Issue 25, June 27, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 25, June 27, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week’s featured articles highlight research on the topic of “Loneliness: Public Health Implications and Potential Mechanisms,” co-authored by John Cacioppo, PhD, keynote speaker for CDC’s 2017 Charles C. Shepard Science Awards Ceremony on June 28.  John Cacioppo is the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor and the founder and director of the Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience at the University of Chicago and author of the book Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection.

CDC’s Charles C. Shepard Science Awards recognize excellence in scientific achievement by CDC and ATSDR authors of outstanding scientific papers.  The Shepard Science Awards were established in 1986 to honor internationally recognized microbiologist Charles C. Shepard, MD, chief of CDC’s Leprosy and Rickettsia Branch for more than 30 years until his death on February 18, 1985.

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
    • Loneliness – Public Health Implications RSS Word feed
      1. Alone in the crowd: the structure and spread of loneliness in a large social networkExternal
        Cacioppo JT, Fowler JH, Christakis NA.
        Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 2009 Dec;97(6):977-91.

        The discrepancy between an individual’s loneliness and the number of connections in a social network is well documented, yet little is known about the placement of loneliness within, or the spread of loneliness through, social networks. The authors use network linkage data from the population-based Framingham Heart Study to trace the topography of loneliness in people’s social networks and the path through which loneliness spreads through these networks. Results indicated that loneliness occurs in clusters, extends up to 3 degrees of separation, is disproportionately represented at the periphery of social networks, and spreads through a contagious process. The spread of loneliness was found to be stronger than the spread of perceived social connections, stronger for friends than family members, and stronger for women than for men. The results advance understanding of the broad social forces that drive loneliness and suggest that efforts to reduce loneliness in society may benefit by aggressively targeting the people in the periphery to help repair their social networks and to create a protective barrier against loneliness that can keep the whole network from unraveling.

      2. Evolutionary mechanisms for lonelinessExternal
        Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S, Boomsma DI.
        Cognition & Emotion. 2014 ;28(1):3-21.

        Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualised loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organisation than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale.

      3. Genetic and environmental contributions to loneliness in adults: the Netherlands twin register studyExternal
        Boomsma DI, Willemsen G, Dolan CV, Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT.
        Behavior Genetics. 2005 Nov;35(6):745-52.

        Heritability estimates based on two small studies in children indicate that the genetic contribution to individual differences in loneliness is approximately 50%. Heritability estimates of complex traits such as loneliness may change across the lifespan, however, as the frequency, duration, and range of exposure to environmental influences accrues, or as the expression of genetic factors changes. We examined data on loneliness from 8,387 young adult and adult Dutch twins who had participated in longitudinal survey studies. A measure of loneliness was developed based on factor analyses of items of the YASR (The Young Adult Self Report). Variation in loneliness was analyzed with genetic structural equation models. The estimate of genetic contributions to variation in loneliness in adults was 48%, which is similar to the heritability estimates found previously in children. There was no evidence for sex or age differences in genetic architecture. Sex differences in prevalence were significant, but we did not see an association with age or birth cohort. All resemblance between twin relatives was explained by shared genes, without any suggestion of a contribution of shared environmental factors.

      4. The genetics of loneliness: linking evolutionary theory to genome-wide genetics, epigenetics, and social scienceExternal
        Goossens L, van Roekel E, Verhagen M, Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S, Maes M, Boomsma DI.
        Perspectives on Psychological Science : A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science. 2015 Mar;10(2):213-26.

        As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notion that these genes are related to loneliness is compatible with the basic tenets of the evolutionary theory of loneliness. Research on gene-environment interactions indicates that social-environmental factors (e.g., low social support) may have a more pronounced effect and lead to higher levels of loneliness if individuals carry the sensitive variant of these candidate genes. Currently, there is no extant research on loneliness based on genome-wide association studies, gene-environment-interaction studies, or studies in epigenetics. Such studies would allow researchers to identify networks of genes that contribute to loneliness. The contribution of genetics to loneliness research will become stronger when genome-wide genetics and epigenetics are integrated and used along with well-established methods in psychology to analyze the complex process of gene-environment interplay.

      5. Genome-wide association study of loneliness demonstrates a role for common variationExternal
        Gao J, Davis LK, Hart AB, Sanchez-Roige S, Han L, Cacioppo JT, Palmer AA.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Mar;42(4):811-821.

        Loneliness is a complex biological trait that has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes. The measurement and environmental determinants of loneliness are well understood, but its genetic basis is not. Previous studies have estimated the heritability of loneliness between 37 and 55% using twins and family-based approaches, and have explored the role of specific candidate genes. We used genotypic and phenotypic data from 10760 individuals aged 50 years that were collected by the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to perform the first genome-wide association study of loneliness. No associations reached genome-wide significance (p>5 x 10<sup>-8</sup>). Furthermore, none of the previously published associations between variants within candidate genes (BDNF, OXTR, RORA, GRM8, CHRNA4, IL-1A, CRHR1, MTHFR, DRD2, APOE) and loneliness were replicated (p>0.05), despite our much larger sample size. We estimated the chip heritability of loneliness and examined coheritability between loneliness and several personality and psychiatric traits. Our estimates of chip heritability (14-27%) support a role for common genetic variation. We identified strong genetic correlations between loneliness, neuroticism, and a scale of ‘depressive symptoms.’ We also identified weaker evidence for coheritability with extraversion, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. We conclude that loneliness, as defined in this study, is a modestly heritable trait that has a highly polygenic genetic architecture. The coheritability between loneliness and neuroticism may reflect the role of negative affectivity that is common to both traits. Our results also reflect the value of studies that probe the common genetic basis of salutary social bonds and clinically defined psychiatric disorders.

      6. Loneliness matters: a theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanismsExternal
        Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT.
        Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2010 Oct;40(2):218-27.

        As a social species, humans rely on a safe, secure social surround to survive and thrive. Perceptions of social isolation, or loneliness, increase vigilance for threat and heighten feelings of vulnerability while also raising the desire to reconnect. Implicit hypervigilance for social threat alters psychological processes that influence physiological functioning, diminish sleep quality, and increase morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to review the features and consequences of loneliness within a comprehensive theoretical framework that informs interventions to reduce loneliness. We review physical and mental health consequences of loneliness, mechanisms for its effects, and effectiveness of extant interventions. Features of a loneliness regulatory loop are employed to explain cognitive, behavioral, and physiological consequences of loneliness and to discuss interventions to reduce loneliness. Loneliness is not simply being alone. Interventions to reduce loneliness and its health consequences may need to take into account its attentional, confirmatory, and memorial biases as well as its social and behavioral effects.

      7. Loneliness predicts increased blood pressure: 5-year cross-lagged analyses in middle-aged and older adultsExternal
        Hawkley LC, Thisted RA, Masi CM, Cacioppo JT.
        Psychology & Aging. 2010 Mar;25(1):132-41.

        Loneliness is a prevalent social problem with serious physiological and health implications. However, much of the research to date is based on cross-sectional data, including our own earlier finding that loneliness was associated with elevated blood pressure (Hawkley, Masi, Berry & Cacioppo, 2006). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of loneliness accumulates to produce greater increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) over a 4-year period than are observed in less lonely individuals. A population-based sample of 229 50- to 68-year-old White, Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study was tested annually for each of 5 consecutive years. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that loneliness at study onset predicted increases in SBP 2, 3, and 4 years later (B = 0.152, SE = 0.091, p < .05, one-tailed). These increases were cumulative such that higher initial levels of loneliness were associated with greater increases in SBP over a 4-year period. The effect of loneliness on SBP was independent of age, gender, race or ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, health conditions, and the effects of depressive symptoms, social support, perceived stress, and hostility.

      8. Loneliness predicts reduced physical activity: cross-sectional & longitudinal analysesExternal
        Hawkley LC, Thisted RA, Cacioppo JT.
        Health Psychology. 2009 May;28(3):354-63.

        OBJECTIVE: To determine cross-sectional and prospective associations between loneliness and physical activity, and to evaluate the roles of social control and emotion regulation as mediators of these associations.
        DESIGN: A population-based sample of 229 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women, age 50 to 68 years at study onset, were tested annually for each of 3 years.
        MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity probability, and changes in physical activity probability over a 3-year period.
        RESULTS: Replicating and extending prior cross-sectional research, loneliness was associated with a significantly reduced odds of physical activity (OR = 0.65 per SD of loneliness) net of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education, income), psychosocial variables (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, hostility, social support), and self-rated health. This association was mediated by hedonic emotion regulation, but not by social control as indexed by measures of social network size, marital status, contact with close ties, group membership, or religious group affiliation. Longitudinal analyses revealed that loneliness predicted diminished odds of physical activity in the next two years (OR = 0.61), and greater likelihood of transitioning from physical activity to inactivity (OR = 1.58).
        CONCLUSION: Loneliness among middle and older age adults is an independent risk factor for physical inactivity and increases the likelihood that physical activity will be discontinued over time.

      9. Loneliness, health, and mortality in old age: a national longitudinal studyExternal
        Luo Y, Hawkley LC, Waite LJ, Cacioppo JT.
        Soc Sci Med. 2012 Mar;74(6):907-14.

        This study examined the relationship between loneliness, health, and mortality using a U.S. nationally representative sample of 2101 adults aged 50 years and over from the 2002 to 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. We estimated the effect of loneliness at one point on mortality over the subsequent six years, and investigated social relationships, health behaviors, and health outcomes as potential mechanisms through which loneliness affects mortality risk among older Americans. We operationalized health outcomes as depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and functional limitations, and we conceptualized the relationships between loneliness and each health outcome as reciprocal and dynamic. We found that feelings of loneliness were associated with increased mortality risk over a 6-year period, and that this effect was not explained by social relationships or health behaviors but was modestly explained by health outcomes. In cross-lagged panel models that tested the reciprocal prospective effects of loneliness and health, loneliness both affected and was affected by depressive symptoms and functional limitations over time, and had marginal effects on later self-rated health. These population-based data contribute to a growing literature indicating that loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality and point to potential mechanisms through which this process works.

      10. A meta-analysis of interventions to reduce lonelinessExternal

        Masi C, Chen HY, Hawkley L, Cacioppo J.
        Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2011 ;15(3).
        Social and demographic trends are placing an increasing number of adults at risk for loneliness, an established risk factor for physical and mental illness. The growing costs of loneliness have led to a number of loneliness reduction interventions. Qualitative reviews have identified four primary intervention strategies: 1) improving social skills, 2) enhancing social support, 3) increasing opportunities for social contact, and 4) addressing maladaptive social cognition. An integrative meta-analysis of loneliness reduction interventions was conducted to quantify the effects of each strategy and to examine the potential role of moderator variables. Results revealed that single group pre-post and non-randomized comparison studies yielded larger mean effect sizes relative to randomized comparison studies. Among studies that used the latter design, the most successful interventions addressed maladaptive social cognition. This is consistent with current theories regarding loneliness and its etiology. Theoretical and methodological issues associated with designing new loneliness reduction interventions are discussed

      11. The neuroendocrinology of social isolationExternal
        Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S, Capitanio JP, Cole SW.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2015 Jan 03;66:733-67.

        Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

      12. [No abstract]

      13. We present evidence from a 5-year longitudinal study for the prospective associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a population-based, ethnically diverse sample of 229 men and women who were 50-68 years old at study onset. Cross-lagged panel models were used in which the criterion variables were loneliness and depressive symptoms, considered simultaneously. We used variations on this model to evaluate the possible effects of gender, ethnicity, education, physical functioning, medications, social network size, neuroticism, stressful life events, perceived stress, and social support on the observed associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that loneliness predicted subsequent changes in depressive symptomatology, but not vice versa, and that this temporal association was not attributable to demographic variables, objective social isolation, dispositional negativity, stress, or social support. The importance of distinguishing between loneliness and depressive symptoms and the implications for loneliness and depressive symptomatology in older adults are discussed.

      14. Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolationExternal
        Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S.
        Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2014 Feb 01;8(2):58-72.

        Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum – the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults.

      15. Trait and state levels of loneliness in early and late adolescents: Examining the differential reactivity hypothesisExternal
        van Roekel E, Verhagen M, Engels R, Scholte RH, Cacioppo S, Cacioppo JT.
        J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016 May 18:1-12.

        According to the differential reactivity hypothesis, lonely individuals respond differently to their environment compared to nonlonely individuals, which may sustain their loneliness levels. However, this interesting hypothesis has not yet been explored in daily life: Do lonely individuals feel lonely all the time, or do they feel more or less lonely in specific social contexts? The main aim of the present study was to test the differential reactivity hypothesis in daily life by examining in three samples whether trait levels of loneliness affected the levels of state loneliness in different social contexts. We used baseline questionnaires to measure trait loneliness and the Experience Sampling Method to collect data on state loneliness, in early adolescents (N = 269, Mage = 14.49, 59% female) and late adolescents (N = 223, Mage = 19.60, 91% female) from the Netherlands and late adolescents from the United States (N = 126, Mage = 19.20, 51% female). Results provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis in the total sample, as high lonely adolescents experienced higher levels of state loneliness in situations in which they were alone than low lonely adolescents, but also benefited more from being with intimate company than low lonely adolescents. In sum, the present study provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis and showed that the experience of loneliness in daily life was remarkably similar across age and culture. Our findings provide important insights into the daily experiences of trait lonely people, which may provide starting points for interventions.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      1. Global health effects of overweight and obesityExternal
        Gregg EW, Shaw JE.
        N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 12.

        [No abstract]

      2. Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade.

      3. There is limited literature about adults in the United States who usually or always spend time outdoors for the purpose of developing a tan, defined as intentional outdoor tanning. Using data from the 2015 Summer ConsumerStyles, an online cross-sectional survey weighted to the US adult population (n=4,127), we performed unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regressions to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, behaviors, and belief factors related to skin cancer risk and intentional outdoor tanning. Nearly 10% of the study population intentionally tanned outdoors. Outdoor tanning was more prevalent among women (11.4%), non-Hispanic white individuals (11.5%), those aged 18-29years (14.1%), those without a high school diploma (12.7%), and those in the northeast United States (13.2%). The adjusted odds of outdoor tanning were significantly higher among women than men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.04); those with a history of indoor tanning or recent sunburn than those without (AOR 2.61, CI 1.94-3.51; AOR 1.96, CI 1.46-2.63, respectively); those who agreed they looked better with a tan than those who did not (AOR 6.69, CI 3.62-12.35); and those who did not try to protect their skin from the sun when outdoors than those who did (AOR 2.17, CI 1.56-3.04). Adults who engaged in other risky behaviors that expose a person to ultraviolet (UV) radiation were more likely to tan outdoors, further increasing their risk of skin cancer. These findings may guide potential interventions to reduce UV exposure from outdoor tanning.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Syphilis screening and diagnosis among men who have sex with men, 2008-2014, 20 U.S. citiesExternal
        An Q, Wejnert C, Bernstein K, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S363-s369.

