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Issue 23, June 7, 2022

CDC Science Clips: Volume 14, Issue 23, June 7, 2022

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention score to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship
      1. Antimicrobial stewardship in Latin America: Past, present, and future
        Fabre V, Cosgrove SE, Secaira C, Torrez JC, Lessa FC, Patel TS, Quiros R.
        Antimicrob Steward Healthc Epidemiol. 2022 ;2(1).
        Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in well-resourced countries has been associated with reductions in antibiotic-resistant infections and improved patient outcomes. Several guidance documents providing recommendations on how to structure antimicrobial stewardship activities at the national and hospital level in resource-limited settings have been published. However, few hospitals in Latin America report having a structure or resources needed for a successful ASP. Given the alarming increases in antimicrobial resistance in Latin America, better understanding of barriers to promote implementation of effective ASPs is urgently needed. We have summarized past and present antimicrobial stewardship activities in Latin American hospitals, and we describe key elements needed in future efforts to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship in the region. © The Author(s), 2022.

      2. Acquired HIV drug resistance among adults living with HIV receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda: A cross-sectional nationally representative survey
        Musengimana G, Tuyishime E, Kiromera A, Malamba SS, Mulindabigwi A, Habimana MR, Baribwira C, Ribakare M, Habimana SD, DeVos J, Mwesigwa RC, Kayirangwa E, Semuhore JM, Rwibasira GN, Suthar AB, Remera E.
        Antivir Ther. 2022 Jun;27(3):13596535221102690.
        BACKGROUND: We assessed the prevalence of acquired HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and associated factors among patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Rwanda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 702 patients receiving first-line ART for at least 6 months with last viral load (VL) results ≥1000 copies/mL. Blood plasma samples were subjected to VL testing; specimens with unsuppressed VL were genotyped to identify HIVDR-associated mutations. Data were analysed using STATA/SE. RESULTS: Median time on ART was 86.4 months (interquartile range [IQR], 44.8-130.2 months), and median CD4 count at ART initiation was 311 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 197-484 cells/mm(3)). Of 414 (68.2%) samples with unsuppressed VL, 378 (88.3%) were genotyped. HIVDR included 347 (90.4%) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- (NNRTI), 291 (75.5%) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- (NRTI) and 13 (3.5%) protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations. The most common HIVDR mutations were K65R (22.7%), M184V (15.4%) and D67N (9.8%) for NRTIs and K103N (34.4%) and Y181C/I/V/YC (7%) for NNRTIs. Independent predictors of acquired HIVDR included current ART regimen of zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.333 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.022-10.870]; p = 0.046) for NRTI resistance and current ART regimen of tenofovir + emtricitabine + nevirapine (aOR, 0.148 [95% CI: 0.028-0.779]; p = 0.025), zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz (aOR, 0.105 [95% CI: 0.016-0.693]; p = 0.020) and zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine (aOR, 0.259 [95% CI: 0.084-0.793]; p = 0.019) for NNRTI resistance. History of ever switching ART regimen was associated with NRTI resistance (aOR, 2.53 [95% CI: 1.198-5.356]; p = 0.016) and NNRTI resistance (aOR, 3.23 [95% CI: 1.435-7.278], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of acquired HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) was high among patient failing to re-suppress VL and was associated with current ART regimen and ever switching ART regimen. The findings of this study support the current WHO guidelines recommending that patients on an NNRTI-based regimen should be switched based on a single viral load test and suggests that national HIV VL monitoring of patients receiving ART has prevented long-term treatment failure that would result in the accumulation of TAMs and potential loss of efficacy of all NRTI used in second-line ART as the backbone in combination with either dolutegravir or boosted PIs.

    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Reported cases of end-stage kidney disease—United States, 2000–2019
        Ríos Burrows N, Koyama A, Pavkov ME.
        Am J Transplant. 2022 ;22(5):1483-1486.

      2. Patterns of change of multisite pain over one year of follow-up and related risk factors
        Ntani G, Coggon D, Felli VE, Harari F, Barrero LH, Felknor SA, Rojas M, Serra C, Bonzini M, Merisalu E, Habib RR, Sadeghian F, Wickremasinghe AR, Matsudaira K, Nyantumbu-Mkhize B, Kelsall HL, Harcombe H, Walker-Bone K.
        Eur J Pain. 2022 May 22.
        BACKGROUND: Multisite musculoskeletal pain is common and disabling. This study aimed to prospectively investigate distribution of musculoskeletal pain anatomically, and explore risk factors for increases/reductions in the number of painful sites. METHODS: Using data from participants working in 45 occupational groups in 18 countries, we explored changes in reporting pain at 10 anatomical sites on two occasions 14 months apart. We used descriptive statistics to explore consistency over time in the number of painful sites, and their anatomical distribution. Baseline risk factors for increases/reductions by ≥3 painful sites were explored by random intercept logistic regression that adjusted for baseline number of painful sites. RESULTS: Amongst 8,927 workers, only 20% reported no pain at either time point, and 16% reported ≥3 painful sites both times. After 14 months, the anatomical distribution of pain often changed but there was only an average increase of 0.17 painful sites. Some 14% workers reported a change in painful sites by ≥ 3. Risk factors for an increase of ≥ 3 painful sites included female sex, lower educational attainment, having a physically demanding job, and adverse beliefs about the work-relatedness of musculoskeletal pain. Also predictive were: older age, somatising tendency, and poorer mental health (each of which was also associated with lower odds of reductions of ≥ 3 painful sites). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinally, the number of reported painful sites was relatively stable but the anatomical distribution varied considerably. These findings suggest an important role for central pain sensitisation mechanisms, rather than localised risk factors, among working adults.

      3. Trends in diagnosed hypertension prevalence by geographic region for older adults with and without diagnosed diabetes, 2005-2017
        Uddin J, Zhu S, Malla G, Levitan EB, Rolka DB, Long DL, Carson AP.
        J Diabetes Complications. 2022 May 9:108208.
        Given that the prevalence of hypertension increases with age and is more common among adults with diabetes than those without diabetes, the objective of this study was to examine trends in hypertension prevalence by geographic region among older adults with and without diabetes. Among older adults with diabetes, hypertension prevalence generally increased from 2005 to 2017 across all regions, although the annual percent change was lower from 2011 to 2017 than 2005-2011 for all regions.

      4. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and related dementias among adults aged ≥45 years - United States, 2019
        Omura JD, McGuire LC, Patel R, Baumgart M, Lamb R, Jeffers EM, Olivari BS, Croft JB, Thomas CW, Hacker K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 20;71(20):680-685.
        Alzheimer disease,* the most common cause of dementia, affects an estimated 6.5 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States (1). A growing body of evidence has identified potential modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) (1-3). In 2021, the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease (National Plan) introduced a new goal to "accelerate action to promote healthy aging and reduce risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias" to help delay onset or slow the progression of ADRD (3). To assess the status of eight potential modifiable risk factors (i.e., high blood pressure, not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, obesity, diabetes, depression, current cigarette smoking, hearing loss, and binge drinking), investigators analyzed data from the cognitive decline module that was administered to adults aged ≥45 years in 31 states and the District of Columbia (DC)(†) in the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Among the risk factors, prevalence was highest for high blood pressure (49.9%) and lowest for binge drinking (10.3%) and varied by selected demographic characteristics. Adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD),(§) an early indicator of possible future ADRD (4), were more likely to report four or more risk factors than were those without SCD (34.3% versus 13.1%). Prevalence of SCD was 11.3% overall and increased from 3.9% among adults with no risk factors to 25.0% among those with four or more risk factors. Implementing evidence-based strategies to address modifiable risk factors can help achieve the National Plan's new goal to reduce risk for ADRD while promoting health aging.(¶)(,)*.

      5. Selected clinical and demographic factors and all-cause mortality among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network
        Paramsothy P, Wang Y, Cai B, Conway KM, Johnson NE, Pandya S, Ciafaloni E, Mathews KD, Romitti PA, Howard JF, Riley C.
        Neuromuscul Disord. 2022 Apr 30.
        Population-based estimates of survival among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) living in the United States are lacking. It is also unclear whether the association between glucocorticoid use and all-cause mortality persists in the context of other common treatments (cardiac medication, cough-assist, bilevel positive airway pressure, and scoliosis surgery) observed to delay mortality. Among 526 individuals identified by the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network, the estimated median survival time from birth was 23.7 years. Current glucocorticoid users had a lower hazard of mortality than non-users. Individuals who ever had scoliosis surgery had a lower hazard of mortality than individuals who did not have scoliosis surgery. Individuals who ever used cough assist had a lower hazard of mortality than individuals who never used cough assist. Non-Hispanic Black individuals had a higher hazard of mortality than non-Hispanic White individuals. No differences in hazards of mortality were observed between ever versus never use of cardiac medication and ever versus never use of bilevel positive airway pressure. The glucocorticoid observation is consistent with the 2018 Care Considerations statement that glucocorticoid use continues in the non-ambulatory phase. Our observations may inform the clinical care of individuals living with DMD.

      6. Incidence and 5-year survival of children and adolescents with hepatoblastoma in the United States
        Kahla JA, Siegel DA, Dai S, Lupo PJ, Foster JH, Scheurer ME, Heczey AA.
        Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2022 May 19:e29763.
        OBJECTIVE: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common pediatric primary malignant liver tumor, its incidence has been increasing worldwide, but recent changes in incidence and outcomes with high population coverage are not well characterized. METHODS: We defined the incidence of HB diagnosed during 2003-2017 from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) database, and survival during 2001-2016 from the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). Data were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, age, tumor stage, county population, and diagnosis year. Incidence trends were assessed by calculating average annual percent change (AAPC) using Joinpoint regression. Differences in overall 5-year survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: 2178 HB cases with an annual incidence rate of 1.76 per million persons were identified and incidence increased over time (AAPC = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-3.6). The 5-year relative survival was 76.9% (95% CI: 74.9-78.8) and the risk of death was lower for cases diagnosed after 2009 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.94), higher for ages 3-7 years and 8-19 years compared to 0-2 years (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.10-1.76 and 1.83, 95% CI: 1.31-2.70, respectively), for distant compared to locoregional stage (HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 2.27-3.36), and for non-Hispanic Black compared to non-Hispanic White cases (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02-1.84). CONCLUSIONS: HB incidence increased, and survival improved over the study period. Disparities in survival exist by age, race or ethnicity, and stage. Further studies could identify factors affecting increases in HB cases, inform future interventions, and address disparities in outcomes.

      7. Trends in lifetime risk and years of potential life lost from diabetes in the United States, 1997-2018
        Koyama AK, Cheng YJ, Brinks R, Xie H, Gregg EW, Hoyer A, Pavkov ME, Imperatore G.
        PLoS One. 2022 ;17(5):e0268805.
        BACKGROUND: Both incidence and mortality of diagnosed diabetes have decreased over the past decade. However, the impact of these changes on key metrics of diabetes burden-lifetime risk (LR), years of potential life lost (YPLL), and years spent with diabetes-is unknown. METHODS: We used data from 653,811 adults aged ≥18 years from the National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population in the United States. LR, YPLL, and years spent with diabetes were estimated from age 18 to 84 by survey period (1997-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2014, 2015-2018). The age-specific incidence of diagnosed diabetes and mortality were estimated using Poisson regression. A multistate difference equation accounting for competing risks was used to model each metric. RESULTS: LR and years spent with diabetes initially increased then decreased over the most recent time periods. LR for adults at age 20 increased from 31.7% (95% CI: 31.2-32.1%) in 1997-1999 to 40.7% (40.2-41.1%) in 2005-2009, then decreased to 32.8% (32.4-33.2%) in 2015-2018. Both LR and years spent with diabetes were markedly higher among adults of non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and other races compared to non-Hispanic Whites. YPLL significantly decreased over the study period, with the estimated YPLL due to diabetes for an adult aged 20 decreasing from 8.9 (8.7-9.1) in 1997-1999 to 6.2 (6.1-6.4) in 2015-2018 (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the United States, diabetes burden is declining, but disparities by race/ethnicity remain. LR remains high with approximately one-third of adults estimated to develop diabetes during their lifetime.

