression analyzed: a)antecedents of firearm-related conflicts (i.e., threats/use) as compared to non-firearm conflicts; and b)substance use on conflict (vs. non-conflict) days for those engaged in firearm conflict. During the 24-months, we found that 421-youth reported involvement in violent non-partner conflict (n=829-conflicts;197-firearm/632-non-firearm). Among firearm conflicts, 24.9% involved aggression and 92.9% involved victimization. Retaliation was the most common motivation for firearm-aggression (51.0%), while “shot for no reason” (29.5%) and conflicts motivated by arguments over “personal belongings” (24.0%) were most common for firearm-victimization. Male sex (AOR=5.14), Black race (AOR=2.75), a ED visit for assault (AOR=3.46), marijuana use before the conflict (AOR=2.02), and conflicts motivated by retaliation (AOR=4.57) or personal belongings (AOR=2.28) increased the odds that a conflict involved firearms. Alcohol (AOR=2.80), marijuana (AOR=1.63), and prescription drugs (AOR=4.06) had a higher association with conflict (vs. non-conflict) days among youth reporting firearm conflict. Overall, we found that firearm conflicts are differentially associated with substance use and violence motivations. Addressing substance use, interrupting the cycle of retaliatory violence, and developing conflict resolution strategies that address escalation over infringement on personal belongings may aid in decreasing and preventing adolescent firearm violence.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Repeated administration of high-dose depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not alter SHIVSF162p3 viral kinetics and tenofovir pharmacokinetics when delivered via intravaginal ringsExternal
        Srinivasan P, Zhang J, Dinh CT, Teller RS, McNicholl JM, Kiser PF, Herold BC, Smith JM.
        J Med Primatol. 2017 Aug;46(4):129-136.

        BACKGROUND: Intravaginal rings (IVR) for HIV prevention will likely be used by women on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) hormonal contraception. We used pigtailed macaques to evaluate the effects of DMPA on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) IVR pharmacokinetics and viral shedding. METHODS: Mucosal tenofovir (TFV) levels were compared in SHIVSF162p3 -negative DMPA-treated (n=4) and normally cycling (n=6) macaques receiving TDF IVRs. Plasma viremia and vaginal shedding were determined in groups of SHIVSF162p3 -positive DMPA-treated (n=6) and normally cycling (n=5) macaques. RESULTS: Similar median vaginal fluid TFV concentrations were observed in the DMPA-treated and cycling macaques over 4 weeks (1.2×105 and 1.1.×105 ng/mL, respectively). Median plasma viremia and vaginal shedding AUC of the DMPA-treated (2.73×107 and 8.15×104 copies/mL, respectively) and cycling macaques (3.98×107 and 1.47×103 copies/mL, respectively) were statistically similar. CONCLUSIONS: DMPA does not affect TDF IVR pharmacokinetics or SHIV shedding.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Evaluating Iowa severe maternal morbidity trends and maternal risk factors: 2009-2014External
        Frederiksen BN, Lillehoj CJ, Kane DJ, Goodman D, Rankin K.
        Matern Child Health J. 2017 Jul 25.

        Objectives To describe statewide SMM trends in Iowa from 2009 to 2014 and identify maternal characteristics associated with SMM, overall and by age group. Methods We used 2009-2014 linked Iowa birth certificate and hospital discharge data to calculate SMM based on a 25-condition definition and 24-condition definition. The 24-condition definition parallels the 25-condition definition, but excludes blood transfusions. We calculated SMM rates for all delivery hospitalizations (N = 196,788) using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. We used log-binomial regression to assess the association of SMM with maternal characteristics, overall and stratified by age groupings. Results In contrast to national rates, Iowa’s 25-condition SMM rate decreased from 2009 to 2014. Based on the 25-condition definition, SMM rates were significantly higher among women <20 years and >34 years compared to women 25-34 years. Blood transfusion was the most prevalent indicator, with hysterectomy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) among the top five conditions. Based on the 24-condition definition, younger women had the lowest SMM rates and older women had the highest SMM rates. SMM rates were also significantly higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic white women. Payer was the only risk factor differentially associated with SMM across age groups. First trimester prenatal care initiation was protective for SMM in all models. Conclusions High rates of blood transfusion, hysterectomy, and DIC indicate a need to focus on reducing hemorrhage in Iowa. Both younger and older women and racial/ethnic minorities are identified as high risk groups for SMM that may benefit from special consideration and focus.