        BACKGROUND: Annual screening for syphilis is indicated for all sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data from 2008, 2011, and 2014, we assessed trends in self-reported syphilis testing and diagnoses in the past 12 months among MSM. We calculated percentages of syphilis screening and diagnosis by selected characteristics for each year. Trends were assessed using Poisson regression models with generalized estimation equations. Analysis of syphilis diagnosis was limited to participants who reported syphilis screening. RESULTS: Analysis included data from 28,295 sexually active MSM. Overall, 49% of MSM interviewed in 2014 reported syphilis screening, a significant increase from 40% in 2011 and 38% in 2008. In 2014, syphilis screening was most commonly reported by MSM who were aged 25-29 years (56%), HIV positive (68%), and had >10 sexual partners in the past 12 months (65%). The largest increases in syphilis screening between 2008 and 2014 were among MSM aged 30-39 years (37%-52%) and MSM who reported >10 sex partners (48%-65%). Among MSM who reported syphilis screening, the diagnoses of syphilis increased from 9% in 2008 to 11% in 2014. Increases in syphilis diagnosis were observed among MSM who were aged 25-29 years (6%-10%), black (9%-14%), HIV positive (15%-21%), and reported >10 sexual partners (11%-17%). CONCLUSIONS: Although syphilis screening among MSM increased during 2008-2014, less than half of MSM reported recent syphilis screening in 2014. Given continued increases in syphilis among MSM, innovative interventions are needed to improve compliance with screening recommendations.

      2. Health care use and HIV-related behaviors of black and Latina transgender women in 3 US metropolitan areas: Results from the Transgender HIV Behavioral SurveyExternal
        Denson DJ, Padgett PM, Pitts N, Paz-Bailey G, Bingham T, Carlos JA, McCann P, Prachand N, Risser J, Finlayson T.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S268-s275.

        PURPOSE: HIV prevalence estimates among transgender women in the United States are high, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities. Despite increased HIV risk and evidence of racial disparities in HIV prevalence among transgender women, few data are available to inform HIV prevention efforts. METHODS: A transgender HIV-related behavioral survey conducted in 2009 in 3 US metropolitan areas (Chicago, Houston, and Los Angeles County), used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 227 black (n = 139) and Latina (n = 88) transgender women. We present descriptive statistics on sociodemographic, health care, and HIV-risk behaviors. RESULTS: Of 227 transgender women enrolled, most were economically and socially disadvantaged: 73% had an annual income of less than $15,000; 62% lacked health insurance; 61% were unemployed; and 46% reported being homeless in the past 12 months. Most (80%) had visited a health care provider and over half (58%) had tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of those who reported having an HIV test in the past 24 months self-reported being HIV positive. Most of the sample reported hormone use (67%) in the past 12 months and most hormone use was under clinical supervision (70%). Forty-nine percent reported condomless anal sex in the past 12 months and 16% reported ever injecting drugs. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal the socioeconomic challenges and behavioral risks often associated with high HIV risk reported by black and Latina transgender women. Despite low health insurance coverage, the results suggest opportunities to engage transgender women in HIV prevention and care given their high reported frequency of accessing health care providers.

      3. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water – United States, 2003-2009External
        Gargano JW, Adam EA, Collier SA, Fullerton KE, Feinman SJ, Beach MJ.
        J Water Health. 2017 Jun;15(3):438-450.

        Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires’ disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

      4. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent-driven sampling surveyExternal
        Hladik W, Baughman AL, Serwadda D, Tappero JW, Kwezi R, Nakato ND, Barker J.
        BMC Public Health. 2017 Jun 10;17(1):565.

        BACKGROUND: Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS: A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37%) and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two thirds (65%) of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19%) FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

      5. Antiretroviral therapy use among HIV-infected people who inject drugs – 20 cities, United States, 2009-2015External
        Hoots BE, Finlayson TJ, Broz D, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S392-s396.

        BACKGROUND: Approximately 16% of infections among those living with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States are attributable to injection drug use. Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are recommended for all infected persons to improve health and prevent transmission. Using data from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, we evaluated changes in ARV use from 2009 to 2015 among HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: PWID were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in 20 cities. ARV use was defined as self-reported use at the time of interview. Prevalence ratios measuring change in ARV use per 3-year increase in year were estimated using log-linked Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: ARV use was 58% (319/548) in 2009, 67% (410/608) in 2012, and 71% (386/545) in 2015. In all 3 cycle years, a higher percentage of ARV treatment was observed among males, PWID of older age (>/=50), and PWID with current health insurance. ARV use increased overall, with an adjusted relative increase of 8% per every 3-year increase in year (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.12). ARV use also increased among most subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show progress in ARV treatment, although ARV coverage remains low compared with other populations at risk for HIV. Efforts to improve ARV coverage among PWIDs are needed.

      6. Reductions in HIV diagnoses among African American women: A search for explanationsExternal
        Ivy W, Nwangwu-Ike N, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S253-s260.

        BACKGROUND: African American women experienced a 46% reduction in the rate of HIV diagnoses from 56.0 in 2008, to 30.0 in 2014 (per 100,000). The reasons for this decrease are unknown; however, we hypothesize that improvements in socioeconomic status, health care access, and risk behaviors may have contributed to this reduction. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2006, 2010, and 2013 of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. African American women living at or below poverty were surveyed from 19 United States cities using respondent-driven and venue-based sampling, and tested for HIV infection. We used generalized estimating equations to determine differences for selected outcomes regarding health care and risk behaviors over time. RESULTS: Among 11,065 women, we found increases in the percentage of women who reported having a recent HIV test (P value = 0.0002); having health insurance (P < 0.0001); and recently visiting a health care provider (P < 0.0001). Being unemployed declined significantly (P = 0.0057), as did reporting recent injection drug use (P < 0.0001). Crack use declined among women aged 25-44 years (P < 0.0001). However, reporting condomless vaginal sex at last sex (P = 0.0268), condomless anal sex at last sex (P = 0.6462), or 3 or more sex partners in the past 12 months (P = 0.5449) remained stable. DISCUSSION: Enhanced health care access and socioeconomic status and reductions in drug use may have contributed to the declines in HIV diagnoses among African American women in the United States.

      7. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with menExternal
        Jeffries WL, Garrett S, Phields M, Olubajo B, Lemon E, Valdes-Salgado R, Collins CB.
        AIDS Behav. 2017 Jun 08.

        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides trainings to support implementation of five evidence-based HIV prevention interventions (EBIs) for men who have sex with men (MSM): d-up: Defend Yourself!; Many Men, Many Voices; Mpowerment; Personalized Cognitive Counseling; and Popular Opinion Leader. We evaluated trainees’ implementation of these EBIs and, using multivariable logistic regression, examined factors associated with implementation. Approximately 43% of trainees had implemented the EBIs for which they received training. Implementation was associated with working in community-based organizations (vs. health departments or other settings); acquiring training for Mpowerment or Popular Opinion Leader (vs. Personalized Cognitive Counseling); having >/=3 funding sources (vs. one); and having (vs. not having) sufficient time and necessary EBI resources. Findings suggest that implementation may vary by trainee characteristics, especially those related to employment setting, EBI training, funding, and perceived implementation barriers. Efforts that address these factors may help to improve EBI implementation among trainees.

      8. Low levels of viral suppression among refugees and host nationals accessing antiretroviral therapy in a Kenyan refugee campExternal
        Mendelsohn JB, Spiegel P, Grant A, Doraiswamy S, Schilperoord M, Larke N, Burton JW, Okonji JA, Zeh C, Muhindo B, Mohammed IM, Mukui IN, Patterson N, Sondorp E, Ross DA.
        Confl Health. 2017 ;11:11.

        BACKGROUND: Refugees and host nationals who accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a remote refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya (2011-2013) were compared on outcome measures that included viral suppression and adherence to ART. METHODS: This study used a repeated cross-sectional design (Round One and Round Two). All adults (>/=18 years) receiving care from the refugee camp clinic and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >/=30 days were invited to participate. Adherence was measured by self-report and monthly pharmacy refills. Whole blood was measured on dried blood spots. HIV-1 RNA was quantified and treatment failures were submitted for drug resistance testing. A remedial intervention was implemented in response to baseline testing. The primary outcome was viral load <5000 copies/mL. The two study rounds took place in 2011-2013. RESULTS: Among eligible adults, 86% (73/85) of refugees and 84% (86/102) of Kenyan host nationals participated in the Round One survey; 60% (44/73) and 58% (50/86) of Round One participants were recruited for Round Two follow-up viral load testing. In Round One, refugees were older than host nationals (median age 36 years, interquartile range, IQR 31, 41 vs 32 years, IQR 27, 38); the groups had similar time on ART (median 147 weeks, IQR 38, 64 vs 139 weeks, IQR 39, 225). There was weak evidence for a difference between proportions of refugees and host nationals who were virologically suppressed (<5000 copies/mL) after 25 weeks on ART (58% vs 43%, p = 0.10) and no difference in the proportions suppressed at Round Two (74% vs 70%, p = 0.66). Mean adherence within each group in Round One was similar. Refugee status was not associated with viral suppression in multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69, 95% CI 0.79, 3.57; p = 0.17). Among those not suppressed at either timepoint, 69% (9/13) exhibited resistance mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Virologic outcomes among refugees and host nationals were similar but unacceptably low. Slight improvements were observed after a remedial intervention. Virologic monitoring was important for identifying an underperforming ART program in a remote facility that serves refugees alongside host nationals. This work highlights the importance of careful laboratory monitoring of vulnerable populations accessing ART in remote settings.

      9. Neurocognitive function in HIV-infected persons with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia: a comparison of three prospective cohortsExternal
        Montgomery MP, Nakasujja N, Morawski BM, Rajasingham R, Rhein J, Nalintya E, Williams DA, Huppler Hullsiek K, Kiragga A, Rolfes MA, Donahue Carlson R, Bahr NC, Birkenkamp KE, Manabe YC, Bohjanen PR, Kaplan JE, Kambugu A, Meya DB, Boulware DR.
        BMC Neurol. 2017 Jun 12;17(1):110.

        BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons with detectable cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in blood have increased morbidity and mortality compared with HIV-infected persons who are CrAg-negative. This study examined neurocognitive function among persons with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia. METHODS: Participants from three prospective HIV cohorts underwent neurocognitive testing at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Cohorts included persons with cryptococcal meningitis (N = 90), asymptomatic CrAg + (N = 87), and HIV-infected persons without central nervous system infection (N = 125). Z-scores for each neurocognitive test were calculated relative to an HIV-negative Ugandan population with a composite quantitative neurocognitive performance Z-score (QNPZ-8) created from eight tested domains. Neurocognitive function was measured pre-ART for all three cohorts and additionally after 4 weeks of ART (and 6 weeks of pre-emptive fluconazole) treatment among asymptomatic CrAg + participants. RESULTS: Cryptococcal meningitis and asymptomatic CrAg + participants had lower median CD4 counts (17 and 26 cells/muL, respectively) than the HIV-infected control cohort (233 cells/muL) as well as lower Karnofsky performance status (60 and 70 vs. 90, respectively). The composite QNPZ-8 for asymptomatic CrAg + (-1.80 Z-score) fell between the cryptococcal meningitis cohort (-2.22 Z-score, P = 0.02) and HIV-infected controls (-1.36, P = 0.003). After four weeks of ART and six weeks of fluconazole, the asymptomatic CrAg + cohort neurocognitive performance improved (-1.0 Z-score, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Significant deficits in neurocognitive function were identified in asymptomatic CrAg + persons with advanced HIV/AIDS even without signs or sequelae of meningitis. Neurocognitive function in this group improves over time after initiation of pre-emptive fluconazole treatment and ART, but short term adherence support may be necessary.

      10. Exchange sex and HIV infection among women who inject drugs – 20 US cities, 2009External
        Nerlander LM, Hess KL, Rose CE, Sionean C, Thorson A, Broz D, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S333-s340.

        BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs and who also exchange sex are at increased risk for HIV infection, but data on this population in the United States remain sparse. METHODS: This study assessed the prevalence of exchanging sex for money or drugs among women who inject drugs using data from the 2009 US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system. Prevalence of being HIV-positive (testing positive in NHBS), HIV-positive-unaware (reporting being HIV-negative or unknown status but testing positive in NHBS), and risk behaviors and use of services were compared between women who did and did not exchange sex. The association between exchange sex and being HIV-positive-unaware of the infection was examined using multivariate Poisson models with robust standard errors. RESULTS: Among 2305 women who inject drugs, 39% reported receiving things like money or drugs from >/=1 male partners in exchange for oral, vaginal, or anal sex in the previous 12 months. Women who exchanged sex were more likely to be unemployed, homeless, lack health insurance, have multiple condomless vaginal or anal sex partners, and receptively share syringes. In multivariate analysis, exchange sex was associated with being HIV-positive-unaware (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.97, 95% confidence intervals: 1.31 to 2.97). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of exchange sex was high in this population. Women who exchange sex were more likely to be socially disadvantaged, report sexual and injection risk, and be HIV-positive-unaware. They represent an important group to reach with HIV prevention, testing, and care services.

      11. Multi-country validation of SAMBA – A novel molecular point-of- care test for HIV-1 detection in resource-limited settingExternal
        Ondiek J, Namukaya Z, Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Balkan S, Elbireer A, Ushiro Lumb I, Kiyaga C, Goel N, Ritchie A, Ncube P, Omuomu K, Ndiege K, Kekitiinwa A, Mangwanya D, Fowler MG, Nadala L, Lee H.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jun 09.

        INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and the prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy are critical to achieving a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of infected infants. The SAMBA HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test was developed specifically for early infant diagnosis and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs implemented at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We have evaluated the performance of this test run on the SAMBA I semi-automated platform with fresh whole blood specimens collected from 202 adults and 745 infants in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Results were compared with those obtained with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 assay as performed with fresh whole blood or dried blood spots of the same subjects, and discrepancies were resolved with alternative assays. RESULTS: The performance of the SAMBA and CAP/CTM assays evaluated at five laboratories in the three countries was similar for both adult and infant samples. The clinical sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the SAMBA test were 100%, 99.2%, 98.7%, and 100%, respectively, with adult samples, and 98.5%, 99.8%, 99.7%, and 98.8%, respectively, with infant samples. DISCUSSION: Our data suggest that the SAMBA HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test would be effective for early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants at point-of care settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

      12. Trends in internet use among men who have sex with men in the United StatesExternal
        Paz-Bailey G, Hoots BE, Xia M, Finlayson T, Prejean J, Purcell DW.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S288-s295.

        BACKGROUND: Internet-based platforms are increasingly prominent interfaces for social and sexual networking among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: MSM were recruited through venue-based sampling in 2008, 2011, and 2014 in 20 US cities. We examined changes in internet use (IU) to meet men and in meeting the last partner online among MSM from 2008 to 2014 using Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs). We also examined factors associated with increased frequency of IU using data from 2014. IU was categorized as never, infrequent use (<once a week), and frequent use (>/=once a week). RESULTS: Frequent IU increased from 21% in 2008 to 44% in 2014 (APR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.36 to 1.42), and having met the last partner online increased from 19% in 2008 to 32% in 2014 (APR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 1.34). Those who never used the internet had fewer partners (median of 2 in the past 12 months, interquartile range: 1-4) compared with infrequent (4, 2-7) and frequent users (5, 3-12). HIV testing in the past 12 months also increased with increasing IU (58%, 68%, and 71%, respectively, P < 0.0001). Among HIV-positive participants, the percent HIV-positive awareness increased as IU increased (71%, 75%, and 79%, P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Both IU to meet men and meeting the last partner online increased since 2008. Although men who used the internet more frequently reported more partners in the past 12 months, they were also more likely to report testing in the past 12 months and were more likely to be HIV-positive aware.

      13. Characteristics and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men and women compared with men who have sex with men – 20 US cities, 2011 and 2014External
        Shadaker S, Magee M, Paz-Bailey G, Hoots BE.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S281-s287.

        BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are heterogeneous with respect to sexual behavior. We examined differences in sex behaviors between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). METHODS: Data for this analysis were from MSM who participated in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance in 2011 and 2014. We used the combined years to evaluate demographic and behavioral differences between MSMW and MSMO. Using log-linked Poisson regression models, adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated for behavioral outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 2042 (11.9%) participants were classified as MSMW. MSMW were less likely than MSMO to have condomless sex with male partners [aPR 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.81] and to have been diagnosed with another sexually transmitted disease (aPR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.95). MSMW were more likely than MSMO to have given money or drugs for sex (aPR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.52 to 3.24) or received money or drugs for sex (aPR 2.64; 95% CI: 2.37 to 2.93) and to ever have injected drugs (aPR 2.05; 95% CI: 1.80 to 2.34). MSMW had more total sex partners (median 6, interquartile range: 4-11 vs. 3, 2-8), casual sex partners (5, 2-10 vs. 3, 1-7), and condomless sex partners (2, 1-4 vs. 1, 0-2) in the last 12 months (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: MSMW have distinct sexual risk behaviors from MSMO and may contribute to HIV transmission among women. MSMW could benefit from tailored interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors.

      14. HIV testing and positivity patterns of partners of HIV-diagnosed people in partner services programs, United States, 2013-2014External
        Song W, Mulatu MS, Rorie M, Zhang H, Gilford JW.
        Public Health Rep. 2017 Jan 01:33354917710943.

        OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) partner services are an integral part of comprehensive HIV prevention programs. We examined the patterns of HIV testing and positivity among partners of HIV-diagnosed people who participated in partner services programs in CDC-funded state and local health departments. METHODS: We analyzed data on 21 484 partners submitted in 2013-2014 by 55 health departments. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine patterns of HIV testing and positivity by demographic characteristics and geographic region. RESULTS: Of 21 484 partners, 16 275 (75.8%) were tested for HIV; 4503 of 12 886 (34.9%) partners with test results were identified as newly HIV-positive. Compared with partners aged 13-24, partners aged 35-44 were less likely to be tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.95) and more likely to be HIV-positive (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.20-1.52). Partners who were male (aOR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97) and non-Hispanic black (aOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74) were less likely to be tested but more likely to be HIV-positive (male aOR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.64-2.01; non-Hispanic black aOR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.38-1.66) than partners who were female and non-Hispanic white, respectively. Partners in the South were more likely than partners in the Midwest to be tested for HIV (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35-1.80) and to be HIV-positive (aOR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.81-2.65). CONCLUSIONS: Partner services programs implemented by CDC-funded health departments are successful in providing HIV testing services and identifying previously undiagnosed HIV infections among partners of HIV-diagnosed people. Demographic and regional differences suggest the need to tailor these programs to address unique needs of the target populations.

      15. BACKGROUND: Inequalities in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) burden by sexual minority status in the United States are difficult to quantify. Sex of sex partner is not routinely collected for reported cases. Population estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) necessary to calculate case rates have not been available until recently. For these reasons, trends in reported gonorrhea rates among MSM have not been described across multiple jurisdictions. METHODS: We estimated of the number of MSM cases reported in 6 jurisdictions continuously participating in the STD Surveillance Network 2010-2015 based on interviews with a random sample of cases. Data were obtained for Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, San Francisco, California (excluding San Francisco), and Washington State. Estimates of the MSM, heterosexual male (MSW) and female populations were obtained from recently published estimates and census data. Case rates and rate-ratios were calculated comparing trends in reported cases among MSM, heterosexual males and women. RESULTS: The proportion of male gonorrhea cases among MSM varied by jurisdiction (range: 20% to 98%). Estimated MSM rate increased from 1369 cases per 100,000 in 2010 to 3435 cases per 100,000 in 2015. Between 2010 and 2015, the MSM-to-Women gonorrhea rate ratio increased from 13:1 to 24:1, and the MSM-to-MSW gonorrhea rate ratio increased from 16:1 to 31:1. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated gonorrhea rate among MSM increased in a network of 6 geographically diverse US jurisdictions. Estimating the size of this population, determining MSM among reported cases and estimating rates are essential first steps for better understanding the changing epidemiology of gonorrhea.

      16. Evaluation of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster investigations in four jurisdictions in the United States, 2006-2010

        Teeter LD, Kammerer JS, Ghosh S, Nguyen DT, Vempaty P, Tapia J, Miramontes R, Cronin WA, Graviss EA.
        Tuberculosis. 2017 September;106:9-15.
        The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a combination of spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analyses as part of the National TB Genotyping Service (NTGS). The NTGS expansion from 12-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU12) to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU24) in 2009 enhanced the ability to discriminate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In the current study, we investigated the MIRU24 concordance among epidemiologic-linked tuberculosis (TB) patients in four U.S. health jurisdictions. We also evaluated the programmatic benefits of combining MIRU24 and spoligotyping with epidemiologic evidence in identifying potential recent TB transmission. We examined 342 TB patients in 42 spoligotype/MIRU12 (PCRType) clusters (equivalent to 46 spoligotype/MIRU24 [GENType] clusters) to identify epidemiologic links among cases. GENType clusters, when compared to PCRType clusters, had 12 times higher odds of epidemiologic links being identified if patients were younger than 25 years and 3 times higher odds if patients resided in the same zip code, or had HIV infection. Sixty (18%) fewer PCRType-clustered patients would need investigations if clusters are defined using GENType instead of PCRType. An important advantage of defining clusters by MIRU24 is resource savings related to the reduced number of clustered cases needing investigation.

      17. Achieving greater HIV prevention impact through CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance SystemExternal
        Wejnert C, Raymond HF, Robbins T, Prejean J, Hall HI, McCray E, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S249-s252.

        The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system was designed to monitor risk factors for HIV infection and HIV prevalence among individuals at higher risk for HIV infection, that is, sexually active men who have sex with men who attend venues, persons who recently injected drugs, and heterosexuals of low socioeconomic status living in urban areas. These groups were selected as priorities for behavioral surveillance because they represent the major HIV transmission routes and the populations with the highest HIV burden. Accurate data on the behaviors in these populations are critical for understanding trends in HIV infections and planning and evaluating effective HIV prevention activities. The articles in this supplement illustrate how National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data can be used to assess HIV risk behaviors, prevalence, and service utilization of the populations most affected by HIV in the United States and guide local and national high-impact prevention strategies to meet national HIV prevention goals.

      18. Incarceration, sexual risk-related behaviors, and HIV infection among women at increased risk of HIV infection, 20 United States citiesExternal
        Wise A, Finlayson T, Nerlander L, Sionean C, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S261-s267.

        BACKGROUND: Women involved in the criminal justice system experience multiple risk factors that increase the likelihood of acquiring HIV infection. We evaluated the prevalence of incarceration and compared behaviors among women with and without an incarceration history. METHODS: We use the 2013 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, which uses respondent-driven sampling. We evaluate the association between incarceration and the following past 12 months outcomes: exchange sex, multiple casual sex partners (>/=3), multiple condomless sex partners (>/=3), HIV test, and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Log-linked Poisson regression models, adjusted for demographics and clustered on city, with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of 5154 women, 11% were incarcerated within the previous year, 36% were ever incarcerated but not in the past 12 months, and 53% were never incarcerated. Prevalence of exchange sex (aPR 1.32, 1.20-1.46), multiple casual partners (aPR 1.59, 1.2-2.1), multiple casual condomless partners (aPR 1.47, 1.07-2.03), and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (aPR 1.61, 1.34-1.93) were all higher among recently incarcerated women compared with those never incarcerated. We also found higher prevalence of recent HIV testing among women recently incarcerated (aPR 1.30, 1.18-1.43). DISCUSSION: Nearly half of women in our study had been incarcerated. Recent incarceration was associated with several factors that increase the risk of HIV acquisition. HIV prevention, testing, and early treatment among women with a history of incarceration can maximize the effectiveness of the public health response to the HIV epidemic.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services RSS Word feed
      1. Stockpiling ventilators for influenza pandemics (note)
        Meltzer MI, Patel A.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 ;23(6):1021-1022.

        In preparing for influenza pandemics, public health agencies stockpile critical medical resources. Determining appropriate quantities and locations for such resources can be challenging, given the considerable uncertainty in the timing and severity of future pandemics. We introduce a method for optimizing stockpiles of mechanical ventilators, which are critical for treating hospitalized influenza patients in respiratory failure. As a case study, we consider the US state of Texas during mild, moderate, and severe pandemics. Optimal allocations prioritize local over central storage, even though the latter can be deployed adaptively, on the basis of real-time needs. This prioritization stems from high geographic correlations and the slightly lower treatment success assumed for centrally stockpiled ventilators. We developed our model and analysis in collaboration with academic researchers and a state public health agency and incorporated it into a Web-based decision-support tool for pandemic preparedness and response. ? 2017, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors RSS Word feed
      1. Deltamethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in Merida, MexicoExternal
        Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Medina-Barreiro A, Che-Mendoza A, Dzul-Manzanilla F, Correa-Morales F, Guillermo-May G, Bibiano-Marin W, Uc-Puc V, Geded-Moreno E, Vadillo-Sanchez J, Palacio-Vargas J, Ritchie SA, Lenhart A, Manrique-Saide P.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun 12;11(6):e0005656.

        The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti infestation indices during 3 months post-spraying were significantly lower in houses treated with bendiocarb compared to untreated houses (odds ratio <0.75; incidence rate ratio < 0.65) whereas no statistically significant difference was detected between the untreated and the deltamethrin-treated houses. On average, bendiocarb spraying reduced Ae. aegypti abundance by 60% during a 3-month period. Results demonstrate that vector control efficacy can be significantly compromised when the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti populations is not taken into consideration.

    • Environmental Health RSS Word feed
      1. Environmental transport of emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes through combined sewer overflow and wastewaterExternal
        Huang C, Hu Y, Wang L, Wang Y, Li N, Guo Y, Feng Y, Xiao L.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Jun 09.

        The environmental transport of Cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (CSO) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. In this study, we collected 40 CSO samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from Shanghai, China and examined them by PCR and DNA sequencing for Cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rRNA gene) and Giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosphosphate isomerase, beta-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) genotypes. Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species were further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene, with additional multilocus sequence typing on the emerging zoonotic pathogen C. ubiquitumCryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi were detected in 12 and 15, 33 and 32, and 37 and 40 CSO and wastewater samples, respectively, including 10 Cryptosporidium species, 3 G. duodenalis assemblages, and 8 E. bieneusi genotypes. In addition to C. hominis and C. parvum, two new pathogens identified in industrialized nations, C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum, were frequently detected. The two novel C. ubiquitum subtype families identified appeared to be genetic recombinants of known subtype families. Similarly, the dominant Group 1 E. bieneusi genotypes and G. duodenalis subassemblage AII are known human pathogens. The similar distribution of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis genotypes between wastewater and CSO samples reaffirms that storm overflow is potentially a significant contamination source of pathogens in surface water. The frequent identification of C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum in urban wastewater suggests that these newly identified human pathogens could be endemic in China.ImportanceCryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are major waterborne pathogens. Their transport into surface water through combined sewer overflow, which remains largely untreated in developing countries, has not been examined. In addition, the identification of them to genotypes and subtypes in urban storm overflow and wastewater is necessary for rapid and accurate assessment of pathogen transmission in humans and transport in the environment. Data from this study suggest that like untreated urban wastewater, combined sewer overflow is commonly contaminated with human pathogenic Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi genotypes and subtypes, and urban storm overflow potentially plays a significant role in the contamination of drinking source water and recreational water with human pathogens. They also indicate that C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum, two newly identified human-pathogens, could be common in China, and genetic recombination can lead to the emergence of novel C. ubiquitum subtype families.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance RSS Word feed
      1. Advances in public health surveillance and information dissemination at the Centers for Disease Control and PreventionExternal
        Richards CL, Iademarco MF, Atkinson D, Pinner RW, Yoon P, Mac Kenzie WR, Lee B, Qualters JR, Frieden TR.
        Public Health Rep. 2017 Jan 01:33354917709542.