      8. Evaluating uptake of evidence-based interventions in 355 clinics partnering with the Colorectal Cancer Control Program, 2015-2018
        Maxwell AE, DeGroff A, Hohl SD, Sharma KP, Sun J, Escoffery C, Hannon PA.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2022 May 19;19:E26.
        PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer screening rates remain suboptimal in the US. The Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) seeks to increase screening in health system clinics through implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and supporting activities (SAs). This program provided an opportunity to assess the uptake of EBIs and SAs in 355 clinics that participated from 2015 to 2018. INTERVENTION APPROACH: The 30 funded awardees of CRCCP partnered with clinics to implement at least 2 of 4 EBIs that CDC prioritized (patient reminders, provider reminders, reducing structural barriers, provider assessment and feedback) and 4 optional strategies that CDC identified as SAs (small media, professional development and provider education, patient navigation, and community health workers). EVALUATION METHODS: Clinics completed 3 annual surveys to report uptake, implementation, and integration and perceived sustainability of the priority EBIs and SAs. RESULTS: In our sample of 355 clinics, uptake of 4 EBIs and 2 SAs significantly increased over time. By year 3, 82% of clinics implemented patient reminder systems, 88% implemented provider reminder systems, 82% implemented provider assessment and feedback, 76% implemented activities to reduce structural barriers, 51% implemented provider education, and 84% used small media. Most clinics that implemented these strategies (>90%) considered them fully integrated into the health system or clinic operations and sustainable by year 3. Fewer clinics used patient navigation (30%) and community health workers (19%), with no increase over the years of the study. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Clinics participating in the CRCCP reported high uptake and perceived sustainability of EBIs that can be integrated into electronic medical record systems but limited uptake of patient navigation and community health workers, which are uniquely suited to reduce cancer disparities. Future research should determine how to promote uptake and assess cost-effectiveness of CRCCP interventions.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. "Take care of their hierarchy of needs first": strategies used by data-to-care staff to address barriers to HIV care engagement
        Roland KB, Carey JW, Bessler PA, Langer Tesfaye C, Randall LA, Betley V, Schoua-Glusberg A, Frew PM.
        AIDS Care. 2022 May 25:1-8.
        Data-to-Care (D2C) is a public health strategy designed to engage out-of-care (OOC) persons with HIV (PWH) in HIV care. OOC PWH are identified through review of state and local HIV data and engaged in care through individualized efforts that address barriers to HIV care. Perspectives of D2C program staff can contribute to D2C program development and sustainability. We conducted semi-structured interviews in 2017 with 20 D2C program staff from Louisiana (n = 10) and Virginia (n = 10), states with distinct D2C programs. We used content and thematic analysis to analyze interview transcripts. In both states, common barriers to care for OOC PWH include limited transportation, stigma, substance use, poverty, homelessness, and mental illness. To address these barriers and engage OOC clients in HIV care, staff and programs provided transportation vouchers and housing assistance, integrated substance use and mental health services into care engagement processes, provided empathy and compassion, and assessed and addressed basic unmet needs. Identifying and addressing social and structural barriers to HIV care is a critical and often a necessary first step in engaging OOC clients in HIV care. These findings can be used for D2C program design and implementation, facilitating engagement in HIV care for OOC PWH.

      2. Mental illness in adults with HIV and HCV infection: Indian Health Service, 2001-2020
        Smith CM, Kennedy JL, Evans ME, Person MK, Haverkate R, Apostolou A.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 May 16.
        INTRODUCTION: Mental health disorders (MHDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in people living with HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and HIV/HCV coinfection are common and result in significant morbidity. However, there are no national prevalence estimates of these comorbidities in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection. This study estimates the prevalence of MHD and SUD diagnoses in AI/AN adults diagnosed with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection within the Indian Health Service (IHS). METHODS: In 2021, a cross-sectional study using data from the National Patient Information Reporting System was completed to identify MHD or SUD diagnoses in AI/AN adults with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection within the IHS during fiscal years 2001‒2020. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of MHD or SUD diagnoses, adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: Of AI/AN adults diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C virus infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection, the period prevalence of MHD or SUD diagnoses ranged from 57.2% to 81.1%. Adjusting for age and sex, individuals with HCV infection had higher odds of receiving a MHD diagnosis (AOR=1.57; 95% CI=1.47, 1.68) or SUD diagnosis (AOR=3.40; 95% CI=3.18, 3.65) than those with HIV, and individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection had higher odds of receiving a MHD diagnosis (AOR=1.60; 95% CI=1.35, 1.89) or SUD diagnosis (AOR=2.81; 95% CI=2.32, 3.41) than those with HIV. CONCLUSIONS: MHD and SUD diagnoses were common in AI/AN adults diagnosed with HIV, HCV infection, or HIV/HCV coinfection, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate screening and treatment programs sensitive to the diverse strengths of AI/AN populations and structural challenges they endure.

      3. Adapting strategies for effective and efficient pediatric HIV case finding in low prevalence countries: risk screening tool for testing children presenting at high-risk entry points in Ethiopia
        Teferi W, Gutreuter S, Bekele A, Ahmed J, Ayalew J, Gross J, Kumsa H, Antefe T, Mengistu S, Mirkovic K, Dziuban EJ, Ross C, Belay Z, Tilahun T, Kassa D, Hrapcak S.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2022 May 20;22(1):480.
        BACKGROUND: Implementing effective and efficient case-finding strategies is crucial to increasing pediatric antiretroviral therapy coverage. In Ethiopia, universal HIV testing is conducted for children presenting at high-risk entry points including malnutrition treatment, inpatient wards, tuberculosis (TB) clinics, index testing for children of positive adults, and referral of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC); however, low positivity rates observed at inpatient, malnutrition and OVC entry points warrant re-assessing current case-finding strategies. The aim of this study is to develop HIV risk screening tool applicable for testing children presenting at inpatient, malnutrition and OVC entry points in low-HIV prevalence settings. METHODS: The study was conducted from May 2017-March 2018 at 29 public health facilities in Amhara and Addis Ababa regions of Ethiopia. All children 2-14 years presenting to five high-risk entry points including malnutrition treatment, inpatient wards, tuberculosis (TB) clinics, index testing for children of positive adults, and referral of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) were enrolled after consent. Data were collected from registers, medical records, and caregiver interviews. Screening tools were constructed using predictors of HIV positivity as screening items by applying both logistic regression and an unweighted method. Sensitivity, specificity and number needed to test (NNT) to identify one new child living with HIV (CLHIV) were estimated for each tool. RESULTS: The screening tools had similar sensitivity of 95%. However, the specificities of tools produced by logistic regression methods (61.4 and 65.6%) which are practically applicable were higher than those achieved by the unweighted method (53.6). Applying these tools could result in 58‒63% reduction in the NNT compared to universal testing approach while maintaining the overall number of CLHIV identified. CONCLUSION: The screening tools developed using logistic regression method could significantly improve HIV testing efficiency among children presenting to malnutrition, inpatient, and OVC entry points in Ethiopia while maintaining case identification. These tools are simplified to practically implement and can potentially be validated for use at various entry points. HIV programs in low-prevalence countries can also further investigate and optimize these tools in their settings.

      4. Risk factors for hospitalisation and death from COVID-19: a prospective cohort study in South Sudan and Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
        Leidman E, Doocy S, Heymsfield G, Sebushishe A, Mbong EN, Majer J, Bollemeijer I.
        BMJ Open. 2022 May 18;12(5):e060639.
        OBJECTIVES: Our study described demographic characteristics, exposures and symptoms, and comorbidities to evaluate risk factors of hospitalisation and mortality among cases in Juba, South Sudan (SSD) and North and South Kivu in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Individuals presenting for care at one of five study facilities in SSD (n=1) or DRC (n=4) or referred from home-based care by mobile medical teams between December 2020 and June 2021 were eligible for enrolment. Demographic characteristics, COVID-19 exposures, symptoms at presentation, as well as acute and chronic comorbidities, were evaluated using a standard questionnaire at enrolment. Disease progression was characterised by location of care using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: 751 individuals were eligible for enrolment. Among cases followed to discharge or death (n=519), 375 were enrolled outpatients (75.7%). A similar number of cases were enrolled in DRC (n=262) and SSD (n=257). Overall mortality was 4.8% (95% CI: 3.2% to 6.9%); there were no outpatient deaths. Patients presenting with any symptoms had higher odds of hospitalisation (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.78, 95% CI 1.47 to 5.27) and all deaths occurred among symptomatic individuals. Odds of both hospitalisation and mortality were greatest among cases with respiratory symptoms; presence of low oxygen levels on enrolment was strongly associated with both hospitalisation (AOR 7.77, 95% CI 4.22 to 14.29) and mortality (AOR 25.29, 95% CI 6.42 to 99.54). Presence of more than one chronic comorbidity was associated with 4.96 (95% CI 1.51 to 16.31) times greater odds of death; neither infectious comorbidities evaluated, nor malnutrition, were significantly associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior literature, older age, low oxygen level, other respiratory symptoms and chronic comorbidities were all risk factors for mortality. Patients presenting with these characteristics were more likely to be hospitalised, providing evidence of effective triage and referral. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04568499.

      5. Comparison of influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children < 18 years old in the United States-FluSurv-NET (October-April 2017-2021) and COVID-NET (October 2020-September 2021)
        Delahoy MJ, Ujamaa D, Taylor CA, Cummings C, Anglin O, Holstein R, Milucky J, O'Halloran A, Patel K, Pham H, Whitaker M, Reingold A, Chai SJ, Alden NB, Kawasaki B, Meek J, Yousey-Hindes K, Anderson EJ, Openo KP, Weigel A, Teno K, Reeg L, Leegwater L, Lynfield R, McMahon M, Ropp S, Rudin D, Muse A, Spina N, Bennett NM, Popham K, Billing LM, Shiltz E, Sutton M, Thomas A, Schaffner W, Talbot HK, Crossland MT, McCaffrey K, Hall AJ, Burns E, McMorrow M, Reed C, Havers FP, Garg S.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 May 20.
        BACKGROUND: Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are significant causes of respiratory illness in children. METHODS: Influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years old were analyzed from FluSurv-NET and COVID-NET, two population-based surveillance systems with similar catchment areas and methodology. The annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100 000 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2020-September 30, 2021) was compared to influenza-associated hospitalization rates during the 2017-18 through 2019-20 influenza seasons. In-hospital outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, were compared. RESULTS: Among children <18 years old, the COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate (48.2) was higher than influenza-associated hospitalization rates: 2017-18 (33.5), 2018-19 (33.8), and 2019-20 (41.7). The COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate was higher among adolescents 12-17 years old (COVID-19: 59.9; influenza range: 12.2-14.1), but similar or lower among children 5-11 (COVID-19: 25.0; influenza range: 24.3-31.7) and 0-4 (COVID-19: 66.8; influenza range: 70.9-91.5) years old. Among children <18 years old, a higher proportion with COVID-19 required ICU admission compared with influenza (26.4% vs 21.6%; p < 0.01). Pediatric deaths were uncommon during both COVID-19- and influenza-associated hospitalizations (0.7% vs 0.5%; p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of extensive mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate during 2020-2021 was higher among adolescents and similar or lower among children <12 years old compared with influenza during the three seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 adds substantially to the existing burden of pediatric hospitalizations and severe outcomes caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

      6. Reduced odds of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection after vaccination among New York city adults, July-November 2021
        Levin-Rector A, Firestein L, McGibbon E, Sell J, Lim S, Lee EH, Weiss D, Geevarughese A, Zucker JR, Greene SK.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 May 20.
        BACKGROUND: Belief that vaccination is not needed for individuals with prior infection contributes to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccines became available, we assessed whether vaccinated individuals had reduced odds of reinfection. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among adult New York City residents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, did not test positive again >90 days after initial positive test through July 1, 2021, and did not die before July 1, 2021. Case-patients with reinfection during July-November 2021 and control subjects with no reinfection were matched (1:3) on age, sex, timing of initial positive test in 2020, and neighborhood poverty level. Matched odds ratios (mOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 349,827 eligible adults, 2,583 were reinfected during July-November 2021. Of 2,401 with complete matching criteria data, 1,102 (45.9%) were known to be symptomatic for COVID-19-like-illness, and 96 (4.0%) were hospitalized. Unvaccinated individuals, compared with individuals fully vaccinated within the prior 90 days, had elevated odds of reinfection (mOR, 3.21; 95% CI, 2.70, 3.82), of symptomatic reinfection (mOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.31, 3.83), and of reinfection with hospitalization (mOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.91, 4.79). All three vaccines authorized or approved for use in the U.S. were similarly effective. CONCLUSION: Vaccination reduced odds of reinfections when the Delta variant predominated. Further studies should assess risk of severe outcomes among reinfected persons as new variants emerge, infection- and vaccine-induced immunity wanes, and booster doses are administered.