      2. Purpose The number of fetal deaths in the United States each year exceeds that of infant deaths. High quality fetal death certificate data are necessary for states to effectively address preventable fetal deaths. We evaluated completeness of detection of fetal deaths among Wyoming residents that occur out-of-state, quality of cause-of-death data, and timeliness of Wyoming fetal death certificate registration during 2006-2013. Description The numbers of out-of-state fetal deaths among Wyoming residents recorded by Wyoming surveillance and reported by the National Vital Statistics System were compared. Quality of cause-of-death data was assessed by calculating percentage of fetal death certificates completed in Wyoming with ill-defined, unknown, or missing cause-of-death entries. Timeliness was determined using the time between the fetal death and filing of the fetal death certificate with the Wyoming Department of Health Vital Statistics Service. Assessment Wyoming surveillance detected none of the 76 out-of-state fetal deaths among Wyoming residents reported by the National Vital Statistics System. Among 263 fetal death certificates completed in Wyoming and collected by Wyoming surveillance, 108 (41%) contained ill-defined, unknown, or missing cause-of-death entries. Median duration between the fetal death and filing with the Wyoming Vital Statistics Service was 33 days. Conclusion Wyoming fetal mortality surveillance is limited by failure to register out-of-state fetal deaths among residents, poor quality of cause-of-death data, and lack of timeliness. Strategies to improve surveillance include automating interjurisdictional sharing of fetal death data, certifier education, and electronic fetal death registration.

      3. The broader autism phenotype in mothers is associated with increased discordance between maternal-reported and clinician-observed instruments that measure child autism spectrum disorderExternal
        Rubenstein E, Edmondson Pretzel R, Windham GC, Schieve LA, Wiggins LD, DiGuiseppi C, Olshan AF, Howard AG, Pence BW, Young L, Daniels J.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 Jul 26.

        Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis relies on parent-reported and clinician-observed instruments. Sometimes, results between these instruments disagree. The broader autism phenotype (BAP) in parent-reporters may be associated with discordance. Study to Explore Early Development data (N = 712) were used to address whether mothers with BAP and children with ASD or non-ASD developmental disabilities were more likely than mothers without BAP to ‘over-‘ or ‘under-report’ child ASD on ASD screeners or interviews compared with clinician observation or overall impression. Maternal BAP was associated with a child meeting thresholds on a maternal-reported screener or maternal interview when clinician ASD instruments or impressions did not (risk ratios: 1.30 to 2.85). Evidence suggests acknowledging and accounting for reporting discordances may be important when diagnosing ASD.

      4. Interventions to improve infant safe sleep practicesExternal
        Shapiro-Mendoza CK.
        Jama. 2017 Jul 25;318(4):336-338.

        [No abstract]

      5. Evaluation of critical congenital heart defects screening using pulse oximetry in the neonatal intensive care unitExternal
        Van Naarden Braun K, Grazel R, Koppel R, Lakshminrusimha S, Lohr J, Kumar P, Govindaswami B, Giuliano M, Cohen M, Spillane N, Jegatheesan P, McClure D, Hassinger D, Fofah O, Chandra S, Allen D, Axelrod R, Blau J, Hudome S, Assing E, Garg LF.
        J Perinatol. 2017 Jul 27.

        OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of early screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and potential exclusion of sub-populations from universal screening. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective evaluation of CCHD screening at multiple time intervals was conducted in 21 NICUs across five states (n=4556 infants). RESULTS: Of the 4120 infants with complete screens, 92% did not have prenatal CHD diagnosis or echocardiography before screening, 72% were not receiving oxygen at 24 to 48 h and 56% were born 2500 g. Thirty-seven infants failed screening (0.9%); none with an unsuspected CCHD. False positive rates were low for infants not receiving oxygen (0.5%) and those screened after weaning (0.6%), yet higher among infants born at <28 weeks (3.8%). Unnecessary echocardiograms were minimal (0.2%). CONCLUSION: Given the majority of NICU infants were 2500 g, not on oxygen and not preidentified for CCHD, systematic screening at 24 to 48 h may be of benefit for early detection of CCHD with minimal burden.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 27 July 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.105.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Ins and outs in environmental and occupational safety studies of asthma and engineered nanomaterialsExternal
        Dobrovolskaia MA, Shurin MR, Kagan VE, Shvedova AA.
        ACS Nano. 2017 Jul 24.

        According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 25 million Americans suffer from asthma. The disease total annual cost is about $56 billion and includes both the direct and indirect costs of medications, hospital stays, missed work, and decreased productivity. Air pollution with xenobiotics, bacterial agents, and industrial nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, contribute to the exacerbation of this condition and are a point of particular attention in environmental toxicology as well as in occupational health and safety research. Mast cell degranulation and activation of Th2 cells triggered either by allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) or by alternative mechanisms, such as locally produced neurotransmitters, underlie the pathophysiological process of airway constriction during an asthma attack. Other immune and non-immune cell types, including basophils, eosinophils, Th1, Th17, Th9, macrophages, dendritic cells, and smooth muscle cells, are involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses during asthma, which, under chronic conditions, may progress without mast cells, the key trigger of the acute asthma attack. To decipher complex molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms, many researchers have attempted to develop in vitro and in vivo models to study asthma. Herein, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various models and their applicability to nanoparticle evaluation in asthma research. We further suggest that a framework for both in vitro and in vivo methods should be used to study the impact of engineered nanomaterials on asthma etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment.

      2. The construction FACE database – codifying the NIOSH FACE reportsExternal
        Dong XS, Largay JA, Wang X, Cain CT, Romano N.
        J Safety Res. 2017 ;62:217-225.

        Introduction The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. Method Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. Results A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD. Information on decedents, safety training, use of PPE, and FACE recommendations were coded. Analysis shows that one in five decedents in the CFD died within the first two months on the job; 75% and 43% of reports recommended having safety training or installing protection equipment, respectively. Conclusion Comprehensive research using FACE reports may improve understanding of work-related fatalities and provide much-needed information on injury prevention. Practical Application The CFD allows researchers to analyze the FACE reports quantitatively and efficiently.

      3. Thermal response to firefighting activities in residential structure fires: Impact of job assignment and suppression tacticExternal
        Horn GP, Kesler RM, Kerber S, Fent KW, Schroeder TJ, Scott WS, Fehling PC, Fernhall B, Smith DL.
        Ergonomics. 2017 Jul 24:1-33.

        Firefighters’ thermal burden is generally attributed to high heat loads from the fire and metabolic heat generation, which may vary between job assignments and suppression tactic employed. Utilizing a full-sized residential structure, firefighters were deployed in six job assignments utilizing two attack tactics (1. Water applied from the interior, or 2. Exterior water application before transitioning to the interior). Environmental temperatures decreased after water application, but more rapidly with transitional attack. Local ambient temperatures for inside operation firefighters were higher than other positions (average ~10-30 degrees C). Rapid elevations in skin temperature were found for all job assignments other than outside command. Neck skin temperatures for inside attack firefighters were ~0.5 degrees C lower when the transitional tactic was employed. Significantly higher core temperatures were measured for the outside ventilation and overhaul positions than the inside positions (~0.6-0.9 degrees C). Firefighters working at all fireground positions must be monitored and relieved based on intensity and duration. Practitioner Summary Testing was done to characterize the thermal burden experienced by firefighters in different job assignments who responded to controlled residential fires (with typical furnishings) using two tactics. Ambient, skin and core temperatures varied based on job assignment and tactic employed, with rapid elevations in core temperature in many roles.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Linking compensation and health surveillance data sets to improve knowledge of US coal miners’ healthExternal
        Almberg KS, Cohen RA, Blackley DJ, Laney AS, Storey E, Halldin CN.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul 24.