        [No abstract]

    • Genetics and Genomics RSS Word feed
      1. Population genomics and the evolution of virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformansExternal
        Desjardins CA, Giamberardino C, Sykes SM, Yu CH, Tenor JL, Chen Y, Yang T, Jones AM, Sun S, Haverkamp MR, Heitman J, Litvintseva AP, Perfect JR, Cuomo CA.
        Genome Res. 2017 Jun 13.

        Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes approximately 625,000 deaths per year from nervous system infections. Here, we leveraged a unique, genetically diverse population of C. neoformans from sub-Saharan Africa, commonly isolated from mopane trees, to determine how selective pressures in the environment coincidentally adapted C. neoformans for human virulence. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 387 isolates, representing the global VNI and African VNB lineages, highlighted a deep, nonrecombining split in VNB (herein, VNBI and VNBII). VNBII was enriched for clinical samples relative to VNBI, while phenotypic profiling of 183 isolates demonstrated that VNBI isolates were significantly more resistant to oxidative stress and more heavily melanized than VNBII isolates. Lack of melanization in both lineages was associated with loss-of-function mutations in the BZP4 transcription factor. A genome-wide association study across all VNB isolates revealed sequence differences between clinical and environmental isolates in virulence factors and stress response genes. Inositol transporters and catabolism genes, which process sugars present in plants and the human nervous system, were identified as targets of selection in all three lineages. Further phylogenetic and population genomic analyses revealed extensive loss of genetic diversity in VNBI, suggestive of a history of population bottlenecks, along with unique evolutionary trajectories for mating type loci. These data highlight the complex evolutionary interplay between adaptation to natural environments and opportunistic infections, and that selection on specific pathways may predispose isolates to human virulence.

    • Health Communication and Education RSS Word feed
      1. Measuring audience engagement for public health twitter chats: Insights from #LiveFitNOLAExternal
        Rabarison KM, Croston MA, Englar NK, Bish CL, Flynn SM, Johnson CC.
        JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017 Jun 08;3(2):e34.

        BACKGROUND: Little empirical evidence exists on the effectiveness of using Twitter as a two-way communication tool for public health practice, such as Twitter chats. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether Twitter chats facilitate engagement in two-way communications between public health entities and their audience. We also describe how to measure two-way communications, incoming and outgoing mentions, between users in a protocol using free and publicly available tools (Symplur, OpenRefine, and Gephi). METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach, social network analysis, and content analysis. The study population comprised individuals and organizations participating or who were mentioned in the first #LiveFitNOLA chat, during a 75-min period on March 5, 2015, from 12:00 PM to 1:15 PM Central Time. We assessed audience engagement in two-way communications with two metrics: engagement ratio and return on engagement (ROE). RESULTS: The #LiveFitNOLA chat had 744 tweets and 66 participants with an average of 11 tweets per participant. The resulting network had 134 network members and 474 engagements. The engagement ratios and ROEs for the #LiveFitNOLA organizers were 1:1, 40% (13/32) (@TulanePRC) and 2:1, -40% (-25/63) (@FitNOLA). Content analysis showed information sharing (63.9%, 314/491) and health information (27.9%, 137/491) as the most salient theme and sub-theme, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest Twitter chats facilitate audience engagement in two-way communications between public health entities and their audience. The #LiveFitNOLA organizers’ engagement ratios and ROEs indicated a moderate level of engagement with their audience. The practical significance of the engagement ratio and ROE depends on the audience, context, scope, scale, and goal of a Twitter chat or other organized hashtag-based communications on Twitter.

    • Health Economics RSS Word feed
      1. Effect of the earned income tax credit on hospital admissions for pediatric abusive head trauma, 1995-2013External
        Klevens J, Schmidt B, Luo F, Xu L, Ports KA, Lee RD.
        Public Health Rep. 2017 Jan 01:33354917710905.

        OBJECTIVES: Policies that increase household income, such as the earned income tax credit (EITC), have shown reductions on risk factors for child maltreatment (ie, poverty, maternal stress, depression), but evidence is lacking on whether the EITC actually reduces child maltreatment. We examined whether states’ EITCs are associated with state rates of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years. METHODS: We conducted difference-in-difference analyses (ie, pre- and postdifferences in intervention vs control groups) of annual rates of states’ hospital admissions attributed to abusive head trauma among children aged <2 years (ie, using aggregate data). We conducted analyses in 14 states with, and 13 states without, an EITC from 1995 to 2013, differentiating refundable EITCs (ie, tax filer gets money even if taxes are not owed) from nonrefundable EITCs (ie, tax filer gets credit only for any tax owed), controlling for state rates of child poverty, unemployment, high school graduation, and percentage of non-Latino white people. RESULTS: A refundable EITC was associated with a decrease of 3.1 abusive head trauma admissions per 100 000 population in children aged <2 years after controlling for confounders ( P = .08), but a nonrefundable EITC was not associated with a decrease ( P = .49). Tax refunds ranged from $108 to $1014 and $165 to $1648 for a single parent working full-time at minimum wage with 1 child or 2 children, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings with others suggest that policies such as the EITC that increase household income may prevent serious abusive head trauma.

      2. The financial burden of public health responses to hepatitis A cases among food handlers, 2012-2014External
        Morey RJ, Collier MG, Nelson NP.
        Public Health Rep. 2017 Jan 01:33354917710947.

        When food handlers become ill with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, state and local health departments must assess the risk of HAV transmission through prepared food and recommend or provide postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for those at risk for HAV infection. Providing PEP (eg, hepatitis A [HepA] vaccine or immunoglobulin), however, is costly. To describe the burden of these responses on state and local health departments, we determined the number of public health responses to HAV infections among food handlers by reviewing public internet sources of media articles. We then contacted each health department to collect data on whether PEP was recommended to food handlers or restaurant patrons, the number of PEP doses given, the number of HepA vaccine or immunoglobulin doses given as PEP, and the mean number of health department person-hours required for the response. Of 32 public health responses identified from Twitter, HealthMap, and Google alerts from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, a total of 27 (84%) recommended PEP for other food handlers or restaurant patrons or both. Per public health response, the mean cost per dose of the HepA vaccine or immunoglobulin was $34 139; the mean personnel cost per response was $7329; and the total mean cost of each response was $41 468. PEP is expensive. Less aggressive approaches to PEP, such as limiting PEP to fellow food handlers in nonoutbreak situations, should be considered in the postvaccination era. HepA vaccine for PEP provides long-term immunity and can be used when immunoglobulin is unavailable or cannot be administered within 14 days of exposure to HAV.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      1. Noninitiation and noncompletion of HPV vaccine among English- and Spanish-speaking parents of adolescent girls: A qualitative studyExternal
        Albright K, Barnard J, O’Leary ST, Lockhart S, Jimenez-Zambrano A, Stokley S, Dempsey A, Kempe A.
        Acad Pediatr. 2017 Mar 28.

        OBJECTIVE: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for female adolescents aged 11 to 12 years, yet vaccination rates remain low. We conducted a qualitative study to understand English- and Spanish-speaking parents’ reasons for noninitiation or noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series for their daughters. METHODS: Parents of female adolescents aged 12 to 15 years who had not initiated or not completed the HPV vaccine series were identified through administrative data in 2 large urban safety net health care systems in Colorado. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with English-speaking parents and in-depth interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking parents. All data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content by experienced analysts using established qualitative content analysis techniques. RESULTS: Forty-one parents participated in the study. Thirty parents participated in individual interviews and 11 parents participated in 1 of 2 focus groups. The most common reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion among English-speaking parents included a low perceived risk of HPV infection, vaccine safety concerns, and distrust of government and/or medicine. In contrast, Spanish-speaking parents most often reported that providers had either not encouraged initiation of the HPV vaccine series or had not explained the necessity of completing the series. Some noninitiating parents, particularly Spanish-speaking ones, also cited concerns that vaccination would encourage sexual activity. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series differed substantially between English- and Spanish-speaking parents. To maximize uptake of HPV vaccine, varying approaches might be needed to effectively target specific populations.

      2. Financing of vaccine delivery in primary care practicesExternal
        Allison MA, O’Leary ST, Lindley MC, Crane LA, Hurley LP, Beaty BL, Brtnikova M, Jimenez-Zambrano A, Babbel C, Berman S, Kempe A.
        Acad Pediatr. 2017 Jun 06.

        OBJECTIVES: Vaccines represent a significant portion of primary care practices’ expenses. Our objectives were to determine among Pediatric (Ped) and Family Medicine (FM): 1) relative payment for vaccine purchase and administration and estimated profit margin by payer type, 2) strategies used to reduce vaccine purchase costs and increase payment, and 3) whether practices have stopped providing vaccines due to finances. METHODS: A national survey conducted April-September 2011 among Ped and FM in private, single-specialty practices. RESULTS: The response rate was 51% (221/430). Depending on payer type, 61%–79% of practices reported that payment for vaccine purchase was at least 100% of purchase price and 34%–74% reported that payment for vaccine administration was at least $11. Reported strategies to reduce vaccine purchase cost were online purchasing (81% Ped, 36% FM), prompt pay (78% Ped, 49% FM) and bulk order (65% Ped, 49% FM) discounts. Fewer than half of practices used strategies to increase payment; in a multivariable analysis, practices with > 5 providers were more likely to use strategies compared to practices with fewer providers (adjusted odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.51-4.62). When asked if they had stopped purchasing vaccines due to financial concerns, 12% of Ped and 23% of FM responded ‘yes’, and 24% of Ped and 26% of FM responded ‘no, but have seriously considered’. CONCLUSIONS: Practices report variable payment for vaccination services from different payer types. Practices may benefit from increased use of strategies to reduce vaccine purchase costs and increase payment for vaccine delivery.

      3. Antiviral activity of pocapavir in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled human oral poliovirus vaccine challenge modelExternal
        Collett MS, Hincks JR, Benschop K, Duizer E, van der Avoort H, Rhoden E, Liu H, Oberste MS, McKinlay MA, Hartford M.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 01;215(3):335-343.

        Background: Immunodeficient individuals who excrete vaccine-derived polioviruses threaten polio eradication. Antivirals address this threat. Methods: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study, adults were challenged with monovalent oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine (mOPV1) and subsequently treated with capsid inhibitor pocapavir or placebo. The time to virus negativity in stool was determined. Results: A total of 144 participants were enrolled; 98% became infected upon OPV challenge. Pocapavir-treated subjects (n = 93) cleared virus a median duration of 10 days after challenge, compared with 13 days for placebo recipients (n = 48; P = .0019). Fifty-two of 93 pocapavir-treated subjects (56%) cleared virus in 2-18 days with no evidence of drug resistance, while 41 of 93 (44%) treated subjects experienced infection with resistant virus while in the isolation facility, 3 (3%) of whom were infected at baseline, before treatment initiation. Resistant virus was also observed in 5 placebo recipients (10%). Excluding those with resistant virus, the median time to virus negativity was 5.5 days in pocapavir recipients, compared with 13 days in placebo recipients (P < .0001). There were no serious adverse events and no withdrawals from the study. Conclusions: Treatment with pocapavir was safe and significantly accelerated virus clearance. Emergence of resistant virus and transmission of virus were seen in the context of a clinical isolation facility. Clinical Trials Registration: EudraCT 2011-004804-38.

      4. Human papillomavirus vaccination among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in 2 US cities, 2012-2014External
        Gorbach PM, Cook R, Gratzer B, Collins T, Parrish A, Moore J, Kerndt PR, Crosby RA, Markowitz LE, Meites E.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2017 Jul;44(7):436-441.

        BACKGROUND: Since 2011, in the United States, quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been recommended for boys aged 11 to 12 years, men through age 21, and men who have sex with men (MSM) through age 26. We assessed HPV vaccination coverage and factors associated with vaccination among young MSM (YMSM) and transgender women (TGW) in 2 cities. METHODS: During 2012-2014, 808 YMSM and TGW aged 18 to 26 years reported vaccination status in a self-administered computerized questionnaire at 3 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Los Angeles and Chicago. Associations with HPV vaccination were assessed using bivariate and multivariable models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Few of the diverse participants (Hispanic/Latino, 38.0%; white, 27.0%; and black/African American, 17.9%) reported receiving 1 or more HPV vaccine doses (n = 111 [13.7%]) and even fewer reported 3 doses (n = 37 [4.6%]). A multivariable model found associations between vaccination and having a 4-year college degree or higher (aOR, 2.83; CI, 1.55-5.17) and self-reported STDs (aOR, 1.21; CI, 1.03-1.42). In a model including recommendation variables, the strongest predictor of vaccination was a health care provider recommendation (aOR, 11.85; CI, 6.70-20.98). CONCLUSIONS: Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage was low among YMSM and TGW in this 2-US city study. Our findings suggest further efforts are needed to reach YMSM seeking care in STD clinics, increase strong recommendations from health care providers, and integrate HPV vaccination with other clinical services such as STD testing.

      5. Increasing human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among men who have sex with men – National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, United States, 2014External
        Oliver SE, Hoots BE, Paz-Bailey G, Markowitz LE, Meites E.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01;75 Suppl 3:S370-s374.