      7. Investigation of possible preventable causes of COVID-19 deaths in the Kampala metropolitan area, Uganda, 2020-2021
        Eyu P, Elyanu P, Ario AR, Ntono V, Birungi D, Rukundo G, Nanziri C, Wadunde I, Migisha R, Katana E, Oumo P, Morukileng J, Harris JR.
        Int J Infect Dis. 2022 May 17.
        BACKGROUND: Identifying preventable causes of COVID-19 deaths is key to reducing mortality. We investigated possible preventable causes of COVID-19 deaths over a 6-month period in Uganda. METHODS: A case-patient was a person testing RT-PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 who died in Kampala Metropolitan Area hospitals during August 2020-February 2021. We reviewed records and interviewed health workers and case-patient caretakers. RESULTS: We investigated 126 (65%) of 195 reported COVID-19 deaths during the investigation period; 89 (71%) were male and median age was 61 years. Ninety-eight (78%) had underlying medical conditions. Most (118; 94%) had advanced disease at admission to the hospital where they died. Forty-four (35%) did not receive a COVID-19 test at their first presentation to a health facility despite having consistent symptoms. Ninety-five (75%) needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission, of whom 45 (47%) received it; 74 (59%) needed mechanical ventilation, of whom 47 (64%) received it. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients who died in this investigation, early opportunities for diagnosis were frequently missed, and there was inadequate ICU capacity. Emphasis is needed on COVID-19 as a differential diagnosis, early testing, and care-seeking at specialized facilities before illness reaches a critical stage. Increased capacity for intensive care is needed.

      8. Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in children younger than 5 years in 2019: a systematic analysis
        Li Y, Wang X, Blau DM, Caballero MT, Feikin DR, Gill CJ, Madhi SA, Omer SB, Simões EA, Campbell H, Pariente AB, Bardach D, Bassat Q, Casalegno JS, Chakhunashvili G, Crawford N, Danilenko D, Do LA, Echavarria M, Gentile A, Gordon A, Heikkinen T, Huang QS, Jullien S, Krishnan A, Lopez EL, Markić J, Mira-Iglesias A, Moore HC, Moyes J, Mwananyanda L, Nokes DJ, Noordeen F, Obodai E, Palani N, Romero C, Salimi V, Satav A, Seo E, Shchomak Z, Singleton R, Stolyarov K, Stoszek SK, von Gottberg A, Wurzel D, Yoshida LM, Yung CF, Zar HJ, Nair H.
        Lancet. 2022 May 19.
        BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. We previously estimated that in 2015, 33·1 million episodes of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection occurred in children aged 0-60 months, resulting in a total of 118 200 deaths worldwide. Since then, several community surveillance studies have been done to obtain a more precise estimation of RSV associated community deaths. We aimed to update RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality at global, regional, and national levels in children aged 0-60 months for 2019, with focus on overall mortality and narrower infant age groups that are targeted by RSV prophylactics in development. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we expanded our global RSV disease burden dataset by obtaining new data from an updated search for papers published between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 2020, from MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, OpenGrey, CNKI, Wanfang, and ChongqingVIP. We also included unpublished data from RSV GEN collaborators. Eligible studies reported data for children aged 0-60 months with RSV as primary infection with acute lower respiratory infection in community settings, or acute lower respiratory infection necessitating hospital admission; reported data for at least 12 consecutive months, except for in-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) or for where RSV seasonality is well-defined; and reported incidence rate, hospital admission rate, RSV positive proportion in acute lower respiratory infection hospital admission, or in-hospital CFR. Studies were excluded if case definition was not clearly defined or not consistently applied, RSV infection was not laboratory confirmed or based on serology alone, or if the report included fewer than 50 cases of acute lower respiratory infection. We applied a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) to estimate RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence, hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality both globally and regionally (by country development status and by World Bank Income Classification) in 2019. We estimated country-level RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence through a risk-factor based model. We developed new models (through GLMM) that incorporated the latest RSV community mortality data for estimating overall RSV mortality. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252400). FINDINGS: In addition to 317 studies included in our previous review, we identified and included 113 new eligible studies and unpublished data from 51 studies, for a total of 481 studies. We estimated that globally in 2019, there were 33·0 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 25·4-44·6 million), 3·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (2·9-4·6 million), 26 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (15 100-49 100), and 101 400 RSV-attributable overall deaths (84 500-125 200) in children aged 0-60 months. In infants aged 0-6 months, we estimated that there were 6·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (4·6-9·7 million), 1·4 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (1·0-2·0 million), 13 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (6800-28 100), and 45 700 RSV-attributable overall deaths (38 400-55 900). 2·0% of deaths in children aged 0-60 months (UR 1·6-2·4) and 3·6% of deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months (3·0-4·4) were attributable to RSV. More than 95% of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes and more than 97% of RSV-attributable deaths across all age bands were in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). INTERPRETATION: RSV contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality burden globally in children aged 0-60 months, especially during the first 6 months of life and in LMICs. We highlight the striking overall mortality burden of RSV disease worldwide, with one in every 50 deaths in children aged 0-60 months and one in every 28 deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months attributable to RSV. For every RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital death, we estimate approximately three more deaths attributable to RSV in the community. RSV passive immunisation programmes targeting protection during the first 6 months of life could have a substantial effect on reducing RSV disease burden, although more data are needed to understand the implications of the potential age-shifts in peak RSV burden to older age when these are implemented. FUNDING: EU Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).

      9. Prevalence of and factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe: results from population-based nationally representative surveys
        Haas AD, Radin E, Birhanu S, Low AJ, Saito S, Sachathep K, Balachandra S, Manjengwa J, Duong YT, Jonnalagadda S, Payne D, Bello G, Hakim AJ, Smart T, Ahmed N, Cuervo-Rojas J, Auld A, Hetal P, Parekh B, Williams DB, Barradas DT, Mugurungi O, Mulenga LB, Voetsch AC, Justman JE.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(2).
        Introduction: Late diagnosis of HIV (LD) increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. We used nationally representative data from population-based HIV impact assessment (PHIA) surveys in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (2015-2016) to characterize adults at risk of LD and to examine associations between LD and presumed HIV transmission to cohabiting sexual partners.

      10. Evaluation of different types of face masks to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2: a modeling study
        Gurbaxani BM, Hill AN, Paul P, Prasad PV, Slayton RB.
        Sci Rep. 2022 May 23;12(1):8630.
        We expanded a published mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission with complex, age-structured transmission and with laboratory-derived source and wearer protection efficacy estimates for a variety of face masks to estimate their impact on COVID-19 incidence and related mortality in the United States. The model was also improved to allow realistic age-structured transmission with a pre-specified R0 of transmission, and to include more compartments and parameters, e.g. for groups such as detected and undetected asymptomatic infectious cases who mask up at different rates. When masks are used at typically-observed population rates of 80% for those ≥ 65 years and 60% for those < 65 years, face masks are associated with 69% (cloth) to 78% (medical procedure mask) reductions in cumulative COVID-19 infections and 82% (cloth) to 87% (medical procedure mask) reductions in related deaths over a 6-month timeline in the model, assuming a basic reproductive number of 2.5. If cloth or medical procedure masks' source control and wearer protection efficacies are boosted about 30% each to 84% and 60% by cloth over medical procedure masking, fitters, or braces, the COVID-19 basic reproductive number of 2.5 could be reduced to an effective reproductive number ≤ 1.0, and from 6.0 to 2.3 for a variant of concern similar to delta (B.1.617.2). For variants of concern similar to omicron (B.1.1.529) or the sub-lineage BA.2, modeled reductions in effective reproduction number due to similar high quality, high prevalence mask wearing is more modest (to 3.9 and 5.0 from an R(0) = 10.0 and 13.0, respectively). None-the-less, the ratio of incident risk for masked vs. non-masked populations still shows a benefit of wearing masks even with the higher R0 variants.

      11. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore-forming bacterium that primarily affects herbivorous livestock, wildlife, and humans exposed to direct contact with infected animal carcasses or products. To date, there are a limited number of studies that have delineated the potential global distribution of anthrax, despite the importance of the disease from both an economic and public health standpoint. This study compiled occurrence data (n = 874) of confirmed human and animal cases from 1954 to 2021 in 94 countries. Using an ensemble ecological niche model (ENM) framework, we developed updated maps of the global predicted environmental suitability of anthrax to measure relative risk at multiple scales of analysis, including a model for circumpolar regions. Additionally, we produced maps quantifying the disease transmission risk associated with anthrax to cattle, sheep, and goat populations. Environmental suitability for B. anthracis globally is concentered throughout Eurasia, sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, Southeast Asia, Australia, and Oceania. Suitable environments for B. anthracis at the circumpolar extent extend above the Arctic Circle into portions of Russia, Canada, Iceland, Alaska, and northern Scandinavia. Environmental factors driving B. anthracis suitability globally include vegetation (EVI), land surface temperature (LST), soil characteristics, primary climate conditions, and topography. While, at the circumpolar scale, suitability is influenced by soil factors, topography, and the derived climate characteristics. The greatest risk to livestock is concentrated within the Indian Subcontinent, eastern Australia, Anatolia, the Caucasus region, Central Asia, the Balkans, Spain, Uruguay, eastern China, United States, Canada, and East Africa. This study expands on previous work that predicted the potential environmental niche of anthrax by providing enhanced knowledge on the potential spatial distribution of anthrax risk in the Southern Hemisphere, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and circumpolar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. We conclude that these updated maps will provide pertinent information to guide disease control programs, inform policymakers, and raise awareness at the global level to lessen morbidity and mortality among animals and humans located in environmentally suitable areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      12. Burden of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in Santa Rosa, Guatemala in active health-services surveillance during 2008-2009 and 2014-2015
        Jarquin C, Morales O, McCracken JP, Lopez MR, Lopez B, Reyes L, Gómez GA, Bryan JP, Peruski LF, Parsons MB, Pattabiraman V.
        Trop Med Int Health. 2022 Apr;27(4):408-417.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) cases from active facility-based surveillance in Guatemala. METHODS: We collected clinical and risk factor data on enrolled patients (aged 0-52 years) with acute diarrhoea at government healthcare facilities (1 hospital and 6 clinics) in Santa Rosa, Guatemala, during 2008-2009 and 2014-2015. Stool samples were analysed, E. coli identified through culture and biochemical tests, PCR amplification of genes encoding pathotype-specific virulence factors identified specific DEC pathotypes. Healthcare-seeking adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 3041 diarrhoea cases were captured by surveillance (647 hospitalisations (H), 2394 clinic visits (CV)); general E. coli prevalence was 17.9%. DEC pathotypes were identified in 19% (n = 95/497) and 21% (n = 450/2113) in diarrhoea H and CV, respectively. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was most frequently isolated (8.2% (n = 41) in diarrhoea H, 12.0% (n = 255) in diarrhoea CV), followed by ETEC (6.8% (n = 34) in H, 6% (n = 128) in CV) and STEC (0.6% (n = 3) in H, 0.6% (n = 13) in CV). We did not find evidence of a difference in severity between DEC and non-DEC diarrhoea. Incidence of DEC clinic visits and hospitalisations was 648.0 and 29.3, respectively, per 10,000 persons aged ≤5 years and 36.8 and 0.4, respectively, per 10,000 persons aged >5 years. CONCLUSIONS: DEC pathotypes, especially EPEC and ETEC, were detected frequently from patients presenting with diarrhoeal illness in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Our findings suggest that preventive interventions should be prioritised for young children.

    • Community Health Services
      1. Commercial and social value of pharmaceutical industry-led access programs: Conceptual framework and descriptive analysis
        Smith-Sreen J, Heerdegen AC, Wirtz VJ, Kulkarni P, Machado M, Rockers PC.
        Health Syst Reform. 2022 Jan 1;8(1):e2057831.
        Pharmaceutical industry-led access programs are growing in number globally and are increasingly adopting a hybrid approach intended to generate commercial and social value in parallel. We developed and applied a new conceptual framework in a descriptive analysis of observable indicators measuring commercial and social value for 91 programs registered in the Access Observatory. We found that most programs had features consistent with the generation of commercial value, directly through revenue generation (50.0%), or indirectly by creating competitive advantage (70.3%). We also found that most programs were implemented in countries where the company has commercial products registered (85.5%). While many programs had features consistent with the generation of social value, it was difficult to ascertain the level of that value because most did not share data (83.5%) and had not been evaluated (74.7%). Future efforts by the global health community and the pharmaceutical industry should focus on strengthening measurement and reporting on commercial and social indicators of industry-led access programs.

    • Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Services
      1. Implementation of maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response (MPDSR) in humanitarian settings: insights and experiences of humanitarian health practitioners and global technical expert meeting attendees
        Russell N, Tappis H, Mwanga JP, Black B, Thapa K, Handzel E, Scudder E, Amsalu R, Reddi J, Palestra F, Moran AC.
        Confl Health. 2022 May 7;16(1):23.
        BACKGROUND: Maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response (MPDSR) is a system of identifying, analysing and learning lessons from such deaths in order to respond and prevent future deaths, and has been recommended by WHO and implemented in many low-and-middle income settings in recent years. However, there is limited documentation of experience with MPDSR in humanitarian settings. A meeting on MPDSR in humanitarian settings was convened by WHO, UNICEF, CDC and Save the Children, UNFPA and UNHCR on 17th-18th October 2019, informed by semi-structured interviews with a range of professionals, including expert attendees. CONSULTATION FINDINGS: Interviewees revealed significant obstacles to full implementation of the MPDSR process in humanitarian settings. Many obstacles were familiar to low resource settings in general but were amplified in the context of a humanitarian crisis, such as overburdened services, disincentives to reporting, accountability gaps, a blame approach, and politicisation of mortality. Factors more unique to humanitarian contexts included concerns about health worker security and moral distress. There are varying levels of institutionalisation and implementation capacity for MPDSR within humanitarian organisations. It is suggested that if poorly implemented, particularly with a punitive or blame approach, MPDSR may be counterproductive. Nevertheless, successes in MPDSR were described whereby the process led to concrete actions to prevent deaths, and where death reviews have led to improved understanding of complex and rectifiable contextual factors leading to deaths in humanitarian settings. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges, examples exist where the lessons learnt from MPDSR processes have led to improved access and quality of care in humanitarian contexts, including successful advocacy. An adapted approach is required to ensure feasibility, with varying implementation being possible in different phases of crises. There is a need for guidance on MPDSR in humanitarian contexts, and for greater documentation and learning from experiences.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Effectiveness of a buffalo turbine and A1 mist sprayer for the areawide deployment of larvicide for mosquito control in an urban residential setting
        Burtis JC, Bickerton MW, Indelicato N, Poggi JD, Crans SC, Harrington LC.
        J Med Entomol. 2022 May 11;59(3):903-910.
        The control of medically important container-inhabiting mosquitoes is an ongoing challenge for mosquito control operations. Truck-mounted application equipment is a common option for rapid areawide larvicide deployment utilized by mosquito control operations. We tested the effectiveness of two truck-mounted sprayers (A1 Super Duty + Buffalo Turbine CSM3), for the deployment of water-dispersible biopesticides (VectoBac WDG:VectoLex WDG 50:50). Sixty residences within four residential neighborhoods in New Jersey were treated in 2019 and 2020. Three empty bioassay cups were placed in specific locations on each property (front yard/ back yard/ side of house), with an additional cup placed in an adjacent catch basin. This approach was replicated in two untreated control neighborhoods. Following larvicide application, cups were subjected to bioassays wherein larval mortality was tracked through adult eclosion. Overall, average larval mortality rates were 56% higher in treated cups compared against untreated controls. Mortality rates were affected by cup location, with 39% mortality in bioassay cups from back yards, 54% in those from the sides of houses, 73% in front yards, and 76% from cups in catch basins. Mortality did not differ significantly between the four treated neighborhoods, nor by the type of sprayer used. Our research shows that truck-mounted sprayers can be an effective method for larvicide deployment in residential neighborhoods, but effectiveness may depend upon the location of the target treatment area in relation to residences and other geographic obstacles.

      2. Designing an intervention trial of human-tick encounters and tick-borne diseases in residential settings using 4-poster devices to control ixodes scapularis (acari: Ixodidae): Challenges for site selection and device placement
        Connally NP, Rowe A, Kaufman A, Meek JI, Niesobecki SA, Hansen AP, White J, Nawrocki C, Foster E, Hinckley AF, Eisen L.
        J Med Entomol. 2022 May 11;59(3):911-921.
        Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, transmit Lyme disease spirochetes and other human pathogens in the eastern United States. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are key reproductive hosts for I. scapularis adults, and therefore control methods targeting deer have the potential for landscape-wide tick suppression. A topical acaricide product, containing 10% permethrin, is self-applied by deer to kill parasitizing ticks when they visit 4-Poster Tick Control Deer Feeders (hereafter, 4-Posters) Previous 4-Poster intervention studies, including in residential settings, demonstrated suppression of I. scapularis populations but did not include human-based outcomes. To prepare for a proposed 4-Poster intervention trial in residential areas of Connecticut and New York that would include human-tick encounters and tick-borne diseases as outcomes, we sought to identify areas (study clusters) in the 80-100 ha size range and specific locations within these areas where 4-Poster devices could be deployed at adequate density (1 device per 20-25 ha) and in accordance with regulatory requirements. Geographic Information System-based data were used to identify prospective study clusters, based on minimum thresholds for Lyme disease incidence, population density, and forest cover. Ground truthing of potential 4-Poster placement locations was done to confirm the suitability of selected clusters. Based on these efforts, we failed to identify more than a few residential areas fulfilling all criteria for a treatment cluster. We, therefore, reconsidered pursuing the intervention trial, which required inclusion of >30 treatment clusters to achieve adequate statistical power. The 4-Poster methodology may be more readily evaluated in natural or public areas than in residential settings in NY or CT.

      3. Wolbachia 16S rRNA haplotypes detected in wild Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia
        Waymire E, Duddu S, Yared S, Getachew D, Dengela D, Bordenstein SR, Balkew M, Zohdy S, Irish SR, Carter TE.
        Parasit Vectors. 2022 May 24;15(1):178.
        BACKGROUND: About two out of three Ethiopians are at risk of malaria, a disease caused by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Anopheles stephensi, an invasive vector typically found in South Asia and the Middle East, was recently found to be distributed across eastern and central Ethiopia and is capable of transmitting both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The detection of this vector in the Horn of Africa (HOA) coupled with widespread insecticide resistance requires that new methods of vector control be investigated in order to control the spread of malaria. Wolbachia, a naturally occurring endosymbiotic bacterium of mosquitoes, has been identified as a potential vector control tool that can be explored for the control of malaria transmission. Wolbachia could be used to control the mosquito population through suppression or potentially decrease malaria transmission through population replacement. However, the presence of Wolbachia in wild An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia is unknown. This study aimed to identify the presence and diversity of Wolbachia in An. stephensi across eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from An. stephensi collected from eastern Ethiopia in 2018 and screened for Wolbachia using a 16S targeted PCR assay, as well as multilocus strain typing (MLST) PCR assays. Haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced 16S amplicons were conducted to compare with Wolbachia from countries across Africa and Asia. RESULTS: Twenty out of the 184 mosquitoes screened were positive for Wolbachia, with multiple haplotypes detected. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed two superclades, representing Wolbachia supergroups A and B (bootstrap values of 81 and 72, respectively) with no significant grouping of geographic location or species. A subclade with a bootstrap value of 89 separates the Ethiopian haplotype 2 from other sequences in that superclade. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first evidence of natural Wolbachia populations in wild An. stephensi in the HOA. They also identify the need for further research to confirm the endosymbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and An. stephensi and to investigate its utility for malaria control in the HOA.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Developing a granular scale environmental burden index (EBI) for diverse land cover types across the contiguous United States
        Owusu C, Flanagan B, Lavery AM, Mertzlufft CE, McKenzie BA, Kolling J, Lewis B, Dunn I, Hallisey E, Lehnert EA, Fletcher K, Davis R, Conn M, Owen LR, Smith MM, Dent A.
        Sci Total Environ. 2022 May 16:155908.
        Critical to identifying the risk of environmentally driven disease is an understanding of the cumulative impact of environmental conditions on human health. Here we describe the methodology used to develop an environmental burden index (EBI). The EBI is calculated at U.S. census tract level, a finer scale than many similar national-level tools. EBI scores are also stratified by tract land cover type as per the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), controlling for urbanicity. The EBI was developed over the course of four stages: 1) literature review to identify potential indicators, 2) data source acquisition and indicator variable construction, 3) index creation, and 4) stratification by land cover type. For each potential indicator, data sources were assessed for completeness, update frequency, and availability. These indicators were: (1) particulate matter (PM2.5), (2) ozone, (3) Superfund National Priority List (NPL) locations, (4) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, (5) Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) facilities, (6) recreational parks, (7) railways, (8) highways, (9) airports, and (10) impaired water sources. Indicators were statistically normalized and checked for collinearity. For each indicator, we computed and summed percentile ranking scores to create an overall ranking for each tract. Tracts having the same plurality of land cover type form a 'peer' group. We re-ranked the tracts into percentiles within each peer group for each indicator. The percentile scores were combined for each tract to obtain a stratified EBI. A higher score reveals a tract with increased environmental burden relative to other tracts of the same peer group. We compared our results to those of related indices, finding good convergent validity between the overall EBI and CalEnviroScreen 4.0. The EBI has many potential applications for research and use as a tool to develop public health interventions at a granular scale.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Implementing a DHIS2 Ebola virus disease module during the 2021 Guinea Ebola outbreak
        Eggers C, Martel L, Dismer A, Kallay R, Sayre D, Choi M, Corvil S, Kaba A, Keita B, Diallo L, Balde MM, Bah M, Camara SM, Koivogui E, Montgomery J, Keita S.
        BMJ Glob Health. 2022 May;7(5).
        In 2017, the national agency for health security (L'Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire-ANSS) in Guinea implemented the District Health Information Software (DHIS2) as the Ministry of Health national surveillance system to capture and report aggregate disease data. During 2019, the ANSS started using DHIS2 Tracker to collect case-based (individual-level) data for epidemic-prone diseases. In 2020, the capability was expanded, and it was used during the COVID-19 pandemic to capture data relevant to the COVID-19 response. When an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was announced in February 2021, the Tracker module was updated, and enhanced functionalities were developed to meet the needs for the emerging epidemic. This novel EVD module has components to capture information on cases, contacts, alerts, laboratory and vaccinations and provides a centralised site for all EVD outbreak data. It has since been expanded for use with future viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

      2. Estimates of the sizes of key populations (KPs) affected by HIV, including men who have sex with men, female sex workers and people who inject drugs, are required for targeting epidemic control efforts where they are most needed. Unfortunately, different estimators often produce discrepant results, and an objective basis for choice is lacking. This simulation study provides the first comparison of information-theoretic selection of loglinear models (LLM-AIC), Bayesian model averaging of loglinear models (LLM-BMA) and Bayesian nonparametric latent-class modeling (BLCM) for estimation of population size from multiple lists. Four hundred random samples from populations of size 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000, each including five encounter opportunities, were independently simulated using each of 30 data-generating models obtained from combinations of six patterns of variation in encounter probabilities and five expected per-list encounter probabilities, producing a total of 36,000 samples. Population size was estimated for each combination of sample and sequentially cumulative sets of 2-5 lists using LLM-AIC, LLM-BMA and BLCM. LLM-BMA and BLCM were quite robust and performed comparably in terms of root mean-squared error and bias, and outperformed LLM-AIC. All estimation methods produced uncertainty intervals which failed to achieve the nominal coverage, but LLM-BMA, as implemented in the dga R package produced the best balance of accuracy and interval coverage. The results also indicate that two-list estimation is unnecessarily vulnerable, and it is better to estimate the sizes of KPs based on at least three lists.

      3. How do we…form and coordinate a national serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 within the blood collection industry?
        Fink RV, Fisher L, Sulaeman H, Dave H, Levy ME, McCann L, Di Germanio C, Notari EP, Green V, Cyrus S, Williamson P, Saa P, Haynes JM, Groves J, Mathew S, Kaidarova Z, Bruhn R, Grebe E, Opsomer J, Jones JM, Miller MJ, Busch MP, Stone M.
        Transfusion. 2022 May 24.
        BACKGROUND: A national serosurvey of US blood donors conducted in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was initiated to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccinations. METHODS: Beginning in July 2020, the Nationwide Blood Donor Seroprevalence Study collaborated with multiple blood collection organizations, testing labs, and leadership from government partners to capture, test, and analyze approximately 150,000 blood donation specimens per month in a repeated, cross-sectional seroprevalence survey. RESULTS: A CDC website (https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#nationwide-blood-donor-seroprevalence) provided stratified, population-level results to public health professionals and the general public. DISCUSSION: The study adapted operations as the pandemic evolved, changing specimen flow and testing algorithms, and collecting additional data elements in response to changing policies on universal blood donation screening and administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike-based vaccines. The national serosurvey demonstrated the utility of serosurveillance testing of residual blood donations and highlighted the role of the blood collection industry in public-private partnerships during a public health emergency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    • Health Equity and Health Disparities
      1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infection, but uptake remains challenging among Black and Hispanic/Latino persons. The purpose of this review was to understand how studies have used electronic telecommunication technology to increase awareness, uptake, adherence, and persistence in PrEP care among Black and Hispanic/Latino persons and how it can reduce social and structural barriers that contribute to disparities in HIV infection. Of the 1114 articles identified, 10 studies were eligible. Forty percent (40%) of studies focused on Black or Hispanic/Latino persons and 80% addressed social and structural barriers related to PrEP use such as navigation or access to PrEP. Mobile health designs were more commonly used (50%) compared to telehealth (30%) and e-health (20%) designs. There is a need to increase the development of telecommunications interventions that address the needs of Black and Hispanic/Latino persons often challenged with uptake and adherent use of PrEP.