        OBJECTIVE: Increase knowledge of US coal miners’ respiratory health by linking data from the black lung benefits program (BLBP) and the coal workers’ health surveillance program (CWHSP). METHODS: BLBP claims data from 2000 through 2013 was linked to CWHSP data from 1970 through 2016. RESULTS: Overall, 273,644 miners participated in CWHSP, 37,548 in BLBP, and 22,903 in both programs. Median age of miners at their time of first/only participation in CWHSP was 28 and 32 years, respectively. BLBP claimants were older (median age 59). Thirty-nine percent of BLBP claimants had not participated in CWHSP. The relative contributions of states to participation differed between CWHSP and BLBP. For example, Kentucky miners accounted for 18% of CWHSP participants, but 36% of BLPB participants. CONCLUSIONS: Many BLBP claimants never appeared in CWHSP, indicating missed opportunities for secondary prevention.

      2. Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). Nevertheless, instances were recorded where the Exposure Limit Value (ELV) was exceeded by more than 500 to 600 percent for VDVx and awx, respectively. Researchers determined that these excessive levels occurred during the traveling empty activity, when the haul truck descended down grade into the pit loading area, sliding at times, on a wet and slippery road surface caused by rain and overwatering. WBV levels (not normalized to an 8-h shift) for the four haul truck activities showed mean awz levels for five of the seven drivers exceeding the ISO/ANSI EAV by 9-53 percent for the traveling empty activity. Mean awx and awz levels were generally higher for traveling empty and traveling loaded and lower for loading/dumping activities. HAV for measures taken on the steering wheel and shifter were all below the HGCZ which indicates that HAV is not an issue for these drivers/operators when handling steering and shifting control devices.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Malaria after international travel: a GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016External
        Angelo KM, Libman M, Caumes E, Hamer DH, Kain KC, Leder K, Grobusch MP, Hagmann SH, Kozarsky P, Lalloo DG, Lim PL, Patimeteeporn C, Gautret P, Odolini S, Chappuis F, Esposito DH.
        Malar J. 2017 Jul 20;16(1):293.

        BACKGROUND: More than 30,000 malaria cases are reported annually among international travellers. Despite improvements in malaria control, malaria continues to threaten travellers due to inaccurate perception of risk and sub-optimal pre-travel preparation. METHODS: Records with a confirmed malaria diagnosis after travel from January 2003 to July 2016 were obtained from GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network of travel and tropical medicine providers that monitors travel-related morbidity. Records were excluded if exposure country was missing or unascertainable or if there was a concomitant acute diagnosis unrelated to malaria. Records were analyzed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of international travellers with malaria. RESULTS: There were 5689 travellers included; 325 were children <18 years. More than half (53%) were visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most (83%) were exposed in sub-Saharan Africa. The median trip duration was 32 days (interquartile range 20-75); 53% did not have a pre-travel visit. More than half (62%) were hospitalized; children were hospitalized more frequently than adults (73 and 62%, respectively). Ninety-two per cent had a single Plasmodium species diagnosis, most frequently Plasmodium falciparum (4011; 76%). Travellers with P. falciparum were most frequently VFRs (60%). More than 40% of travellers with a trip duration </=7 days had Plasmodium vivax. There were 444 (8%) travellers with severe malaria; 31 children had severe malaria. Twelve travellers died. CONCLUSION: Malaria remains a serious threat to international travellers. Efforts must focus on preventive strategies aimed on children and VFRs, and chemoprophylaxis access and preventive measure adherence should be emphasized.