        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) extended HPV vaccine recommendations to males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Because of this distinction, vaccination for some MSM might rely on sexual behavior disclosure to health care providers. Receipt of >/=1 HPV vaccination among MSM aged 18-26 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) was 4.9% in 2011. We evaluated HPV vaccine coverage and associated factors among MSM in 2014. SETTING: Twenty US metropolitan statistical areas in 2014. METHODS: Coverage was calculated as percentage of MSM self-reporting >/=1 HPV vaccination. Adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated from Poisson regression models to estimate associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccination. RESULTS: Among 2892 MSM aged 18-26 years, HPV vaccine coverage was 17.2%. Overall, 2326 (80.4%) reported a health care visit within 12 months, and 2095 (72.4%) disclosed MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Factors associated with vaccination included self-reported HIV infection; having a health care visit within 12 months, health insurance, or a usual place of care; and disclosing MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. CONCLUSIONS: Since the 2011 recommendation for vaccination of males, HPV vaccine coverage among MSM increased, but remains low. Most MSM reported a recent health care visit and disclosed sexual behavior, indicating opportunities for vaccination. Potential strategies for increasing MSM coverage include improving access to recommended care, and offering education for providers and patients.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      1. Acute ischemic stroke after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: Incidence and impact on outcomeExternal
        Kowalski RG, Haarbauer-Krupa JK, Bell JM, Corrigan JD, Hammond FM, Torbey MT, Hofmann MC, Dams-O’Connor K, Miller AC, Whiteneck GG.
        Stroke. 2017 Jun 13.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to nearly 300 000 annual US hospitalizations and increased lifetime risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Occurrence of AIS immediately after TBI has not been well characterized. We evaluated AIS acutely after TBI and its impact on outcome. METHODS: A prospective database of moderate to severe TBI survivors, admitted to inpatient rehabilitation at 22 Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems centers and their referring acute-care hospitals, was analyzed. Outcome measures were AIS incidence, duration of posttraumatic amnesia, Functional Independence Measure, and Disability Rating Scale, at rehabilitation discharge. RESULTS: Between October 1, 2007, and March 31, 2015, 6488 patients with TBI were enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database. One hundred and fifty-nine (2.5%) patients had a concurrent AIS, and among these, median age was 40 years. AIS was associated with intracranial mass effect and carotid or vertebral artery dissection. High-velocity events more commonly caused TBI with dissection. AIS predicted poorer outcome by all measures, accounting for a 13.3-point reduction in Functional Independence Measure total score (95% confidence interval, -16.8 to -9.7; P<0.001), a 1.9-point increase in Disability Rating Scale (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.5; P<0.001), and an 18.3-day increase in posttraumatic amnesia duration (95% confidence interval, 13.1-23.4; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke is observed acutely in 2.5% of moderate to severe TBI survivors and predicts worse functional and cognitive outcome. Half of TBI patients with AIS were aged </=40 years, and AIS patients more often had cervical dissection. Vigilance for AIS is warranted acutely after TBI, particularly after high-velocity events.

    • Laboratory Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. The impact of the complex structure of the stratum corneum on transdermal penetration is not yet fully described by existing models. A quantitative and thorough study of skin permeation is essential for chemical exposure assessment and transdermal delivery of drugs. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry, follicular diffusion, and location of the main barrier of diffusion on percutaneous permeation. In the current study, the solution of the transient diffusion through a two-dimensional-anisotropic brick-and-mortar geometry of the stratum corneum is obtained using the commercial finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics. First, analytical solutions of an equivalent multilayer geometry are used to determine whether the lipids or corneocytes constitute the main permeation barrier. Also these analytical solutions are applied for validations of the finite element solutions. Three illustrative compounds are analyzed in these sections: diethyl phthalate, caffeine and nicotine. Then, asymmetry with depth and follicular diffusion are studied using caffeine as an illustrative compound. The following findings are drawn from this study: the main permeation barrier is located in the lipid layers; the flux and lag time of diffusion through a brick-and-mortar geometry are almost identical to the values corresponding to a multilayer geometry; the flux and lag time are affected when the lipid transbilayer diffusivity or the partition coefficients vary with depth, but are not affected by depth-dependent corneocyte diffusivity; and the follicular contribution has significance for low transbilayer lipid diffusivity, especially when flux between the follicle and the surrounding stratum corneum is involved. This study demonstrates that the diffusion is primarily transcellular and the main barrier is located in the lipid layers.

      2. This study was conducted among U.S. Army soldiers to evaluate the association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid (CHA) detected in test subjects (n = 87) after completion of Mask Confidence Training. CS exposures ranged 0.086 – 4.9 mg/m(3) ([Formula: see text] = 2.7 mg/m(3)). CHA levels (corrected for creatinine) at 2, 8, 24, and 30 hours post-exposure resulted in ranges of 94.6 – 1120 mug/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 389 mug/g-cr), 15.80 – 1170 mug/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 341 mug/g-cr), 4.00 – 53.1 mug/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 19.3 mug/g-cr), and 1.99 – 28.4 mug/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 10.6 mug/g-cr), respectively. Spearman’s correlation revealed CHA levels strongly correlated with time sampled (r = -0.748, p < 0.05) and weakly correlated with CS concentration (r = 0.270, p < 0.05). A linear relationship was observed between CHA, CS concentration, and time of urine sample according to the following regression equation: ln(CHA, mug/g-cr) = 5.423 + 0.316 (CS conc., mg/m(3)) – 0.002 (time sampled), (R = 0.910, R(2) = 0.827, p < 0.05). This relationship suggests that CHA has the potential to be an effective retrospective indicator of CS exposure in future biomarker developments.

      3. Antibiotic resistance markers in Burkholderia pseudomallei strain Bp1651 identified by genome sequence analysisExternal
        Bugrysheva JV, Sue D, Gee JE, Elrod MG, Hoffmaster AR, Randall LB, Chirakul S, Tuanyok A, Schweizer HP, Weigel LM.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jun;61(6).

        Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp1651 is resistant to several classes of antibiotics that are usually effective for treatment of melioidosis, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and beta-lactams such as penicillins (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid), cephalosporins (ceftazidime), and carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the Bp1651 genome and analyzed the sequence using comparative genomic analyses with susceptible strains, keyword searches of the annotation, publicly available antimicrobial resistance prediction tools, and published reports. More than 100 genes in the Bp1651 sequence were identified as potentially contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Most notably, we identified three previously uncharacterized point mutations in penA, which codes for a class A beta-lactamase and was previously implicated in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The mutations result in amino acid changes T147A, D240G, and V261I. When individually introduced into select agent-excluded B. pseudomallei strain Bp82, D240G was found to contribute to ceftazidime resistance and T147A contributed to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and imipenem resistance. This study provides the first evidence that mutations in penA may alter susceptibility to carbapenems in B. pseudomallei Another mutation of interest was a point mutation affecting the dihydrofolate reductase gene folA, which likely explains the trimethoprim resistance of this strain. Bp1651 was susceptible to aminoglycosides likely because of a frameshift in the amrB gene, the transporter subunit of the AmrAB-OprA efflux pump. These findings expand the role of penA to include resistance to carbapenems and may assist in the development of molecular diagnostics that predict antimicrobial resistance and provide guidance for treatment of melioidosis.

      4. BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used in a variety of applications because of their unique properties and functions. However, many CNTs have been shown to induce lung fibrosis in experimental animals with some at a potency greater than that of silica, raising concern over possible toxic effects of CNT exposure in humans. Research into the mechanisms by which CNTs induce pulmonary fibrosis is warranted in order to facilitate the understanding, monitoring, and treatment of CNT-induced lung lesions that might occur in exposed populations. The current study focuses on investigating the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the development of lung fibrosis upon exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). METHODS: C57BL/6J (WT) and Opn knockout (KO) mice were exposed to MWCNTs by pharyngeal aspiration to examine the acute and chronic effects of MWCNT exposure. The role of OPN and its mode of action in lung fibrosis development were analyzed at the cellular and molecular levels in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: OPN was highly and persistently induced in both the acute and chronic phases of the response to MWCNT exposure in mouse lungs. Comparison between WT and Opn KO mice revealed that OPN critically regulated MWCNT-induced lung fibrosis as indicated by reduced fibrotic focus formation and myofibroblast accumulation in Opn KO lungs. At the molecular level, OPN promotes the expression and activation of TGF-beta1, stimulates the differentiation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts, and increases the production of fibrous matrix proteins in lungs and cultured lung cells exposed to MWCNTs. CONCLUSION: OPN is highly induced in CNT-exposed lungs and plays critical roles in TGF-beta1 signaling activation and myofibroblast differentiation to promote fibrosis development from MWCNT exposure. This study reveals an OPN-dependent mechanism to promote MWCNT-induced lung fibrosis. The findings raise the possibility of using OPN as a biomarker to monitor CNT exposure and as a drug target to halt fibrosis development.

      5. The roles of unfolded protein response pathways in chlamydia pathogenesisExternal
        George Z, Omosun Y, Azenabor AA, Partin J, Joseph K, Ellerson D, He Q, Eko F, Bandea C, Svoboda P, Pohl J, Black CM, Igietseme JU.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 01;215(3):456-465.

        Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium that relies on host cells for essential nutrients and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for a productive infection. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a major role in certain microbial infectivity, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that Chlamydia induces UPR and exploits it to upregulate host cell uptake and metabolism of glucose, production of ATP, phospholipids, and other molecules required for its replicative development and host survival. Using a combination of biochemical and pathway inhibition assays, we showed that the 3 UPR pathway transducers-protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1alpha (IRE1alpha), and activating transcription factor-6alpha (ATF6alpha)-were activated during Chlamydia infection. The kinase activity of PERK and ribonuclease (RNase) of IRE1alpha mediated the upregulation of hexokinase II and production of ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. In addition, the activation of PERK and IRE1alpha promoted autophagy formation and apoptosis resistance for host survival. Moreover, the activation of IRE1alpha resulted in the generation of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1) and upregulation of lipid production. The vital role of UPR pathways in Chlamydia development and pathogenesis could lead to the identification of potential molecular targets for therapeutics against Chlamydia.

      6. Characterization of hemagglutinin negative botulinum progenitor toxinsExternal
        Kalb SR, Baudys J, Smith TJ, Smith LA, Barr JR.
        Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jun 15;9(6).

        Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC), alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH), and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC), but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs) which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

      7. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for identification of Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii and Escherichia fergusoniiExternal
        Lindsey RL, Garcia-Toledo L, Fasulo D, Gladney LM, Strockbine N.
        J Microbiol Methods. 2017 Jun 06.

        Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii, and Escherichia fergusonii are closely related bacteria that can cause illness in humans, such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections and diarrhea. Current identification strategies for these three species vary in complexity and typically rely on the use of multiple phenotypic and genetic tests. To facilitate their rapid identification, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting conserved, species-specific genes. We used the Daydreamer (Pattern Genomics, USA) software platform to concurrently analyze whole genome sequence assemblies (WGS) from 150 Enterobacteriaceae genomes (107 E. coli, 5 Shigella spp., 21 E. albertii, 12 E. fergusonii and 5 other species) and design primers for the following species-specific regions: a 212bp region of the cyclic di-GMP regulator gene (cdgR, AW869_22935 from genome K-12 MG1655, CP014225) for E. coli/Shigella; a 393bp region of the DNA-binding transcriptional activator of cysteine biosynthesis gene (EAKF1_ch4033 from genome KF1, CP007025) for E. albertii; and a 575bp region of the palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase (EFER_0790 from genome ATCC 35469, CU928158) for E. fergusonii. We incorporated the species-specific primers into a conventional multiplex PCR assay and assessed its performance with a collection of 97 Enterobacteriaceae strains. The assay was 100% sensitive and specific for detecting the expected species and offers a quick and accurate strategy for identifying E. coli, E. albertii, and E. fergusonii in either a single reaction or by in silico PCR with sequence assemblies.

      8. Inhalation of indium-containing dusts is associated with the development of indium lung disease. Workers may be exposed to several different chemical forms of indium; however, their lung dosimetry is not fully understood. We characterized the physicochemical properties and measured the lung dissolution kinetics of eight indium-containing dusts. Indium dissolution rates in artificial lung fluids spanned two orders of magnitude. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory model (HRTM) to estimate pulmonary indium deposition, retention and biokinetic clearance to blood. For a two-year (median workforce tenure at facility) exposure to respirable-sized particles of the indium materials, modeled indium clearance (>99.99% removed) from the alveolar-interstitial compartment was slow for all dusts; salts would clear in 4 years, sintered indium-tin oxide (ITO) would clear in 9 years, and indium oxide would require 48 years. For this scenario, the ICRP HRTM predicted that indium translocated to blood would be present in that compartment for 3.5-18 years after cessation of exposure, depending on the chemical form. For a 40-year exposure (working lifetime), clearance from the alveolar-interstitial compartment would require 5, 10 and 60 years for indium salts, sintered ITO and indium oxide, respectively and indium would be present in blood for 5-53 years after exposure. Consideration of differences in chemical forms of indium, dissolution rates, alveolar clearance and residence time in blood should be included in exposure assessment and epidemiological studies that rely on measures of total indium in air or blood to derive risk estimates.

    • Maternal and Child Health RSS Word feed
      1. Plurality of birth and infant mortality due to external causes in the United States, 2000-2010External
        Ahrens KA, Thoma ME, Rossen LM, Warner M, Simon AE.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 09:1-10.

        [No abstract]

      2. Maternal perchlorate exposure in pregnancy and altered birth outcomesExternal
        Rubin R, Pearl M, Kharrazi M, Blount BC, Miller MD, Pearce EN, Valentin-Blasini L, DeLorenze G, Liaw J, Hoofnagle AN, Steinmaus C.
        Environ Res. 2017 Jun 08;158:72-81.

        BACKGROUND: At high medicinal doses perchlorate is known to decrease the production of thyroid hormone, a critical factor for fetal development. In a large and uniquely exposed cohort of pregnant women, we recently identified associations between environmental perchlorate exposures and decreased maternal thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Here, we investigate whether perchlorate might be associated with birthweight or preterm birth in the offspring of these women. METHODS: Maternal urinary perchlorate, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, birthweight, gestational age, and urinary nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide were collected in 1957 mother-infant pairs from San Diego County during 2000-2003, a period when the county’s water supply was contaminated with perchlorate. Associations between perchlorate exposure and birth outcomes were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, weight, race/ethnicity, and other factors. RESULTS: Perchlorate was not associated with birth outcomes in the overall population. However, in analyses confined to male infants, log10 maternal perchlorate concentrations were associated with increasing birthweight (beta=143.1gm, p=0.01), especially among preterm births (beta=829.1g, p<0.001). Perchlorate was associated with male preterm births >/=2500g (odds ratio=3.03, 95% confidence interval=1.09-8.40, p-trend=0.03). Similar associations were not seen in females. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify associations between perchlorate and increasing birthweight. Further research is needed to explore the differences we identified related to infant sex, preterm birth, and other factors. Given that perchlorate exposure is ubiquitous, and that long-term impacts can follow altered birth outcomes, future research on perchlorate could have widespread public health importance.