      2. County-level sociodemographic differences in availability of two medications for opioid use disorder: United States, 2019
        Corry B, Underwood N, Cremer LJ, Rooks-Peck CR, Jones C.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 May 13;236:109495.
        BACKGROUND: Differences in availability of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) buprenorphine and methadone exist. Factors that may influence such differences in availability include sociodemographic characteristics but research in this area is limited. We explore the association between county-level sociodemographic factors and MOUD treatment availability. METHODS: County-level Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) data were used to determine the presence or absence of buprenorphine treatment or opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and the level of availability of these types of treatment in a county. Hurdle models were used to examine the associations of our covariates with any MOUD treatment availability and level of available treatment. RESULTS: The odds of a county having OTP availability were higher for counties with higher percentages of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic populations and higher drug overdose death rates. Counties with higher percentages of persons in poverty and drug overdose death rates had higher odds of maximum potential buprenorphine treatment capacity, while counties with high percentages of persons without health insurance, with disability, and rural counties had lower odds. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in the county-level availability of OTPs and buprenorphine treatment. Our findings expand on prior studies illustrating that barriers to accessing treatment persist and are not evenly distributed among sociodemographic groups, further study is needed to examine if barriers of availability translate to barriers in receiving treatment. Given the escalating overdose crisis in the U.S., expanding equitable availability of MOUD is critical. Informed strategies are needed to reach areas and populations in greatest need.

      3. Factors associated with use of HIV prevention and health care among transgender women - seven urban areas, 2019-2020
        Lee K, Trujillo L, Olansky E, Robbins T, Brune CA, Morris E, Finlayson T, Kanny D, Wejnert C.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 20;71(20):673-679.
        Transgender women* are disproportionately affected by HIV. Among 1,608 transgender women who participated in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) during 2019-2020, 42% received a positive HIV test result (1). This report provides results from seven U.S. urban areas where the 2019-2020 NHBS questionnaire was administered. Thirty-eight percent of participants reported having previously received a positive test result for HIV. Detrimental socioeconomic factors, including low income (44%), homelessness (39%), and severe food insecurity in the past 12 months (40%), were common and associated with lower receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services. Having a usual health care source or a provider with whom the participant was comfortable discussing gender-related health issues was associated with improved HIV prevention and treatment outcomes, including HIV testing, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, and viral suppression. These findings illustrate the benefit of gender-affirming approaches used by health care providers (2), and highlight the challenging socioeconomic conditions faced by many transgender women. Ensuring access to gender-affirming health care approaches and addressing the socioeconomic challenges of many transgender women could improve access to and use of HIV prevention and care in this population and will help achieve the goals of the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States initiative (3).

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. This specific case study focuses on the application of three of the surveillance concepts included in the Patient Safety Component, Chapter 2 - Identifying Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) for NHSN Surveillance. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN HAI surveillance definitions and encourage accurate HAI event determination among Infection Preventionists (IPs).

      2. Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, ventilator-associated events, and nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in acute-care hospitals: 2022 Update
        Klompas M, Branson R, Cawcutt K, Crist M, Eichenwald EC, Greene LR, Lee G, Maragakis LL, Powell K, Priebe GP, Speck K, Yokoe DS, Berenholtz SM.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May 20:1-27.
        The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.

      3. Continued increases in HAI incidence during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic
        Lastinger LM, Alvarez CR, Kofman A, Konnor RY, Kuhar DT, Nkwata A, Patel PR, Pattabiraman V, Xu SY, Dudeck MA.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May 20:1-19.
        National Healthcare Safety Network data were analyzed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence of healthcare-associated infections during 2021. Standardized infection ratios were significantly higher than those during the pre-pandemic period, particularly during 2021-Q1 and 2021-Q3. HAI incidence was elevated during periods of high COVID-19 hospitalizations.

      4. SARS-CoV-2 outbreak investigation in a hospital emergency department - California, December 2020 - January 2021
        Li R, Beshearse E, Malden D, Truong H, Kraushaar V, Bonin BJ, Kim J, Kennedy I, McNary J, Han GS, Rudman SL, Perz JF, Perkins KM, Glowicz J, Epson E, Benowitz I, Villarino E.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May 20:1-21.
        We describe a large SARS-CoV-2 outbreak involving an acute care hospital emergency department during December 2020 and January 2021, in which 27 healthcare personnel worked while infectious, resulting in multiple opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and other healthcare personnel. We provide recommendations for improving infection prevention and control.

      5. Trends in facility-level rates of Clostridioides difficile infections in US hospitals, 2019-2020
        Rose AN, Baggs J, Kazakova SV, Guh AY, Yi SH, McCarthy NL, Jernigan JA, Reddy SC.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May 19:1-8.
        OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused substantial changes to healthcare delivery and antibiotic prescribing beginning in March 2020. To assess pandemic impact on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates, we described patients and trends in facility-level incidence, testing rates, and percent positivity during 2019-2020 in a large cohort of US hospitals. METHODS: We estimated and compared rates of community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) per 10,000 discharges, hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) per 10,000 patient days, and C. difficile testing rates per 10,000 discharges in 2019 and 2020. We calculated percent positivity as the number of inpatients diagnosed with CDI over the total number of discharges with a test for C. difficile. We used an interrupted time series (ITS) design with negative binomial and logistic regression models to describe level and trend changes in rates and percent positivity before and after March 2020. RESULTS: In pairwise comparisons, overall CO-CDI rates decreased from 20.0 to 15.8 between 2019 and 2020 (P < .0001). HO-CDI rates did not change. Using ITS, we detected decreasing monthly trends in CO-CDI (-1% per month, P = .0036) and HO-CDI incidence (-1% per month, P < .0001) during the baseline period, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic declaration. We detected no change in monthly trends for CO-CDI or HO-CDI incidence or percent positivity after March 2020 compared with the baseline period. CONCLUSIONS: While there was a slight downward trajectory in CDI trends prior to March 2020, no significant change in CDI trends occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic despite changes in infection control practices, antibiotic use, and healthcare delivery.

      6. Characteristics of nursing home residents and healthcare personnel with repeat positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥ 90 days after initial infection: 4 U.S. Jurisdictions, July 2020 - March 2021
        Wilson WW, Hatfield KM, Tressler S, Bicking Kinsey C, Parra G, Zell R, Denson A, Williams C, Spicer KB, Ahmed-Kamal I, Abdalhamid B, Gemechu M, Folster J, Thornburg NJ, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Queen K, Tong S, Jernigan J, Crist M, Perkins KM, Reddy SC.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 May 20:1-18.
        One of six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. BACKGROUND: While other studies have reported estimates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake by broad occupational group, little is known about vaccine uptake by detailed occupational category. METHODS: Data on COVID-19 vaccination were provided by US adults ages ≥18 years old who responded to the Facebook/Delphi Group COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (Delphi US CTIS) in April-May 2021, reported working for pay in the past 4 weeks, and answered questions about their COVID-19 vaccine status. Percentages of occupational groups reporting having had at least one COVID-19 vaccination were weighted to resemble the US general population and calculated for 23 major occupational groups and 120 detailed occupational categories in 15 major groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 vaccine uptake for all 828,401 working adult respondents was 73.6%. Uptake varied considerably across the 23 major occupational groups, from 45.7% for Construction and Extraction to 87.9% for Education, Training, and Library. Percentage vaccinated was also very low for Installation, Maintenance, and Repair at 52.1% and Farming, Fishing, and Forestry at 53.9%. Among the 120 detailed occupational categories, the highest percentage vaccinated was 93.9% for Postsecondary Teacher and the three lowest values were 39.1% for Any Extraction Worker in Oil, Gas, Mining, or Quarrying; 40.1% for Vehicle or Mobile Equipment Mechanic, Installer, or Repairer; and 42.0% for Any Construction Trades Worker. CONCLUSION: Low vaccination percentages were seen in many US occupations by the end of May 2021, early in the period of widespread availability of vaccines for adults. These findings could help inform the deployment of occupation-specific vaccinepromotion activities during future viral epidemics and pandemics.

      2. Effectiveness of homologous and heterologous COVID-19 boosters against Omicron
        Accorsi EK, Britton A, Shang N, Fleming-Dutra KE, Link-Gelles R, Smith ZR, Derado G, Miller J, Schrag SJ, Verani JR.
        N Engl J Med. 2022 May 25.

      3. Nationwide introduction of HPV vaccine in Zimbabwe 2018-2019: experiences with multiple cohort vaccination delivery
        Carlton JG, Marembo J, Manangazira P, Rupfutse M, Shearley A, Makwabarara E, Hidle A, Loharikar A.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(4).
        The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls aged 9-14 years for cervical cancer prevention and encourages vaccinating multiple cohorts in the first year to maximize impact. The HPV vaccine was introduced nationwide in Zimbabwe in 2018 through a 1-week school-based campaign to multiple cohorts (all girls 10-14 years old), followed by a single cohort (grade 5 girls in school and age 10 girls out-of-school) in 2019. During the 2019 campaign, the multiple cohort's second dose was concurrently delivered with the single cohort's first dose. We interviewed national-level key informants, reviewed written materials, and observed vaccination sessions to document HPV vaccine introduction in Zimbabwe and identify best practices and challenges. Key informants included focal persons from government health and education ministries, in-country immunization partners, and HPV Vaccine Strategic Advisory Group members. We conducted a desk review of policy/strategy documents, introduction plans, readiness reports, presentations, and implementation tools. Vaccination sessions were observed in three provinces during the 2019 campaign. Key informants (n = 8) identified high cervical cancer burden, political will, vaccine availability, donor financing, and a successful pilot program as factors driving the decision to introduce the HPV vaccine nationally. The school-based delivery strategy was well accepted, with strong collaboration between health and education sectors and high community demand for vaccine identified as key contributors to this success. Challenges with transitioning from a multiple age-based to single grade- and age-based target population as well as funding shortages for operational costs were reported. Zimbabwe's first multiple cohort, school-based HPV vaccination campaign was considered successful-primarily due to strong collaboration between health and education sectors and political commitment; however, challenges vaccinating overlapping cohorts in the 2019 campaign were observed. Integration with existing health and vaccination activities and continued resource mobilization will ensure sustainability of Zimbabwe's HPV vaccination program in the future.

      4. Feasibility and acceptability of nationwide HPV vaccine introduction in Senegal: findings from community-level cross-sectional surveys, 2020
        Doshi RH, Casey RM, Adrien N, Ndiaye A, Brennan T, Roka JL, Bathily A, Ndiaye C, Li A, Garon J, Badiane O, Diallo A, Loharikar A.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(4).
        In Senegal, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from all cancers. In 2018, Senegal launched a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), support. HPV vaccination was incorporated into the national immunization program as a two-dose schedule, with a 6-12-month interval, to nine-year-old girls via routine immunization (RI) services at health facilities, schools and community outreach services throughout the year. During February to March 2020, we conducted interviews to assess the awareness, feasibility, and acceptability of the HPV vaccination program with a cross-sectional convenience sample of healthcare workers (HCWs), school personnel, community healthcare workers (cHCWs), parents, and community leaders from 77 rural and urban health facility catchment areas. Participants were asked questions on HPV vaccine knowledge, delivery, training, and community acceptability of the program. We conducted a descriptive analysis stratified by respondent type. Data were collected from 465 individuals: 77 HCW, 78 school personnel, 78 cHCWs, 152 parents, and community leaders. The majority of HCWs (83.1%) and cHCWs (74.4%) and school personnel (57.7%) attended a training on HPV vaccine before program launch. Of all respondents, most (52.5-87.2%) were able to correctly identify the target population. The majority of respondents (60.2-77.5%) felt that the vaccine was very accepted or accepted in the community. Senegal's HPV vaccine introduction program, among the first national programs in the African region, was accepted by community stakeholders. Training rates were high, and most respondents identified the target population correctly. However, continued technical support is needed for the integration of HPV vaccination as a RI activity for this non-traditional age group. The Senegal experience can be a useful resource for countries planning to introduce the HPV vaccine.