      2. Molecular characterization of a cluster of imported malaria cases in Puerto RicoExternal
        Chenet SM, Silva-Flannery L, Lucchi NW, Dragan L, Dirlikov E, Mace K, Rivera-Garcia B, Arguin PM, Udhayakumar V.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jul 24.

        The Caribbean island of Hispaniola is targeted for malaria elimination. Currently, this is the only island with ongoing transmission of malaria in the Caribbean. In 2015, six patients from Puerto Rico and one from Massachusetts, who traveled to Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Additional molecular analysis was performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to characterize the drug-resistant alleles and Plasmodium population genetic markers. All specimens carried wildtype genotypes for chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and artemisinin resistance genetic markers. A mutation in codon 184 (Y/F) of Pfmdr-1 gene was observed in all samples and they shared an identical genetic lineage as determined by microsatellite analysis. This genetic profile was similar to the one reported from Hispaniola suggesting that a clonal P. falciparum residual parasite population present in Punta Cana is the source population for these imported malaria cases.

      3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015External
        Manana PN, Kuonza L, Musekiwa A, Mpangane HD, Koekemoer LL.
        BMC Public Health. 2017 Jul 20;18(1):41.

        BACKGROUND: In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. RESULTS: Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. CONCLUSION: Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the malaria control program can be used; however additional channels should be investigated.

      4. BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a parasite-related chronic inflammatory condition that can cause anemia, decreased growth, liver abnormalities, and deficits in cognitive functioning among children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) to collect data on thirty-six 9-12 year old school-attending children’s behavioral profiles in an Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of western Kenya, before and after treatment with praziquantel for S. mansoni infection. BASC-2 T scores were significantly reduced post-treatment (p < 0.05) for each of the ‘negative’ behavior categories including externalizing problems (hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems that are disruptive in nature), internalizing problems (anxiety, depression, somatization, atypicality, and withdrawal), school problems (academic difficulties, included attention problems and learning problems), and the composite behavioral symptoms index (BSI), signifying improved behavior. While the observed improvement in the ‘positive’ behavior category of adaptive skills (adaptability, functional communication, social skills, leadership, and study skills) was not statistically significant, there were significant improvements in two adaptive skills subcategories: social skills and study skills. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of this study suggest that children have better school-related behaviors without heavy S. mansoni infection, and that infected children’s behaviors, especially disruptive problem behaviors, improve significantly after praziquantel treatment.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Engaging students in physical education: Key challenges and opportunities for physical educators in urban settingsExternal
        Sliwa S, Nihiser A, Lee S, McCaughtry N, Culp B, Michael S.
        J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 2017 ;88(8):43-48.

        [No abstract]

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. Cross-sectional description of nursing and midwifery pre-service education accreditation in east, central, and southern Africa in 2013External
        McCarthy CF, Gross JM, Verani AR, Nkowane AM, Wheeler EL, Lipato TJ, Kelley MA.
        Hum Resour Health. 2017 Jul 24;15(1):48.