      3. The co-occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children with ADHDExternal
        Zablotsky B, Bramlett MD, Blumberg SJ.
        J Atten Disord. 2017 Jun 01:1087054717713638.

        OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD frequently present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, yet there is a notable gap in the treatment needs of this subpopulation, including whether the presence of ASD may be associated with more severe ADHD symptoms. METHOD: Data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome ( n = 2,464) were used to compare children diagnosed with ADHD and ASD with children with ADHD, but not ASD. Children were classified as needing treatment if it was received or their parents reported it was needed, but not received. RESULTS: Approximately one in eight children currently diagnosed with ADHD was also diagnosed with ASD. Children diagnosed with both disorders had greater treatment needs, more co-occurring conditions, and were more likely to have a combined hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD subtype. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the complexity of children diagnosed with both ADHD and ASD.

    • Nutritional Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Predictors of anemia in preschool children: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Engle-Stone R, Aaron GJ, Huang J, Wirth JP, Namaste SM, Williams AM, Peerson JM, Rohner F, Varadhan R, Addo OY, Temple V, Rayco-Solon P, Macdonald B, Suchdev PS.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: A lack of information on the etiology of anemia has hampered the design and monitoring of anemia-control efforts.Objective: We aimed to evaluate predictors of anemia in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) by country and infection-burden category.Design: Cross-sectional data from 16 surveys (n = 29,293) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed separately and pooled by category of infection burden. We assessed relations between anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110 g/L) and severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration <70 g/L) and individual-level (age, anthropometric measures, micronutrient deficiencies, malaria, and inflammation) and household-level predictors; we also examined the proportion of anemia with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as an inflammation-adjusted ferritin concentration <12 mug/L). Countries were grouped into 4 categories on the basis of risk and burden of infectious disease, and a pooled multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted for each group.Results: Iron deficiency, malaria, breastfeeding, stunting, underweight, inflammation, low socioeconomic status, and poor sanitation were each associated with anemia in >50% of surveys. Associations between breastfeeding and anemia were attenuated by controlling for child age, which was negatively associated with anemia. The most consistent predictors of severe anemia were malaria, poor sanitation, and underweight. In multivariable pooled models, child age, iron deficiency, and stunting independently predicted anemia and severe anemia. Inflammation was generally associated with anemia in the high- and very high-infection groups but not in the low- and medium-infection groups. In PSC with anemia, 50%, 30%, 55%, and 58% of children had concomitant iron deficiency in low-, medium-, high-, and very high-infection categories, respectively.Conclusions: Although causal inference is limited by cross-sectional survey data, results suggest anemia-control programs should address both iron deficiency and infections. The relative importance of factors that are associated with anemia varies by setting, and thus, country-specific data are needed to guide programs.

      2. Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Larson LM, Namaste SM, Williams AM, Engle-Stone R, Addo OY, Suchdev PS, Wirth JP, Temple V, Serdula M, Northrop-Clewes CA.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects.Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC (n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA (n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as <0.7 mumol/L) was examined in PSC.Results: The relation between estimated VAD and CRP and AGP deciles followed a linear pattern in PSC. In women, the correlations between RBP and CRP and AGP were too weak to justify adjustments for inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11-18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP.Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for inflammation when estimating VAD with the use of RBP.

      3. Adjusting total body iron for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Mei Z, Namaste SM, Serdula M, Suchdev PS, Rohner F, Flores-Ayala R, Addo OY, Raiten DJ.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: Total body iron (TBI) that is calculated from ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) allows for the evaluation of the full range of iron status from deficiency to excess. However, both ferritin and sTfR are affected by inflammation and malaria, which may require a statistical adjustment. TBI has been used to assess iron status in the United States, but its use worldwide and in settings with inflammation has been limited.Objective: We examine whether inflammation-adjusted ferritin and sTfR concentrations affect TBI values and the prevalence of low TBI (<0 mg/kg) in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y).Design: Cross-sectional data for PSC (8 surveys; n = 8413) and WRA (4 surveys; n = 4258) from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined. TBI and the prevalence of low TBI were compared following 3 adjustment approaches for ferritin and sTfR: 1) the exclusion of individuals with inflammation (C-reactive protein concentration >5 mg/L or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration >1 g/L), 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of regression correction.Results: Regardless of the method that was used to adjust ferritin and sTfR for inflammation, the adjusted mean TBI decreased in both PSC and WRA compared with unadjusted values. Subsequently, inflammation-adjusted TBI increased the prevalence of low TBI by a median of 4-14 percentage points (pps) in PSC and 1-3 pps in WRA compared with unadjusted TBI. The regression approach resulted in a greater median increase than was achieved with the exclusion or correction-factor approaches, and accounting for malaria in addition to inflammation did not have an added effect on the prevalence estimates.Conclusion: The prevalence of low TBI is underestimated if it is not adjusted by inflammation, particularly in children living in areas with a high prevalence of inflammation.

      4. Factors associated with inflammation in preschool children and women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Merrill RD, Burke RM, Northrop-Clewes CA, Rayco-Solon P, Flores-Ayala R, Namaste SM, Serdula MK, Suchdev PS.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: In many settings, populations experience recurrent exposure to inflammatory agents that catalyze fluctuations in the concentrations of acute-phase proteins and certain micronutrient biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ferritin, and retinol. Few data are available on the prevalence and predictors of inflammation in diverse settings.Objective: We aimed to assess the relation between inflammation (CRP concentration >5 mg/L or AGP concentration >1 g/L) and covariates, such as demographics, reported illness, and anthropometric status, in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y).Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 29,765 PSC in 16 surveys and 25,731 WRA in 10 surveys were used to model bivariable and multivariable relations.Results: The inflammation prevalence was 6.0-40.2% in PSC and 7.9-29.5% in WRA (elevated CRP) and 21.2-64.3% in PSC and 7.1-26.7% in WRA (elevated AGP). In PSC, inflammation was consistently positively associated with recent fever and malaria but not with other recent illnesses. In multivariable models that were adjusted for age, sex, urban or rural residence, and socioeconomic status, elevated AGP was positively associated with stunting (height-for-age z score <-2) in 7 of 10 surveys. In WRA, elevated CRP was positively associated with obesity [body mass index (in kg/m2) >/=30] in 7 of 9 surveys. Other covariates showed inconsistent patterns of association with inflammation. In a pooled analysis of surveys that measured malaria, stunting was associated with elevated AGP but not CRP in PSC, and obesity was associated with both elevated CRP and AGP in WRA.Conclusions: Recent morbidity and abnormal anthropometric status are consistently associated with inflammation across a range of environments, whereas more commonly collected demographic covariates were not. Because of the challenge of defining a general demographic population or environmental profile that is more likely to experience inflammation, inflammatory markers should be measured in surveys to account for their effects.

      5. Methodologic approach for the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Namaste SM, Aaron GJ, Varadhan R, Peerson JM, Suchdev PS.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project is a multiagency and multicountry collaboration that was formed to improve micronutrient assessment and to better characterize anemia.Objectives: The aims of the project were to 1) identify factors associated with inflammation, 2) assess the relations between inflammation, malaria infection, and biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and compare adjustment approaches, and 3) assess risk factors for anemia in preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA).Design: The BRINDA database inclusion criteria included surveys that 1) were conducted after 2004, 2) had target groups of PSC, WRA, or both, and 3) used a similar laboratory methodology for the measurement of >/=1 biomarker of iron [ferritin or soluble transferrin receptor or vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein or retinol)] and >/=1 biomarker of inflammation (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein or C-reactive protein). Individual data sets were standardized and merged into a BRINDA database comprising 16 nationally and regionally representative surveys from 14 countries. Collectively, the database covered all 6 WHO geographic regions and contained approximately 30,000 PSC and 27,000 WRA. Data were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis.Results: The methods that were used to standardize the BRINDA database and the analytic approaches used to address the project’s research questions are presented in this article. Three approaches to adjust micronutrient biomarker concentrations in the presence of inflammation and malaria infection are presented, along with an anemia conceptual framework that guided the BRINDA project’s anemia analyses.Conclusions: The BRINDA project refines approaches to interpret iron and vitamin A biomarker values in settings of inflammation and malaria infection and suggests the use of a new regression approach as well as proposes an anemia framework to which real-world data can be applied. Findings can inform guidelines and strategies to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies and anemia globally.

      6. Adjusting ferritin concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Namaste SM, Rohner F, Huang J, Bhushan NL, Flores-Ayala R, Kupka R, Mei Z, Rawat R, Williams AM, Raiten DJ, Northrop-Clewes CA, Suchdev PS.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: The accurate estimation of iron deficiency is important in planning and implementing interventions. Ferritin is recommended as the primary measure of iron status, but interpretability is challenging in settings with infection and inflammation.Objective: We assessed the relation between ferritin concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects.Design: Cross-sectional data from 15 surveys for PSC (n = 27,865) and 8 surveys for WRA (24,844), from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to estimate depleted iron stores (ferritin concentration <12 mug/L in PSC and <15 mug/L in WRA) in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1) increase ferritin-concentration cutoff to <30 mug/L; 2) exclude individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L; 3) apply arithmetic correction factors; and 4) use a regression correction approach.Results: Depleted iron-store estimates incrementally increased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased (4% compared with 30%, and 6% compared with 29% from highest compared with lowest CRP deciles for pooled PSC and WRA, respectively, with similar results for AGP). Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP plus AGP), the estimated prevalence of depleted iron stores increased by 7-25 and 2-8 absolute median percentage points for PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. Adjustment for malaria in addition to CRP and AGP did not substantially change the estimated prevalence of depleted iron stores.Conclusions: Our results lend support for the use of internal regression correction to estimate the prevalence of depleted iron stores in regions with inflammation. This approach appears to mathematically reflect the linear relation of ferritin concentrations with acute-phase proteins. More research is warranted to validate the proposed approaches, but this study contributes to the evidence base to guide decisions about how and when to adjust ferritin for inflammation.

      7. Adjusting soluble transferrin receptor concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Rohner F, Namaste SM, Larson LM, Addo OY, Mei Z, Suchdev PS, Williams AM, Sakr Ashour FA, Rawat R, Raiten DJ, Northrop-Clewes CA.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies globally, but an accurate assessment in populations who are frequently exposed to infections is impeded by the inflammatory response, which causes iron-biomarker alterations.Objectives: We assessed the relation between soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects.Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 11,913 PSC in 11 surveys and from 11,173 WRA in 7 surveys were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. The following 3 adjustment approaches were compared with estimated iron-deficient erythropoiesis (sTfR concentration >8.3 mg/L): 1) the exclusion of individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of regression approaches.Results: The prevalence of elevated sTfR concentrations incrementally decreased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased for PSC and WRA, but the effect was more pronounced for AGP than for CRP. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation, the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis decreased by 4.4-14.6 and 0.3-9.5 percentage points in PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. The correction-factor approach yielded a more modest reduction in the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis than did the regression approach. Mostly, adjustment for malaria in addition to AGP did not significantly change the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis.Conclusions: sTfR may be useful to assess iron-deficient erythropoiesis, but inflammation influences its interpretation, and adjustment of sTfR for inflammation and malaria should be considered. More research is warranted to evaluate the proposed approaches in different settings, but this study contributes to the evidence on how and when to adjust sTfR for inflammation and malaria.

      8. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) projectExternal
        Wirth JP, Woodruff BA, Engle-Stone R, Namaste SM, Temple VJ, Petry N, Macdonald B, Suchdev PS, Rohner F, Aaron GJ.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14.

        Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly.Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA.Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys (n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation <120 g/L).Results: Anemia prevalence was approximately 40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country’s infection burden. Anemia-reduction programs for WRA can be improved by considering the underlying infection burden of the population and by assessing the overlap of micronutrient deficiencies and anemia.

    • Occupational Safety and Health RSS Word feed
      1. [No abstract]

      2. Nano-metal oxides: Exposure and engineering control assessmentExternal
        Garcia A, Eastlake A, Topmiller JL, Sparks C, Martinez K, Geraci CL.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2017 Jun 13:0.

        In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee’s personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning. At the completion of this initial survey, it was suggested that a flanged attachment be added to the local exhaust ventilation system. NIOSH re-evaluated the facility in December 2011 to assess worker exposures following an increase in production rates. This study included a fully comprehensive emissions, exposure, and engineering control evaluation of the entire process. This study made use of the nanoparticle exposure assessment technique (NEAT 2.0). Data obtained from filter-based samples and direct reading instruments indicate that reactor cleanout increased the overall particle concentration in the immediate area. However, it does not appear that these concentrations affect areas outside of the production floor. As the distance between the reactor and the sample location increased, the observed particle number concentration decreased, creating a concentration gradient with respect to the reactor. The results of this study confirm that the flanged attachment on the local exhaust ventilation system served to decrease exposure potential. Given the available toxicological data of the metals evaluated, caution is warranted. One should always keep in mind that occupational exposure levels were not developed specifically for nanoscale particles. With data suggesting that certain nanoparticles may be more toxic than the larger counterparts of the same material; employers should attempt to control emissions of these particles at the source, to limit the potential for exposure.

      3. Effects of pulmonary exposure to chemically-distinct welding fumes on neuroendocrine markers of toxicityExternal
        Krajnak K, Sriram K, Johnson C, Roberts JR, Mercer R, Miller GR, Wirth O, Antonini JM.
        J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017 Jun 09:1-14.

        Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions. Since previous investigators suggested that changes in circulating prolactin may be an early marker of DA neuron injury, movement disorders, and reproductive dysfunction, prolactin, hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels (a marker of DA synthesis), and other measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function were measured after repetitive instillation of welding fume particulates generated by flux core arc-hard surfacing (FCA-HS), manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) or gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding, or manganese chloride (MnCl2). Exposure to welding fume particulate resulted in the accumulation of various metals in the pituitary and testes of rats, along with changes in hypothalamic TH and serum prolactin levels. Exposure to particulates with high concentrations of soluble manganese (Mn) appeared to exert the greatest influence on TH activity levels and serum prolactin concentrations. Thus, circulating prolactin levels may serve as a biomarker for welding fume/Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Other reproductive measures were collected, and these data were consistent with epidemiological findings that prolactin and testosterone may serve as biomarkers of welding particulate induced DA neuron and reproductive dysfunction.