      5. Development of effective messages to promote maternal immunization in Kenya
        Frew PM, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Otieno NA, Malik FA, Fenimore VL, Owino D, Adero MO, Atito RO, Bigogod G, Chaves SS, Verani JR, Alain Widdowson M, Omer SB.
        Vaccine. 2022 May 19.
        OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated messages and communication approaches for maternal immunization uptake in Kenya. We identified persuasive communication aspects that would inform maternal immunization attitudes, intent, and vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a two-phased mixed methods study with pregnant women and their male partners in three regions of Kenya. Discussions were conducted in English and Swahili languages by trained focus group moderators. Baseline measures included a survey and discussions about potential messages and accompanying visuals. Follow-up focus groups with the same participants included a survey about previously discussed messages, visuals, and communication impressions. The second round of focus groups focused on message preferences developed from the first round, along with rank order discussion for final message selection. Following transcription of focus group discussions, we conducted analyses using NVivo software. Quantitative data analyses included frequencies, factor analyses, reliability assessment, regression modeling, and comparative assessment of rank order. RESULTS: The sample (N = 118) included pregnant women (n = 91) and their partners (n = 27) from diverse Kenyan regions (Bondo/Lwak/Siaya, Mombasa, and Nairobi). A four-factor solution resulted from factor analyses that included subscales "positive ad attitudes" (n = 5 items, α = 0.82), "negative ad attitudes" (n = 4 items, α = 0.75), "ad indifference" (n = 2 items, α = 0.52), and "ad motivation" (n = 4 items, α = 0.71). Overall, the positive ad attitudes factor (β = 0.61, p = 0.03) was the only significant component in the overall model examining message selections (χ(2)((6)) = 262.87, p = 0.17). Among the tested concepts, we found that source and situational cues had a strong influence on women's attitude formation and intention to obtain recommended maternal vaccinations. With self-acknowledged variations in knowledge, participants were particularly attuned to images of relatable women, providers, and depictions in realistic or actual Kenyan clinical settings. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that positive attitudes were shaped by incorporating highly relatable factors in messages. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed.

    • Informatics
      1. Identifying cases of shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) in the United States: Development and validation of a natural language processing method
        Zheng C, Duffy J, Liu IA, Sy LS, Navarro RA, Kim SS, Ryan DS, Chen W, Qian L, Mercado C, Jacobsen SJ.
        JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2022 May 24;8(5):e30426.
        BACKGROUND: Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) accounts for more than half of all claims received by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. However, due to the difficulty of finding SIRVA cases in large health care databases, population-based studies are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) method to identify SIRVA cases from clinical notes. METHODS: We conducted the study among members of a large integrated health care organization who were vaccinated between April 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, and had subsequent diagnosis codes indicative of shoulder injury. Based on a training data set with a chart review reference standard of 164 cases, we developed an NLP algorithm to extract shoulder disorder information, including prior vaccination, anatomic location, temporality and causality. The algorithm identified 3 groups of positive SIRVA cases (definite, probable, and possible) based on the strength of evidence. We compared NLP results to a chart review reference standard of 100 vaccinated cases. We then applied the final automated NLP algorithm to a broader cohort of vaccinated persons with a shoulder injury diagnosis code and performed manual chart confirmation on a random sample of NLP-identified definite cases and all NLP-identified probable and possible cases. RESULTS: In the validation sample, the NLP algorithm had 100% accuracy for identifying 4 SIRVA cases and 96 cases without SIRVA. In the broader cohort of 53,585 vaccinations, the NLP algorithm identified 291 definite, 124 probable, and 52 possible SIRVA cases. The chart-confirmation rates for these groups were 95.5% (278/291), 67.7% (84/124), and 17.3% (9/52), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm performed with high sensitivity and reasonable specificity in identifying positive SIRVA cases. The NLP algorithm can potentially be used in future population-based studies to identify this rare adverse event, avoiding labor-intensive chart review validation.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner violence among youth in Cambodia: A latent class analysis
        Miedema SS, Le VD, Chiang L, Ngann T, Wu Shortt J.
        J Interpers Violence. 2022 Apr 26:8862605221090573.
        Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a global public health problem, including in low- and middle-income country settings, and are associated with increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) during young adulthood. However, current measurement of ACEs may underestimate sequelae of different combinations, or classes, of ACEs and mask class-specific associations with adult exposure to IPV. We used data among ever-partnered young women and men aged 18-24 years from the Cambodia Violence Against Children Survey (N(w) = 369; N(m) = 298). Participants retrospectively reported on seven ACEs and lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV victimization and perpetration. Latent classes comprised of ACEs were used as predictors of physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration and victimization, controlling for household wealth. Identified latent classes for women were "Low ACEs" (60%), "Community Violence and Physical Abuse" (23%), and "Physical, Sexual and Emotional Abuse" (17%). Latent classes for men were "Low ACEs" (48%) and "Household and Community Violence" (52%). Among women, those in the Physical, Sexual and Emotional Abuse class were more likely to experience and perpetrate physical and/or sexual IPV in their romantic relationships compared to the reference group (Low ACEs). Women in the Community Violence and Physical Abuse class were more likely to perpetrate physical and/or sexual IPV, but not experience IPV, compared to women in the Low ACEs class. Among men, those in the Household and Community Violence class were more likely to perpetrate physical and/or sexual IPV against a partner, compared to men in the Low ACEs class. Overall, patterns of ACEs were differently associated with IPV outcomes among young women and men in Cambodia. National violence prevention efforts might consider how different combinations of childhood experiences shape risk of young adulthood IPV and tailor interventions accordingly to work with youth disproportionately affected by varied combinations of ACEs.

      2. Sports participation, social networks, and sexual violence perpetration
        Nickodem KK, Basile KC, Espelage DL, Leemis RW, Ingram KM.
        J Interpers Violence. 2022 Apr 26:8862605221092067.
        Adolescent sexual violence (SV), which includes non-contact verbal sexual harassment (SH) and forced sexual contact (FSC), is a significant public health problem with long-term impacts on health and well-being. Understanding how sports participation is linked to SV can inform prevention efforts; however, the current literature is unclear about the nature of this association. Using data from 20 high schools, we investigate whether athletes in certain sports are at higher risk of SH and FSC perpetration than either other athletes or sports non-participants, and whether the risk is moderated by gender, dismissiveness of SV, or substance use intentions. We also utilize social network data to explore the role of relationships with peers and trusted adults to attenuate SH and FSC perpetration. Second, we incorporate characteristics of friends to further examine the role and composition of peer groups in the association between sports participation and perpetration of SH and FSC. Findings revealed a bivariate association between sport contact level and SH perpetration, but not FSC, and the association disappeared after adjusting for other covariates. Most prominently, dismissiveness of SV, intentions to use substances, and prior perpetration had the strongest association with perpetration regardless of sport contact level. Results also provided some support for the influence of peers and trusted adults in the sports context. Notably, the percentage of friends who perpetrated FSC and the percentage of friends who play a low-contact sport were positively associated with FSC perpetration, and the percentage of friends who play a high-contact sport was positively associated with SH perpetration. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sports context as an important venue for comprehensive prevention efforts, including a focus on changing norms around adolescent SV and substance use.

      3. Food insecurity and suicidal behaviors among US high school students
        Brown AD, Seligman H, Sliwa S, Barnidge E, Krupsky KL, Demissie Z, Liese AD.
        J Sch Health. 2022 May 24.
        BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) rates in the United States are particularly high among households with children. This research set aims to analyze if high school students experiencing FI had higher risk for mental health and suicidal behaviors. METHODS: Using combined data from 11 states that conducted the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a total of 26,962 and 24,051 high school students were used to estimate race/ethnicity and sex-stratified prevalence ratios (PRs) from Poisson regression models. A single-question was used to measure the exposure of FI and outcomes of mental health and suicidal behaviors. RESULTS: Overall, 10.8% of students reported FI. Students experiencing FI had increased risk for all mental health and suicide behavior outcomes, regardless of their race/ethnicity or sex. PRs ranged from 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.8, 2.0) to 3.1 (CI: 2.7, 3.6). Among males, PRs for the association between FI and all outcomes were highest among non-Hispanic black students (PRs ranged from 2.4 [CI: 1.7, 3.2] to 5.5 [CI: 2.3, 13.3]). Among females, PRs were highest among non-Hispanic white students (PRs ranged from 1.9 [CI:1.7, 2.1] to 3.6 [CI:2.9, 4.5]). CONCLUSIONS: FI is consistently associated with mental health and suicidal behaviors among different subgroups of students.

      4. Surveillance for violent deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 42 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2019
        Wilson RF, Liu G, Lyons BH, Petrosky E, Harrison DD, Betz CJ, Blair JM.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2022 May 20;71(6):1-40.
        PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2019, approximately 67,000 persons died of violence-related injuries in the United States. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) on violent deaths that occurred in 42 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 2019. Results are reported by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, method of injury, type of location where the injury occurred, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. PERIOD COVERED: 2019. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner and medical examiner records, and law enforcement reports. This report includes data collected for violent deaths that occurred in 2019. Data were collected from 39 states with statewide data (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming), three states with data from counties representing a subset of their population (30 California counties, representing 57% of its population, and 47 Illinois counties and 40 Pennsylvania counties, representing at least 80% of their populations), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. NVDRS collates information for each violent death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, homicide followed by suicide, or multiple suicides) into a single incident. RESULTS: For 2019, NVDRS collected information on 50,374 fatal incidents involving 51,627 deaths that occurred in 42 states (39 states collecting statewide data, 30 California counties, 47 Illinois counties, and 40 Pennsylvania counties), and the District of Columbia. In addition, information was collected for 831 fatal incidents involving 897 deaths in Puerto Rico. Data for Puerto Rico were analyzed separately. Of the 51,627 deaths, the majority (64.1%) were suicides, followed by homicides (25.1%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.7%), legal intervention deaths (1.4%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force acting in the line of duty, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (<1.0%). The term "legal intervention" is a classification incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement. Demographic patterns and circumstances varied by manner of death. The suicide rate was higher for males than for females. Across all age groups, the suicide rate was highest among adults aged 45-54 years. In addition, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) and non-Hispanic White (White) persons had the highest suicide rates among all racial and ethnic groups. Among males, the most common method of injury for suicide was a firearm, whereas poisoning was the most common method of injury among females. Among all suicide victims, suicide was most often preceded by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical health problem or by a recent or impending crisis during the previous or upcoming 2 weeks. The homicide rate was higher for males than for females. Among all homicide victims, the homicide rate was highest among persons aged 20-24 years compared with other age groups. Non-Hispanic Black (Black) males experienced the highest homicide rate of any racial or ethnic group. Among all homicide victims, the most common method of injury was a firearm. When the relationship between a homicide victim and a suspect was known, the suspect was most frequently an acquaintance or friend for male victims and a current or former intimate partner for female victims. Homicide most often was precipitated by an argument or conflict, occurred in conjunction with another crime, or, for female victims, was related to intimate partner violence. Nearly all victims of legal intervention deaths were male, and the legal intervention death rate was highest among men aged 25-29 years. The legal intervention death rate was highest among AI/AN males, followed by Black males. A firearm was used in the majority of legal intervention deaths. When a specific type of crime was known to have precipitated a legal intervention death, the type of crime was most frequently assault or homicide. The three most frequent circumstances reported for legal intervention deaths were as follows: the victim's death was precipitated by another crime, the victim used a weapon in the incident, and the victim had a mental health or substance use problem (other than alcohol use). Unintentional firearm deaths were most frequently experienced by males, White persons, and persons aged 15-24 years. These deaths most frequently occurred while the shooter was playing with a firearm and were precipitated by a person unintentionally pulling the trigger or mistakenly thinking the firearm was unloaded. The rate of deaths of undetermined intent was highest among males, particularly among Black and AI/AN males, and among adults aged 30-44 years. Poisoning was the most common method of injury in deaths of undetermined intent, and opioids were detected in nearly 80% of decedents tested for those substances. INTERPRETATION: This report provides a detailed summary of data from NVDRS on violent deaths that occurred in 2019. The suicide rate was highest among AI/AN and White males, whereas the homicide rate was highest among Black males. Mental health problems, intimate partner problems, interpersonal conflicts, and acute life stressors were primary circumstances for multiple types of violent death. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Violence is preventable, and data can guide public health action. NVDRS data are used to monitor the occurrence of violence-related fatal injuries and assist public health authorities in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs, policies, and practices to reduce and prevent violent deaths. For example, the New Hampshire Violent Death Reporting System (VDRS), Indiana VDRS, and Colorado VDRS have used their VDRS data to guide suicide prevention efforts and generate reports highlighting where additional focus is needed. In New Hampshire, VDRS data have been used to monitor the increase in suicide rates during 2014-2018 and guide statewide collaborative prevention efforts. Indiana VDRS used local data to demonstrate differences in suicide and other related mental health problems among Black persons and highlight a need for improved suicide awareness and culturally competent mental health care. The Colorado VDRS conducted geospatial and demographic analysis, considering local VDRS data with existing suicide prevention efforts and resources, to identify regions with high suicide rates regions and populations at high risk for suicide. Similarly, states participating in NVDRS have used their VDRS data to examine related to homicide in their state. In North Carolina for example, where homicide rates among AI/AN and Black persons were approximately 2.5 times higher than the statewide homicide rate, the North Carolina VDRS program aims to partner with historically Black colleges and universities in the state to train researchers to use VDRS data to address health equity issues in and around their immediate community.