        BACKGROUND: In 2013, the World Health Organization issued guidelines, Transforming and Scaling Up Health Professional Education and Training, to improve the quality and relevance of health professional pre-service education. Central to these guidelines was establishing and strengthening education accreditation systems. To establish what current accreditation systems were for nursing and midwifery education and highlight areas for strengthening these systems, a study was undertaken to document the pre-service accreditation policies, approaches, and practices in 16 African countries relative to the 2013 WHO guidelines. METHODS: This study utilized a cross-sectional group survey with a standardized questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of approximately 70 nursing and midwifery leaders from 16 countries in east, central, and southern Africa. Each national delegation completed one survey together, representing the responses for their country. RESULTS: Almost all countries in this study (15; 94%) mandated pre-service nursing education accreditation However, there was wide variation in who was responsible for accrediting programs. The percent of active programs accredited decreased by program level from 80% for doctorate programs to 62% for masters nursing to 50% for degree nursing to 35% for diploma nursing programs. The majority of countries indicated that accreditation processes were transparent (i.e., included stakeholder engagement (81%), self-assessment (100%), evaluation feedback (94%), and public disclosure (63%)) and that the processes were evaluated on a routine basis (69%). Over half of the countries (nine; 56%) reported limited financial resources as a barrier to increasing accreditation activities, and seven countries (44%) noted limited materials and technical expertise. CONCLUSION: In line with the 2013 WHO guidelines, there was a strong legal mandate for nursing education accreditation as compared to the global average of 50%. Accreditation levels were low in the programs that produce the majority of the nurses in this region and were higher in public programs than non-public programs. WHO guidelines for transparency and routine review were met more so than standards-based and independent accreditation processes. The new global strategy, Workforce 2030, has renewed the focus on accreditation and provides an opportunity to strengthen pre-service accreditation and ensure the production of a qualified and relevant nursing workforce.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of the only yellow fever vaccine (YF-VAX) licensed in the United States, has announced that their stock of YF-VAX is totally depleted as of July 24, 2017. YF-VAX for civilian use will be unavailable for ordering from Sanofi Pasteur until mid-2018, when their new manufacturing facility is expected to be completed. However, YF-VAX might be available at some clinics for several months, until remaining supplies at those sites are exhausted. In anticipation of this temporary total depletion, in 2016, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration to allow for importation and use of Stamaril. The Food and Drug Administration accepted Sanofi Pasteur’s application in October 2016.

      2. A case of human Lassa virus infection with robust acute T-cell activation and long-term virus-specific T-cell responsesExternal
        McElroy AK, Akondy RS, Harmon JR, Ellebedy AH, Cannon D, Klena JD, Sidney J, Sette A, Mehta AK, Kraft CS, Lyon MG, Varkey JB, Ribner BS, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 15 Jun;215(12):1862-1872.

        A nurse who acquired Lassa virus infection in Togo in the spring of 2016 was repatriated to the United States for care at Emory University Hospital. Serial sampling from this patient permitted the characterization of several aspects of the innate and cellular immune responses to Lassa virus. Although most of the immune responses correlated with the kinetics of viremia resolution, the CD8 T-cell response was of surprisingly high magnitude and prolonged duration, implying prolonged presentation of viral antigens. Indeed, long after viremia resolution, there was persistent viral RNA detected in the semen of the patient, accompanied by epididymitis, suggesting the male reproductive tract as 1 site of antigen persistence. Consistent with the magnitude of acute T-cell responses, the patient ultimately developed long-term, polyfunctional memory T-cell responses to Lassa virus.

      3. Assessment of the probability of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in Canada under recent and projected climate changeExternal
        Ng V, Fazil A, Gachon P, Deuymes G, Radojevic M, Mascarenhas M, Garasia S, Johansson MA, Ogden NH.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Jun 05;125(6):067001.

        BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging pathogen transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The ongoing Caribbean outbreak is of concern due to the potential for infected travelers to spread the virus to countries where vectors are present and the population is susceptible. Although there has been no autochthonous transmission of CHIKV in Canada, there is concern that both Ae. albopictus and CHIKV will become established, particularly under projected climate change. We developed risk maps for autochthonous CHIKV transmission in Canada under recent (1981-2010) and projected climate (2011-2040 and 2041-2070). METHODS: The risk for CHIKV transmission was the combination of the climatic suitability for CHIKV transmission potential and the climatic suitability for the presence of Ae. albopictus; the former was assessed using a stochastic model to calculate and the latter was assessed by deriving a suitability indicator (SIG) that captures a set of climatic conditions known to influence the ecology of Ae. albopictus. and SIG were calculated for each grid cell in Canada south of , for each time period and for two emission scenarios, and combined to produce overall risk categories that were mapped to identify areas suitable for transmission and the duration of transmissibility. FINDINGS: The risk for autochthonous CHIKV transmission under recent climate is very low with all of Canada classified as unsuitable or rather unsuitable for transmission. Small parts of southern coastal British Columbia become progressively suitable with short-term and long-term projected climate; the duration of potential transmission is limited to 1-2 months of the year. INTERPRETATION: Although the current risk for autochthonous CHIKV transmission in Canada is very low, our study could be further supported by the routine surveillance of Ae. albopictus in areas identified as potentially suitable for transmission given our uncertainty on the current distribution of this species in Canada.