      4. Evaluation of a workplace exercise program for control of shoulder disorders in overhead assembly workExternal
        Lowe BD, Shaw PB, Wilson SR, Whitaker JR, Witherspoon GJ, Hudock SD, Barrero M, Ray TK, Wurzelbacher SJ.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun;59(6):563-570.

        OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess effects of exercise on shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms among employees with overhead assembly work exposures. METHODS: A voluntary workplace shoulder exercise program was offered to employees in two automotive assembly departments, while two similar departments served as controls. N = 76 total workers participated. Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and Discomfort of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) symptoms were queried monthly for 7 baseline months, followed by 6 months that included exercise. RESULTS: SRQ scores were higher for exercisers than among controls in the 6 exercising months, but not in the baseline months. Although the group x month interaction was significant (P < 0.05), the temporal trend was inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise may have temporarily lessened decline in SRQ. It is not clear whether shorter term differences were clinically meaningful or predictive of longer term disability prevention.

      5. Employment arrangement, job stress, and health-related quality of life

        Ray TK, Kenigsberg TA, Pana-Cryan R.
        Safety Science.. 2017 ;16.
        Objective: We aimed to understand the characteristics of U.S. workers in non-standard employment arrangements, and to assess associations between job stress and Health-related Quality of Life (HRQL) by employment arrangement. Background: As employers struggle to stay in business under increasing economic pressures, they may rely more on non-standard employment arrangements, thereby increasing the pool of contingent workers. Worker exposure to job stress may vary by employment arrangement. Excessive exposure to stressors at work is considered to be a potential health hazard, and may adversely affect health and HRQL. Methods: We used the Quality of Worklife (QWL) module which supplemented the General Social Survey (GSS) in 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. GSS is a biannual, nationally representative cross-sectional survey of U.S. households that yields a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized, English-speaking, U.S. adult population. The QWL module assesses an array of psychosocial working conditions and quality of work life topics among GSS respondents. We used pooled QWL responses from 2002 to 2014 by only those who reported being employed at the time of the survey. After adjusting for sampling probabilities, including subsampling for non-respondents and correcting for the number of adults in the household, 6005 respondents were included in our analyses. We grouped respondents according to their employment arrangement, including: (i) independent contractors (contractor), (ii) on call workers (on call), (iii) workers paid by a temporary agency (temporary), (iv) workers who work for a contractor (under contract), or (v) workers in standard employment arrangements (standard). Respondents were further grouped into those who were stressed and those who were not stressed at work. Descriptive population prevalence rates were calculated by employment arrangement for select demographic and organizational characteristics, psychosocial working conditions, work-family balance, and health and well-being outcomes. We also assessed the effect of employment arrangement on job stress, and whether job stress was associated with the number of reported unhealthy days and days with activity limitations. These two health and well-being outcomes capture aspects of worker HRQL. Results: Our results underscored the importance of employment arrangement in understanding job stress and associated worker health and well-being outcomes. Between 2002 and 2014, the prevalence of workers in non-standard employment arrangements increased from 19% to 21%; however, the observed trend did not monotonically increase during that period. Compared with workers in standard arrangements, independent contractors and on call workers were significantly less likely to report experiencing job stress.For workers in standard arrangements and for contractors, we observed significant association between perceived job stress and reported unhealthy days. We observed a similar association for reported days with activity limitations, for workers in standard and temporary arrangements. Conclusion: The major contribution of our study was to highlight the differences in job stress and HRQL by employment arrangement. Our results demonstrated the importance of studying each of these employment arrangements separately and in depth. Furthermore, employment arrangement was an important predictor of job stress, and compared with non-stressed workers, stressed workers across all employment arrangements reported more unhealthy days and more days with activity limitations.

      6. Cancer incidence among boat-building workers exposed to styreneExternal
        Ruder AM, Bertke SJ.
        Am J Ind Med. 2017 Jul;60(7):651-657.

        BACKGROUND: A cancer incidence analysis was conducted on The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health boat-builders cohort exposed to styrene, a possible carcinogen. METHODS: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated using national and Washington State rates and a person-years analysis program. RESULTS: Among 3704 workers living in Washington State after 1991, when cancer registry case accrual began, 516 first primary diagnoses occurred through 2007. While overall cancer incidence was significantly reduced [SIR: 0.83 (0.76, 0.90)], internal comparisons suggest an association with exposure comparing high to low exposed person-time [SRR: 1.28 (1.05, 1.55)]. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of styrene exposure being linked to cancer incidence, which is notable since the cohort has not yet reached the median age of cancer diagnosis (65) in the United States.

      7. Interactions between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and chemicals for brain tumour risk in the INTEROCC studyExternal
        Turner MC, Benke G, Bowman JD, Figuerola J, Fleming S, Hours M, Kincl L, Krewski D, McLean D, Parent ME, Richardson L, Sadetzki S, Schlaefer K, Schlehofer B, Schuz J, Siemiatycki J, Tongeren MV, Cardis E.
        Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun 09.

        OBJECTIVES: In absence of clear evidence regarding possible effects of occupational chemical exposures on brain tumour aetiology, it is worthwhile to explore the hypothesis that such exposures might act on brain tumour risk in interaction with occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF). METHODS: INTEROCC is a seven-country (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand and UK), population-based, case-control study, based on the larger INTERPHONE study. Incident cases of primary glioma and meningioma were ascertained from 2000 to 2004. Job titles were coded into standard international occupational classifications and estimates of ELF and chemical exposures were assigned based on job-exposure matrices. Dichotomous indicators of cumulative ELF (>/=50th vs <50th percentile, 1-4 year exposure time window) and chemical exposures (ever vs never, 5-year lag) were created. Interaction was assessed on both the additive and multiplicative scales. RESULTS: A total of 1939 glioma cases, 1822 meningioma cases and 5404 controls were included in the analysis, using conditional logistic regression. There was no clear evidence for interactions between ELF and any of the chemical exposures assessed for either glioma or meningioma risk. For glioma, subjects in the low ELF/metal exposed group had a lower risk than would be predicted from marginal effects. Results were similar according to different exposure time windows, to cut-points of exposure or in exposed-only analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence for interactions between occupational ELF and chemical exposures in relation to glioma or meningioma risk observed. Further research with more refined estimates of occupational exposures is recommended.

    • Parasitic Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Burden and impact of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy: A multi-centre prospective observational studyExternal
        Bardaji A, Martinez-Espinosa FE, Arevalo-Herrera M, Padilla N, Kochar S, Ome-Kaius M, Botto-Menezes C, Castellanos ME, Kochar DK, Kochar SK, Betuela I, Mueller I, Rogerson S, Chitnis C, Hans D, Menegon M, Severini C, Del Portillo H, Dobano C, Mayor A, Ordi J, Piqueras M, Sanz S, Wahlgren M, Slutsker L, Desai M, Menendez C.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun 12;11(6):e0005606.

        BACKGROUND: Despite that over 90 million pregnancies are at risk of Plasmodium vivax infection annually, little is known about the epidemiology and impact of the infection in pregnancy. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a health facility-based prospective observational study in pregnant women from Guatemala (GT), Colombia (CO), Brazil (BR), India (IN) and Papua New Guinea PNG). Malaria and anemia were determined during pregnancy and fetal outcomes assessed at delivery. A total of 9388 women were enrolled at antennal care (ANC), of whom 53% (4957) were followed until delivery. Prevalence of P. vivax monoinfection in maternal blood at delivery was 0.4% (20/4461) by microscopy [GT 0.1%, CO 0.5%, BR 0.1%, IN 0.2%, PNG 1.2%] and 7% (104/1488) by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfection was found in 0.5% (22/4463) of women by microscopy [GT 0%, CO 0.5%, BR 0%, IN 0%, PNG 2%]. P. vivax infection was observed in 0.4% (14/3725) of placentas examined by microscopy and in 3.7% (19/508) by PCR. P. vivax in newborn blood was detected in 0.02% (1/4302) of samples examined by microscopy [in cord blood; 0.05% (2/4040) by microscopy, and 2.6% (13/497) by PCR]. Clinical P. vivax infection was associated with increased risk of maternal anemia (Odds Ratio-OR, 5.48, [95% CI 1.83-16.41]; p = 0.009), while submicroscopic vivax infection was not associated with increased risk of moderate-severe anemia (Hb<8g/dL) (OR, 1.16, [95% CI 0.52-2.59]; p = 0.717), or low birth weight (<2500g) (OR, 0.52, [95% CI, 0.23-1.16]; p = 0.110). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, the prevalence of P. vivax infection in pregnancy by microscopy was overall low across all endemic study sites; however, molecular methods revealed a significant number of submicroscopic infections. Clinical vivax infection in pregnancy was associated with maternal anemia, which may be deleterious for infant’s health. These results may help to guide maternal health programs in settings where vivax malaria is endemic; they also highlight the need of addressing a vulnerable population such as pregnant women while embracing malaria elimination in endemic countries.

      2. Removal of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from swimming pools was investigated using diatomaceous earth (DE) precoat filtration and perlite-sand filtration. In pilot-scale experiments, microsphere removals of up to 2 log were obtained with 0.7 kg.DE/m2 at a filtration rate of 5 m/h. A slightly higher microsphere removal (2.3 log) was obtained for these DE-precoated filters when the filtration rate was 3.6 m/h. Additionally, pilot-scale perlite-sand filters achieved greater than 2 log removal when at least 0.37 kg/m2 of perlite was used compared to 0.1-0.4 log removal without perlite both at a surface loading rate of 37 m/h. Full-scale testing achieved 2.7 log of microspheres and oocysts removal when 0.7 kg.DE/m2 was used at 3.6 m/h. Removals were significantly decreased by a 15-minute interruption of the flow (without any mechanical agitation) to the DE filter in pilot-scale studies, which was not observed in full-scale filters. Microsphere removals were 2.7 log by perlite-sand filtration in a full-scale swimming pool filter operated at 34 m/h with 0.5 kg/m2 of perlite. The results demonstrate that either a DE precoat filter or a perlite-sand filter can improve the efficiency of removal of microspheres and oocysts from swimming pools over a standard sand filter under the conditions studied.

    • Physical Activity RSS Word feed
      1. Leisure time physical activity among U.S. adults with arthritis, 2008-2015External
        Murphy LB, Hootman JM, Boring MA, Carlson SA, Qin J, Barbour KE, Brady TJ, Helmick CG.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Jun 07.

        INTRODUCTION: In 2016, leisure time physical activity among U.S. adults aged >/=18 years with and without arthritis was studied to provide estimates using contemporary guidelines (2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans) and population-based data (U.S. National Health Interview Survey). METHODS: Estimated prevalence of: (1) meeting aerobic, muscle strengthening, and both aerobic and muscle strengthening guidelines, by arthritis status, from 2008 to 2015; and (2) meeting guidelines across selected sociodemographic characteristics and health status and behaviors, among adults with arthritis, in 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, 36.2%, 17.9%, and 13.7% of adults with arthritis met aerobic, muscle strengthening, and both guidelines, respectively; age-standardized prevalence of meeting each guideline was significantly lower among those with arthritis versus those without (e.g., 41.9% [95% CI=39.5%, 44.3%] and 52.2% [95% CI=51.2%, 53.2%] met the aerobic guideline, respectively; p<0.001). From 2008 to 2015, meeting aerobic guideline rose modestly (3 percentage points) among those with arthritis compared with larger gains (7 percentage points) among those without arthritis; the percentage of adults with arthritis meeting muscle strengthening and both guidelines remained the same in contrast to modest (statistically significant) increases among those without arthritis. Among adults with arthritis, age-standardized percentage meeting each guideline was highest among those with at least a university degree. CONCLUSIONS: Percentage meeting each guideline was persistently low among adults with arthritis. The lower prevalence among adults with arthritis versus those without suggests that adults with arthritis need additional strategies to address potential barriers (e.g., pain, psychological distress, inadequate medical support) to physical activity.

    • Reproductive Health RSS Word feed
      1. New clinical performance measures for contraceptive care: Their importance to healthcare qualityExternal
        Gavin L, Frederiksen B, Robbins C, Pazol K, Moskosky S.
        Contraception. 2017 Jun 05.

        OBJECTIVES: The National Quality Forum (NQF) recently endorsed the first clinical performance measures for contraceptive care. We present data demonstrating the measures meet the NQF’s criterion ‘importance to measure and report’. STUDY DESIGN: We summarized national contraceptive care initiatives, epidemiologic data documenting the health burden of teen and unintended pregnancy and short inter-birth intervals, and the scientific literature examining the association between contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy. Additionally we analyzed contraceptive use data from the National Survey of Family Growth (2013-2015) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2012-2013). RESULTS: Five Federal agencies lead national initiatives and two Institute of Medicine reports highlight the centrality of these outcomes for the health of women and infants. Two literature reviews demonstrate the type of contraception used is associated with risk of unintended pregnancy. Fifty-three percent of adolescents (15-19years) and 40% of adult women (20-44years) at risk of unintended pregnancy are not using a most or moderately effective contraceptive method; in the postpartum period one-third of adolescents (</=19years) and 44% of adult women (>/=20years) are not using these methods. CONCLUSIONS: The new contraceptive care measures meet the NQF criterion for ‘importance to measure and report.’ The measures are based on evidence that contraceptive use is associated with reproductive health outcomes, and there is a substantial performance gap in the use of most and moderately effective methods. IMPLICATIONS: Using the new contraceptive care measures may motivate providers to increase access to contraceptive care, thereby improving health outcomes.

      2. Spatiotemporal trends in teen birth rates in the USA, 2003-2012External
        Khan D, Rossen LM, Hamilton B, Dienes E, He Y, Wei R.
        J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc. 2017 Jan 19;2017.

        The objective of this analysis was to explore temporal and spatial variation in teen birth rates TBRs across counties in the USA, from 2003 to 2012, by using hierarchical Bayesian models. Prior examination of spatiotemporal variation in TBRs has been limited by the reliance on large-scale geographies such as states, because of the potential instability in TBRs at smaller geographical scales such as counties. We implemented hierarchical Bayesian models with space-time interaction terms and spatially structured and unstructured random effects to produce smoothed county level TBR estimates, allowing for examination of spatiotemporal patterns and trends in TBRs at a smaller geographic scale across the USA. The results may help to highlight US counties where TBRs are higher or lower and to inform efforts to reduce birth rates to adolescents in the USA further.