      5. Homicide during pregnancy and the postpartum period in the United States, 2018-2019
        Goodman DA, Beauregard JL, Trost SL, Declercq E.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Apr 1;139(4):692.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Analytically sensitive Rickettsia species detection for laboratory diagnosis
        Chung IH, Robinson LK, Stewart-Juba JJ, Dasch GA, Kato CY.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Mar 14.
        Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of rickettsial diseases is challenging because of the undifferentiated symptoms (commonly fever, headache, and malaise) and low bacteremia (< 100 genomic copies [gc]/mL) during the early acute stage of illness. Early treatment with doxycycline is critical for a positive outcome, especially in Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) infections where cases may be fatal within 5 to 10 days from symptom onset, emphasizing the need for more sensitive diagnostics. A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, RCKr, was developed and validated for Rickettsia spp. nucleic acid detection in human clinical samples. The limit of detection for RCKr was determined to be 20 gc/mL, compared with our 2013 (Kato et al.) laboratory developed test, PanR8 at 1,800 to 2,000 gc/mL. Inclusivity, exclusivity, accuracy, and precision results correlated as expected. From an evaluation of 49 banked clinical samples, RCKr detected 35 previously positive samples, as well as two specimens that were PanR8 real-time PCR negative yet clinically diagnosed as possible rickettsiosis. Ct values from RCKr clinical sample testing show a 100-fold increase relative to PanR8. Additional testing is needed to understand the clinical sensitivity of RCKr; however, this study demonstrates RCKr to have high analytical specificity and sensitivity for Rickettsia detection.

      2. Histoplasmosis, one of the most frequent endemic mycoses in the Americas, is caused by the inhalation of airborne conidia of Histoplasma capsulatum. Better understanding of the distribution of this fungus in the environment is important for the development of appropriate public health measures to prevent human infections. Previously, we used Hc100 nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify H. capsulatum DNA in 10% of environmental samples in Colombia. Here, we validate a 100-kDa real-time PCR assay for the detection of this fungus in the environment. Using this method, we identified H. capsulatum DNA in 80% of samples of raw organic materials, such as chicken manure, soil from caves, and bird and bat guano, as well as in 62% of samples of organic fertilizer that underwent the composting process. We demonstrated that 100-KDa real-time PCR is a useful tool for environmental surveillance that can be used to identify the potential reservoirs of H. capsulatum and to prevent outbreaks, especially in people with the higher risk of exposure, such as spelunkers, farmers, poultry manure collectors, and anyone who handle organic fertilizers or bat and bird excreta.

      3. Fibrogenic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) induce the polarization of M1 and M2 macrophages in mouse lungs. Polarization of the macrophages differentiates the production of proinflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (LMs) to mediate acute inflammation and its resolution in a time-dependent manner. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) induce M1 polarization in vitro, with focus on induction of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), which is required to produce proinflammatory LMs, such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Treatment of J774A.1 macrophages with MWCNTs at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL increased the expression of ALOX5 mRNA by 2.0-fold at 1-day and 2.5-fold at 3-day post-exposure. At a concentration of 10 µg/mL, MWCNTs increased the ALOX5 mRNA expression by 3.5-fold at 1-day and 5.0-fold at 3-day post-exposure. Immunoblotting shows that MWCNTs significantly increased the ALOX5 protein expression in macrophages. Luciferase reporter assays with the mouse ALOX5 promoter of 2 kilobase upstream of translation start codon demonstrate that the ALOX5 promoter activity increased more than 5-fold over background. This activity was significantly elevated following 5'-deletion analyses of ALOX5 promoter and further enhanced by MWCNT treatment, implicating a transcriptional mechanism in the induction of ALOX5. MWCNTs preferentially induced the expression of CD68, a cell surface marker of M1, by 2.5-fold and induction was persistently high to 3-day post-exposure. Moreover, both the expression and activity of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, an intracellular marker of M1 macrophages, were increased by MWCNTs, indicating induction of M1 polarization. Consistent with this notion, MWCNTs increased the capacity of the macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and proinflammatory LMs, such as LTB4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Taken together, these results support that persistent exposure to MWCNTs polarizes macrophages to M1 cells with induction of ALOX5 and elevated production of proinflammatory LMs to boost the acute inflammatory response to fibrogenic nanoparticles. © FASEB.

      4. Laboratory validation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Jamestown Canyon virus
        Hughes HR, Kenney JL, Russell BJ, Lambert AJ.
        Pathogens. 2022 ;11(5).
        The neuroinvasive disease caused by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) infection is rare. However, increasing incidence and widespread occurrence of the infection make JCV a growing public health concern. Presently, clinical diagnosis is achieved through serological testing, and mosquito pool surveillance requires virus isolation and identification. A rapid molecular detection test, such as real-time RT-PCR, for diagnosis and surveillance of JCV has not been widely utilized. To enhance testing and surveillance, here, we describe the development and validation of a real-time RT-PCR test for the detection of JCV RNA. Three primer and probe sets were evaluated for analytical sensitivity and specificity. One probe set, JCV132FAM, was found to be the most sensitive test detecting 7.2 genomic equivalents/µL. While less sensitive, a second probe set JCV231cFAM was the most specific test with limited detection of Keystone virus at high RNA loads. Taken together, these data indicate both probe sets can be utilized for a primary sensitive screening assay and a secondary specific confirmatory assay. While both primer and probe sets detected high viral loads of Keystone virus, these assays did not detect any virus in the California encephalitis virus clade, including negative detection of the medically important La Crosse virus (LACV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). The real-time RT-PCR assay described herein could be utilized in diagnosis and surveillance in regions with co-circulation of JCV and LACV or SSHV to inform public health action. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

      5. Performance evaluation of the Asante Rapid Recency Assay for verification of HIV diagnosis and detection of recent HIV-1 infections: implications for epidemic control
        Yufenyuy EL, Detorio M, Dobbs T, Patel HK, Jackson K, Shanmugam V, Parekh BS.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(4).
        We previously described development of a rapid test for recent infection (RTRI) that can diagnose HIV infection and detect HIV-1 recent infections in a single device. This technology was transferred to a commercial partner as Asante Rapid Recency Assay (ARRA). We evaluated performance of the ARRA kits in the laboratory using a well-characterized panel of specimens. The plasma specimen panel (N=1500) included HIV-1 (N=570), HIV-2 (N=10), and HIV-negatives (N=920) representing multiple subtypes and geographic locations. Reference diagnostic data were generated using the Bio-Rad HIV-1-2-O EIA/Western blot algorithm with further serotyping performed using the Multispot HIV-1/2 assay. The LAg-Avidity EIA was used to generate reference data on recent and long-term infection for HIV-1 positive specimens at a normalized optical density (ODn) cutoff of 2.0 corresponding to a mean duration of about 6 months. All specimens were tested with ARRA according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Test strips were also read for line intensities using a reader and results were correlated with visual interpretation. ARRA's positive verification line (PVL) correctly classified 575 of 580 HIV-positive and 910 of 920 negative specimens resulting in a sensitivity of 99.1% (95% CI: 98.0-99.6) and specificity of 98.9% (95% CI: 98.1-99.4), respectively. The reader-based classification was similar for PVL with sensitivity of 99.3% (576/580) and specificity of 98.8% (909/920). ARRA's long-term line (LTL) classified 109 of 565 HIV-1 specimens as recent and 456 as long-term compared to 98 as recent and 467 as long-term (LT) by LAg-Avidity EIA (cutoff ODn=2.0), suggesting a mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) close to 6 months. Agreement of ARRA with LAg recent cases was 81.6% (80/98) and LT cases was 93.8% (438/467), with an overall agreement of 91.7% (kappa=0.72). The reader (cutoff 2.9) classified 109/566 specimens as recent infections compared to 99 by the LAg-Avidity EIA for recency agreement of 81.8% (81/99), LT agreement of 9% (439/467) with overall agreement of 91.9% (kappa=0.72). The agreement between visual interpretation and strip reader was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6-99.9) for the PVL and 98.1% (95% CI: 96.6-98.9) for the LTL. ARRA performed well with HIV diagnostic sensitivity >99% and specificity >98%. Its ability to identify recent infections is comparable to the LA-Avidity EIA corresponding to an MDRI of about 6 months. This point-of-care assay has implications for real-time surveillance of new infections among newly diagnosed individuals for targeted prevention and interrupting ongoing transmission thus accelerating epidemic control.

      6. Evaluation of interactions in chemical mixtures containing cyanides
        Pohl H, Mumtaz M.
        Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2022 May 20:105187.
        Cyanides are highly toxic chemicals found indoors and outdoors, in air, water, and soil. Environmental exposures often are to mixtures of cyanides with other environmental pollutants. Interactive toxicology is the study of the toxicity of a chemical when it occurs with other chemicals or stressors. Such interactions can modify the joint toxicity of a given mixture. Several binary mixtures of cyanides have been studied in humans and animals to develop antidotes, and their mechanism of action is well understood. We used this limited binary weight of evidence to evaluate the toxicity of untested mixtures, extended it, and applied it to complex environmental mixtures to advance methods for joint toxicity assessment. Federal agencies and local entities provide guidance to evaluate such exposures in the absence of specific data. The objective of this paper is to illustrate use and applicability of ATSDR's framework for evaluation of environmental mixtures, specifically the use of weight of evidence in Tier III, using cyanide mixtures as examples. The results show, for certain cyanide mixtures for which data are available, interactions can be evaluated with a high degree of confidence. For complex mixtures that contain unidentified components, such as found in fires, similarity-based grouping risk assessment is proposed.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. State-level estimates of the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and treatment among U.S. children and adolescents, 2016 to 2019
        Danielson ML, Holbrook JR, Bitsko RH, Newsome K, Charania SN, McCord RF, Kogan MD, Blumberg SJ.
        J Atten Disord. 2022 May 22:10870547221099961.
        OBJECTIVE: To provide state-level estimates of diagnosed ADHD and associated treatment among children in the United States in 2016 to 2019. METHOD: This study used the National Survey of Children's Health to produce national and state-level estimates of lifetime diagnosis and current ADHD among all children aged 3 to 17 years (n=114,476), and national and state-level estimates of medication and behavioral treatment use among children with current ADHD. RESULTS: The state-level estimates of diagnosed ADHD ranged from 6.1% to 16.3%. Among children with current ADHD, state-level estimates of ADHD medication usage ranged from 37.8% to 81.4%, and state-level estimates of behavioral treatment ranged from 38.8% to 61.8%. CONCLUSION: There was substantial state-level variation for indicators of ADHD diagnosis and associated treatment. These state-level results can be used by policymakers, public health practitioners, health care providers, and other stakeholders to help address the service needs of children with ADHD in their states.

      2. Enhanced integration of TB services in reproductive maternal newborn and child health (RMNCH) settings in Eswatini
        Hartsough K, Teasdale CA, Shongwe S, Geller A, Gusmao EP, Dlamini P, Mafukidze A, Pasipamire M, Ao T, Ryan C, Modi S, Abrams EJ, Howard AA.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(4).
        Tuberculosis (TB) primarily affects women during their reproductive years and contributes to maternal mortality and poor pregnancy outcomes. For pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV), TB is the leading cause of non-obstetric maternal mortality, and pregnant WLHIV with TB are at increased risk of transmitting both TB and HIV to their infants. TB diagnosis among pregnant women, particularly WLHIV, remains challenging, and TB preventive treatment (TPT) coverage among pregnant WLHIV is limited. This project aimed to strengthen integrated TB and reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health (RMNCH) services in Eswatini to improve screening and treatment for TB disease, TPT uptake and completion among women receiving RMNCH services. The project was conducted from April-December 2017 at four health facilities in Eswatini and introduced enhanced monitoring tools and on-site technical support in RMNCH services. We present data on TB case finding among women, and TPT coverage and completion among eligible WLHIV. A questionnaire (S1 Appendix) measured healthcare provider perspectives on the project after three months of project implementation, including feasibility of scaling-up integrated TB and RMNCH services. A total of 5,724 women (HIV-negative or WLHIV) were screened for active TB disease while attending RMNCH services; 53 (0.9%) were identified with presumptive TB, of whom 37 (70%) were evaluated for TB disease and 6 (0.1% of those screened) were diagnosed with TB. Among 1,950 WLHIV who screened negative for TB, 848 (43%) initiated TPT and 462 (54%) completed. Forty-three healthcare providers completed the questionnaire, and overall were highly supportive of integrated TB and RMNCH services. Integration of TB/HIV services in RMNCH settings was feasible and ensured high TB screening coverage among women of reproductive age, however, symptom screening identified few TB cases, and further studies should explore various screening algorithms and diagnostics that optimize case finding in this population. Interventions should focus on working with healthcare providers and patients to improve TPT initiation and completion rates.