      4. Update: Interim guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure – United States (including U.S. territories), July 2017External
        Oduyebo T, Polen KD, Walke HT, Reagan-Steiner S, Lathrop E, Rabe IB, Kuhnert-Tallman WL, Martin SW, Walker AT, Gregory CJ, Ades EW, Carroll DS, Rivera M, Perez-Padilla J, Gould C, Nemhauser JB, Ben Beard C, Harcourt JL, Viens L, Johansson M, Ellington SR, Petersen E, Smith LA, Reichard J, Munoz-Jordan J, Beach MJ, Rose DA, Barzilay E, Noonan-Smith M, Jamieson DJ, Zaki SR, Petersen LR, Honein MA, Meaney-Delman D.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 28;66(29):781-793.

        CDC has updated the interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure in response to 1) declining prevalence of Zika virus disease in the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas (Americas) and 2) emerging evidence indicating prolonged detection of Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Zika virus cases were first reported in the Americas during 2015-2016; however, the incidence of Zika virus disease has since declined. As the prevalence of Zika virus disease declines, the likelihood of false-positive test results increases. In addition, emerging epidemiologic and laboratory data indicate that, as is the case with other flaviviruses, Zika virus IgM antibodies can persist beyond 12 weeks after infection. Therefore, IgM test results cannot always reliably distinguish between an infection that occurred during the current pregnancy and one that occurred before the current pregnancy, particularly for women with possible Zika virus exposure before the current pregnancy. These limitations should be considered when counseling pregnant women about the risks and benefits of testing for Zika virus infection during pregnancy. This updated guidance emphasizes a shared decision-making model for testing and screening pregnant women, one in which patients and providers work together to make decisions about testing and care plans based on patient preferences and values, clinical judgment, and a balanced assessment of risks and expected outcomes.

      5. The role of dog population management in rabies elimination – a review of current approaches and future opportunitiesExternal
        Taylor LH, Wallace RM, Balaram D, Lindenmayer JM, Eckery DC, Mutonono-Watkiss B, Parravani E, Nel LH.
        Front Vet Sci. 2017 ;4:109.

        Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission. Humane DPM tools, such as sterilization, could theoretically reduce dog population turnover and size, allowing rabies vaccination coverage to be maintained more easily. However, it is important to understand local dog populations and community attitudes toward them in order to determine whether and how DPM might contribute to rabies control and which DPM tools would be most successful. In practice, there is very limited evidence of DPM tools achieving reductions in the size or turnover of dog populations in canine rabies-endemic areas. Different DPM tools are frequently used together and combined with rabies vaccinations, but full impact assessments of DPM programs are not usually available, and therefore, evaluation of tools is difficult. Surgical sterilization is the most frequently documented tool and has successfully reduced dog population size and turnover in a few low-income settings. However, DPM programs are mostly conducted in urban settings and are usually not government funded, raising concerns about their applicability in rural settings and sustainability over time. Technical demands, costs, and the time necessary to achieve population-level impacts are major barriers. Given their potential value, we urgently need more evidence of the effectiveness of DPM tools in the context of canine rabies control. Cheaper, less labor-intensive tools for dog sterilization will be extremely valuable in realizing the potential benefits of reduced population turnover and size. No one DPM tool will fit all situations, but if DPM objectives are achieved dog populations may be stabilized or even reduced, facilitating higher dog vaccination coverages that will benefit rabies elimination efforts.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019