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Feminine discrepancy stress and psychosocial maladjustment among adolescent girlsExternal
        Reidy DE, Kernsmith PD, Malone CA, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Smith-Darden JP.
        Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2017 Jun 12.

        Discrepancy stress, stress about being perceived to not conform to one’s gender role (i.e., gender role discrepancy), has demonstrated effects on risky sexual and violent behaviors. However, evidence of these effects has been limited to men and boys, neglecting the impact gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress may have on girls. In addition, no study to date, has assessed the mental health correlates of gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the relationship between perceived feminine discrepancy and feminine discrepancy stress and psychosocial maladjustment while controlling for trauma symptoms stemming from the potential repercussions of feminine discrepancy. Maladjustment was measured by creating a second-order latent factor derived from four first-order latent constructs: sexual behavior, substance use, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional sample of female students in middle and high school (N = 643) who completed self-report questionnaires. Using structural equation modeling, we found girls reporting feminine discrepancy (i.e., less feminine than the average girl) were more likely to report feminine discrepancy stress and trauma symptomatology. Controlling for feminine discrepancy and trauma symptoms, the relationship between discrepancy stress and maladjustment was positive and significant. Additionally, girls reporting feminine discrepancy scored higher on trauma symptomatology, and trauma demonstrated a strong direct effect on psychosocial maladjustment. These data suggest that developing trauma focused prevention strategies that incorporate social norms around gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      1. Electronic cigarettes as an introductory tobacco product among eighth and 11th grade tobacco users – Oregon, 2015External
        Hines JZ, Fiala SC, Hedberg K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):604-606.

        During 2011-2015, increased electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and hookah use offset declines in cigarette and other tobacco product use among youths (persons aged <18 years) (1). Limited information exists about which tobacco product introduced youths to tobacco product use. Patterns of first use of e-cigarettes among Oregon youths who were tobacco users were assessed in the Oregon Healthy Teens 2015 survey, a cross-sectional survey of eighth and 11th grade students in Oregon. Respondents were asked, “The very first time you used any tobacco or vaping product, which type of product did you use?” Among students who had ever used any tobacco product (ever users), e-cigarettes were the most common introductory tobacco product reported by both eighth (43.5%) and 11th (34.4%) grade students. Among students who used a tobacco product for >/=1 day during the past 30 days (current users), e-cigarettes were the most common introductory tobacco product reported by eighth grade students (44.4%) and the second most common introductory tobacco product reported by 11th grade students (31.0%). Introductory use of e-cigarettes was commonly reported among youths in Oregon who were ever or current tobacco users, underscoring the importance of proven interventions to prevent all forms of tobacco use among youths (2,3).

      2. Tobacco use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011-2016External
        Jamal A, Gentzke A, Hu SS, Cullen KA, Apelberg BJ, Homa DM, King BA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):597-603.

        Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood (1,2). Among youths, use of tobacco products in any form is unsafe (1,3). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine recent patterns of current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco product types among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2016, 20.2% of surveyed high school students and 7.2% of middle school students reported current tobacco product use. In 2016, among current tobacco product users, 47.2% of high school students and 42.4% of middle school students used >/=2 tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among high (11.3%) and middle (4.3%) school students. Current use of any tobacco product did not change significantly during 2011-2016 among high or middle school students, although combustible tobacco product use declined. However, during 2015-2016, among high school students, decreases were observed in current use of any tobacco product, any combustible product, >/=2 tobacco products, e-cigarettes, and hookahs. Among middle school students, current use of e-cigarettes decreased. Comprehensive and sustained strategies can help prevent and reduce the use of all forms of tobacco products among U.S. youths (1-3).

    • Veterinary Medicine RSS Word feed
      1. Molecular characterization of zoonotic pathogens Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in calves in AlgeriaExternal
        Baroudi D, Khelef D, Hakem A, Abdelaziz A, Chen X, Lysen C, Roellig D, Xiao L.
        Vet Parasitol (Amst). 2017 ;8:66-69.

        Little is known on the identity and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in farm animals in Algeria. In this study, 102 fecal specimens from pre-weaned dairy calves with or without diarrhea were collected from 19 dairy farms located in 6 provinces. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium spp., whereas PCR-sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer were used to detect and genotype G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, respectively. Cryptosporidium was found in 14 specimens, among which 7 had C. parvum, 4 had C. bovis, and 3 had mixed infection of C. parvum and C. bovis or C. bovis and C. andersoni. Subtyping of C. parvum by PCR-sequence analysis of the 60?kDa glycoprotein gene identified two zoonotic subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA17G3R1. G. duodenalis was found in 28 specimens, with 6 having the host-specific assemblage E, 14 having the zoonotic assemblage A (all belonging to A2 subtype), and 8 having mixed assemblages. Six known genotypes of E. bieneusi belonging to Group 2, including I, J, BEB3, BEB4, BEB6 and PtEb XI, were identified in 11 specimens. Diarrhea was mostly associated with the occurrence of C. parvum. Data from this study suggest that human-pathogenic C. parvum subtypes and G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi genotypes are common on dairy farms in Algeria.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Public health implications of changing rodent importation patterns – United States, 1999-2013External
        Lankau EW, Sinclair JR, Schroeder BA, Galland GG, Marano N.
        Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Apr;64(2):528-537.

        The United States imports a large volume of live wild and domestic animal species; these animals pose a demonstrated risk for introduction of zoonotic diseases. Rodents are imported for multiple purposes, including scientific research, zoo exhibits and the pet trade. Current U.S. public health regulatory restrictions specific to rodent importation pertain only to those of African origin. To understand the impacts of these regulations and the potential public health risks of international rodent trade to the United States, we evaluated live rodent import records during 1999-2013 by shipment volume and geographic origin, source (e.g. wild-caught versus captive- or commercially bred), intended purpose and rodent taxonomy. Live rodent imports increased from 2737 animals during 1999 to 173 761 animals during 2013. Increases in both the number and size of shipments contributed to this trend. The proportion of wild-captured imports declined from 75% during 1999 to <1% during 2013. Nearly all shipments during these years were imported for commercial purposes. Imports from Europe and other countries in North America experienced notable increases in volume. Gerbils and hamsters arriving from Europe and chinchillas, guinea pigs and hamsters arriving from other countries in North America were predominant taxa underlying this trend. After 2003, African-origin imports became sporadic events under the federal permit process. These patterns suggest development of large-scale captive rodent breeding markets abroad for commercial sale in the United States. While the shift from wild-captured imports alleviates many conservation concerns and risks for novel disease emergence, such consolidated sourcing might elevate exposure risks for zoonotic diseases associated with high-density rodent breeding (e.g. lymphocytic choriomeningitis or salmonellosis). A responsive border health system must periodically re-evaluate importation regulations in conjunction with key stakeholders to ensure a balance between the economic benefits of rodent trade against the potential public health risks.

      2. Serious bacterial infections acquired during treatment of patients given a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease – United StatesExternal
        Marzec NS, Nelson C, Waldron PR, Blackburn BG, Hosain S, Greenhow T, Green GM, Lomen-Hoerth C, Golden M, Mead PS.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):607-609.

        The term “chronic Lyme disease” is used by some health care providers as a diagnosis for various constitutional, musculoskeletal, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (1,2). Patients with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease have been provided a wide range of medications as treatment, including long courses of intravenous (IV) antibiotics (3,4). Studies have not shown that such treatments lead to substantial long-term improvement for patients, and they can be harmful (1,5). This report describes cases of septic shock, osteomyelitis, Clostridium difficile colitis, and paraspinal abscess resulting from treatments for chronic Lyme disease. Patients, clinicians, and public health practitioners should be aware that treatments for chronic Lyme disease can carry serious risks.

      3. Prevalence of Chagas disease in the Latin American-born population of Los AngelesExternal
        Meymandi SK, Forsyth CJ, Soverow J, Hernandez S, Sanchez D, Montgomery SP, Traina M.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 01;64(9):1182-1188.

        Background: According to an estimate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Chagas disease (CD) may affect 1.31% of Latin American immigrants in the United States, with >300 000 cases. However, there is a lack of real-world data to support this estimate. Little is known about the actual prevalence of this neglected tropical disease in the United States, and the bulk of those infected are undiagnosed. Methods: From April 2008 to May 2014, we screened 4,755 Latin American-born residents of Los Angeles County. Blood samples were tested for serologic evidence of CD. We collected demographic data and assessed the impact of established risk factors on CD diagnosis, including sex, country of origin, housing materials, family history of CD, and awareness of CD. Results: There were 59 cases of CD, for an overall prevalence of 1.24%. Prevalence was highest among Salvadorans (3.45%). Of the 3,182 Mexican respondents, those from Oaxaca (4.65%) and Zacatecas (2.2%) had the highest CD prevalence. Salvadoran origin (aOR = 6.2; 95% CI = 2.8-13.5; P < .001), prior knowledge of CD (aOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.0-5.8; P = .047), and exposure to all 3 at-risk housing types (adobe, mud, and thatched roof) (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0-6.4; P = .048) were associated with positive diagnosis. Conclusions: In the largest screening of CD in the United States to date outside of blood banks, we found a CD prevalence of 1.24%. This implies >30 000 people infected in Los Angeles County alone, making CD an important public health concern. Efficient, targeted surveillance of CD may accelerate diagnosis and identify candidates for early treatment.

      4. Pregnancy outcomes after maternal Zika virus infection during pregnancy – U.S. territories, January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017External
        Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Rice ME, Galang RR, Fulton AC, VanMaldeghem K, Prado MV, Ellis E, Anesi MS, Simeone RM, Petersen EE, Ellington SR, Jones AM, Williams T, Reagan-Steiner S, Perez-Padilla J, Deseda CC, Beron A, Tufa AJ, Rosinger A, Roth NM, Green C, Martin S, Lopez CD, deWilde L, Goodwin M, Pagano HP, Mai CT, Gould C, Zaki S, Ferrer LN, Davis MS, Lathrop E, Polen K, Cragan JD, Reynolds M, Newsome KB, Huertas MM, Bhatangar J, Quinones AM, Nahabedian JF, Adams L, Sharp TM, Hancock WT, Rasmussen SA, Moore CA, Jamieson DJ, Munoz-Jordan JL, Garstang H, Kambui A, Masao C, Honein MA, Meaney-Delman D.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):615-621.

        Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly (1). In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing local Zika virus transmission at the first prenatal care visit, 2) retesting during the second trimester for women who initially test negative, and 3) testing of pregnant women with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) at any time during pregnancy (2). To collect information about pregnant women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection* and outcomes in their fetuses and infants, CDC established pregnancy and infant registries (3). During January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017, U.S. territoriesdagger with local transmission of Zika virus reported 2,549 completed pregnancies section sign (live births and pregnancy losses at any gestational age) with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection; 5% of fetuses or infants resulting from these pregnancies had birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection paragraph sign (4,5). Among completed pregnancies with positive nucleic acid tests confirming Zika infection identified in the first, second, and third trimesters, the percentage of fetuses or infants with possible Zika-associated birth defects was 8%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. Among liveborn infants, 59% had Zika laboratory testing results reported to the pregnancy and infant registries. Identification and follow-up of infants born to women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy permits timely and appropriate clinical intervention services (6).

      5. Epidemiology of avian influenza A H7N9 virus in human beings across five epidemics in mainland China, 2013-17: an epidemiological study of laboratory-confirmed case seriesExternal
        Wang X, Jiang H, Wu P, Uyeki TM, Feng L, Lai S, Wang L, Huo X, Xu K, Chen E, Wang X, He J, Kang M, Zhang R, Zhang J, Wu J, Hu S, Zhang H, Liu X, Fu W, Ou J, Wu S, Qin Y, Zhang Z, Shi Y, Zhang J, Artois J, Fang VJ, Zhu H, Guan Y, Gilbert M, Horby PW, Leung GM, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yu H.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 02.

        BACKGROUND: The avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused infections in human beings in China since 2013. A large epidemic in 2016-17 prompted concerns that the epidemiology of the virus might have changed, increasing the threat of a pandemic. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical severity, and time-to-event distributions of patients infected with A H7N9 in the 2016-17 epidemic compared with previous epidemics. METHODS: In this epidemiological study, we obtained information about all laboratory-confirmed human cases of A H7N9 virus infection reported in mainland China as of Feb 23, 2017, from an integrated electronic database managed by the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and provincial CDCs. Every identified human case of A H7N9 virus infection was required to be reported to China CDC within 24 h via a national surveillance system for notifiable infectious diseases. We described the epidemiological characteristics across epidemics, and estimated the risk of death, mechanical ventilation, and admission to the intensive care unit for patients admitted to hospital for routine clinical practice rather than for isolation purpose. We estimated the incubation periods, and time delays from illness onset to hospital admission, illness onset to initiation of antiviral treatment, and hospital admission to death or discharge using survival analysis techniques. FINDINGS: Between Feb 19, 2013, and Feb 23, 2017, 1220 laboratory-confirmed human infections with A H7N9 virus were reported in mainland China, with 134 cases reported in the spring of 2013, 306 in 2013-14, 219 in 2014-15, 114 in 2015-16, and 447 in 2016-17. The 2016-17 A H7N9 epidemic began earlier, spread to more districts and counties in affected provinces, and had more confirmed cases than previous epidemics. The proportion of cases in middle-aged adults increased steadily from 41% (55 of 134) to 57% (254 of 447) from the first epidemic to the 2016-17 epidemic. Proportions of cases in semi-urban and rural residents in the 2015-16 and 2016-17 epidemics (63% [72 of 114] and 61% [274 of 447], respectively) were higher than those in the first three epidemics (39% [52 of 134], 55% [169 of 306], and 56% [122 of 219], respectively). The clinical severity of individuals admitted to hospital in the 2016-17 epidemic was similar to that in the previous epidemics. INTERPRETATION: Age distribution and case sources have changed gradually across epidemics since 2013, while clinical severity has not changed substantially. Continued vigilance and sustained intensive control efforts are needed to minimise the risk of human infection with A H7N9 virus. FUNDING: The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019