      3. US county-level estimation for maternal and infant health-related behavior indicators using pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system data, 2016-2018
        Wang Y, Tevendale H, Lu H, Cox S, Carlson SA, Li R, Shulman H, Morrow B, Hastings PA, Barfield WD.
        Popul Health Metr. 2022 May 21;20(1):14.
        BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for maternal and child health data at the local level (for example, county), yet most counties lack sustainable resources or capabilities to collect local-level data. In such case, model-based small area estimation (SAE) could be a feasible approach. SAE for maternal or infant health-related behaviors at small areas has never been conducted or evaluated. METHODS: We applied multilevel regression with post-stratification approach to produce county-level estimates using Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data, 2016-2018 (n = 65,803 from 23 states) for 2 key outcomes, breastfeeding at 8 weeks and infant non-supine sleeping position. RESULTS: Among the 1,471 counties, the median model estimate of breastfeeding at 8 weeks was 59.8% (ranged from 34.9 to 87.4%), and the median of infant non-supine sleeping position was 16.6% (ranged from 10.3 to 39.0%). Strong correlations were found between model estimates and direct estimates for both indicators at the state level. Model estimates for both indicators were close to direct estimates in magnitude for Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. CONCLUSION: Our findings support this approach being potentially applied to other maternal and infant health and behavioral indicators in PRAMS to facilitate public health decision-making at the local level.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Silicosis, an irreversible occupational lung disease caused by crystalline silica inhalation, is a serious health risk for silica-exposed workers. NIOSH reports that Appalachian coal miners have higher rates of obesity and metabolic dysfunction (MetDys) compared to the general U.S. adult population. MetDys is a risk factor for lung function impairment, pulmonary hypertension, and asthma. Consumption of a high-fat Western diet (HFWD) is associated with obesity and MetDys. In this study, we investigated the effects of, and determine interactions between, HFWD-consumption and silica-exposure on airway epithelial ion transport and smooth muscle reactivity in the F344 rat. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed either a HFWD [40.6% fat (19.5% lard), 40.6% total carbohydrate (20% sucrose), 14.8 % protein] or standard rat chow (STD) [6.2 % fat, 44.2 % carbohydrate (grain sources), 18.6 % protein] for the duration of the study. Following 16 weeks of diet-consumption, inhalation exposure to respirable crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil 5® , 15 mg/m3 , 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 39 d) or filtered air began, with endpoint experiments conducted at 0, 4, and 8 wk post-exposure. Airway epithelial ion transport maintains airway surface liquid osmolarity and depth required for effective cilia motility and clearance of xenogens. Changes in ion transport were determined ex vivo by measurement of transepithelial potential difference (Vt ), short-circuit current (ISC ) and transepithelial resistance (Rt ) in rat tracheal segments mounted in Ussing chambers, and administered the ion transport inhibitors amiloride (Na+ channel blocker; apical), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB; Cl- channel blocker; apical), and ouabain (Na+ , K+ -pump blocker; basolateral). Airway hyperresponsiveness is associated with obesity and pulmonary diseases such as asthma and COPD; thus, the isolated perfused trachea apparatus was employed to ascertain whether silica or HFWD altered airway smooth muscle reactivity to serosal or mucosal applied methacholine (MCh). HFWD-consumption had no effect on basal Vt . Silica exposure increased Na+ transport at 0 wk, decreased basal ISC at 4 wk, and reduced Cl- channel and Na+ , K+ -pump activity at both 4 wk and 8 wk compared to STD+AIR controls. HFWD-consumption caused a reduction in Cl- transport and Na+ , K+ -pump activity at 4 wk, while increasing Rt in response to ouabain at 0 wk and NPPB at 8 wk compared to STD+AIR. HFWD+SIL increased basal ISC at 0 and 4 wk, caused reduction in Cl- transport and Na+ , K+ -pump activity at 4 wk, while reducing Rt in response to ouabain at 4 wk compared to STD+SIL. No significant changes in tracheal reactivity to MCh were observed. In conclusion, HFWD and silica altered epithelial ion transport, but the combined effects of HFWD+SIL were not synergistic. © FASEB.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Research priorities to reduce risks from work hours and fatigue in the healthcare and social assistance sector
        Caruso CC, Arbour MW, Berger AM, Hittle BM, Tucker S, Patrician PA, Trinkoff AM, Rogers AE, Barger LK, Edmonson JC, Landrigan CP, Redeker NS, Chasens ER.
        Am J Ind Med. 2022 May 21.
        BACKGROUND: The services of Healthcare and Social Assistance (HCSA) workers are needed by society around the clock. As a result, these workers are exposed to shift work and long work hours. The combination of demanding work schedules and other hazards in the HCSA work environment increases the health and safety risks to these workers, as well as to their patients/clients and the public. METHODS: This paper has three aims: (1) provide an overview of the burden of shift work, long hours, and related sleep and fatigue problems in this sector; (2) suggest research priorities that would improve these; and (3) discuss potential positive impacts of addressing these research priorities for the health and safety of workers and the public. The authors used a modified Delphi approach to anonymously rank-order priorities for improving HCSA worker health and safety and public safety. Input was also obtained from attendees at the 2019 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Work Hours, Sleep, and Fatigue Forum. RESULTS: The highest rated research priorities were developing better designs for work schedules, and improving the HCSA culture and leadership approaches to shift work and long work hours. Additional priorities are identified. CONCLUSION: Research in these priority areas has the potential to benefit HCSA workers as well as their patients/clients, employers, and society.

      2. Special issue on working hours and fatigue
        Howard J.
        Am J Ind Med. 2022 May 18.

      3. Case study: efficacy of engineering controls in mitigating diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione emissions during coffee grinding
        Stanton ML, McClelland TL, Beaty M, Ranpara A, Martin SB.
        Front Public Health. 2022 May;10:750289.
        Exposure to elevated levels of diacetyl in flavoring and microwave popcorn production has been associated with respiratory impairment among workers including from a severe lung disease known as obliterative bronchiolitis. Laboratory studies demonstrate damage to the respiratory tract in rodents exposed to either diacetyl or the related alpha-diketone 2,3-pentanedione. Respiratory tract damage includes the development of obliterative bronchiolitis-like changes in the lungs of rats repeatedly inhaling either diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione. In one flavored coffee processing facility, current workers who spent time in higher diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione areas had lower lung function values, while five former flavoring room workers were diagnosed with obliterative bronchiolitis. In that and other coffee roasting and packaging facilities, grinding roasted coffee beans has been identified as contributing to elevated levels of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. To reduce worker exposures, employers can take various actions to control exposures according to the hierarchy of controls. Because elimination or substitution is not applicable to coffee production facilities not using flavorings, use of engineering controls to control exposures at their source is especially important. This work demonstrates the use of temporary ventilated enclosures around grinding equipment in a single coffee roasting and packaging facility to mitigate diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione emissions from grinding equipment to the main production space. Concentrations of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were measured in various locations throughout the main production space as well as inside and outside of ventilated enclosures to evaluate the effect of the enclosures on exposures. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations outside one grinder enclosure decreased by 95 and 92%, respectively, despite ground coffee production increasing by 12%, after the enclosure was installed. Outside a second enclosure, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations both decreased 84%, greater than the 33% decrease in ground coffee production after installation. Temporary ventilated enclosures used as engineering control measures in this study effectively reduced emissions of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione at the source in this facility. These findings motivated management to explore options with a grinding equipment manufacturer to permanently ventilate their grinders to reduce emissions of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione.

      4. Biological effects of crude oil vapor. IV. Cardiovascular effects
        Krajnak K, Russ KA, McKinney W, Waugh S, Zheng W, Kan H, Kashon ML, Cumpston J, Fedan JS.
        Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2022 May 19:116071.
        Workers in the oil and gas extraction industry are at risk of inhaling volatile organic compounds. Epidemiological studies suggest oil vapor inhalation may affect cardiovascular health. Thus, in this hazard identification study we investigated the effects of inhalation of crude oil vapor (COV) on cardiovascular function. Male rats were exposed to air or COV (300 ppm) for 6 h (acute), or 6 h/day × 4 d/wk. × 4 wk. (sub-chronic). The effects of COV inhalation were assessed 1, 28, and 90 d post-exposure. Acute exposure to COV resulted in a reduction in mean arterial and diastolic blood pressures 1 and 28 d after exposure, changes in nitrate-nitrite and H(2)O(2) levels, and in the expression of transcripts and proteins that regulate inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the synthesis of NO in the heart and kidneys. The sub-chronic exposure resulted in a reduced sensitivity to α(1)-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in vitro 28 d post-exposure, and a reduction in oxidative stress in the heart. Sub-chronic COV exposure led to alterations in the expression of NO synthases and anti-oxidant enzymes, which regulate inflammation and oxidative stress in the heart and kidneys. There seems to be a balance between changes in the expression of transcripts associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes. The ability of antioxidant enzymes to reduce or inhibit the effects of ROS may allow the cardiovascular system to adapt to acute COV exposures. However, sub-chronic exposures may result in longer-lasting negative health consequences on the cardiovascular system.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. Lung cancer and radon: Pooled analysis of uranium miners hired in 1960 or later
        Richardson DB, Rage E, Demers PA, Do MT, Fenske N, Deffner V, Kreuzer M, Samet J, Bertke SJ, Kelly-Reif K, Schubauer-Berigan MK, Tomasek L, Zablotska LB, Wiggins C, Laurier D.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2022 May;130(5):57010.
        BACKGROUND: Despite reductions in exposure for workers and the general public, radon remains a leading cause of lung cancer. Prior studies of underground miners depended heavily upon information on deaths among miners employed in the early years of mine operations when exposures were high and tended to be poorly estimated. OBJECTIVES: To strengthen the basis for radiation protection, we report on the follow-up of workers employed in the later periods of mine operations for whom we have more accurate exposure information and for whom exposures tended to be accrued at intensities that are more comparable to contemporary settings. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of cohort studies of lung cancer mortality among 57,873 male uranium miners in Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, and the United States, who were first employed in 1960 or later (thereby excluding miners employed during the periods of highest exposure and focusing on miners who tend to have higher quality assessments of radon progeny exposures). We derived estimates of excess relative rate per 100 working level months (ERR/100 WLM) for mortality from lung cancer. RESULTS: The analysis included 1.9 million person-years of observation and 1,217 deaths due to lung cancer. The relative rate of lung cancer increased in a linear fashion with cumulative exposure to radon progeny (ERR/100 WLM = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88). The association was modified by attained age, age at exposure, and annual exposure rate; for attained ages  < 55  y, the ERR/100 WLM was 8.38 (95% CI: 3.30, 18.99) among miners who were exposed at  ≥ 35  years of age and at annual exposure rates of  < 0.5 working levels. This association decreased with older attained ages, younger ages at exposure, and higher exposure rates. DISCUSSION: Estimates of association between radon progeny exposure and lung cancer mortality among relatively contemporary miners are coherent with estimates used to inform current protection guidelines. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10669.

      2. A second case study of field test results for comparison of roof bolter dry collection system with wet collection system
        Reed WR, Klima SS, Mazzella A, Ross G, Roberts G, Deluzio J.
        Min Metall Explor. 2022 .
        Silicosis is an occupational respiratory disease that roof bolter operators are susceptible. It is caused by overexposure to respirable quartz dust (RCS) and has no cure and may ultimately be fatal. The only method of prevention of silicosis is by preventing exposure to RCS. The wet box collection system is a newly developed dust collection system for roof bolting machines, a modification of the existing dry box collection system utilizing water to saturate the material that is collected by the dust collection system. Testing was conducted for 3 days on a dual boom roof bolter with the wet box installed on the left side and the dry box installed on the right side. Sampling, using the coal mine dust personal sampling unit (CMDPSU), during cleaning of the collector boxes demonstrated that using the wet box dust collection system instead of the dry box dust collection system can reduce RCS exposures during cleaning of the collector boxes by 71% (day 1), 82% (day 2), and 88% (day 3). In addition, the quartz content of samples collected during cleaning of the wet box was 0.0%, while the quartz content of the samples collected when cleaning the dry box was 4.6%, 10.3%, and 7.4%. © 2022, This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Post-discharge morbidity and mortality in children admitted with severe anaemia and other health conditions in malaria-endemic settings in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis
        Kwambai TK, Mori AT, Nevitt S, van Eijk AM, Samuels AM, Robberstad B, Phiri KS, Ter Kuile FO.
        Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2022 May 20.
        BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is associated with high in-hospital mortality among young children. In malaria-endemic areas, surviving children also remain at increased risk of mortality for several months after hospital discharge. We aimed to compare the risks of morbidity and mortality among children discharged from hospital after recovery from severe anaemia versus other health conditions in malaria-endemic settings in Africa. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central from inception to Nov 30, 2021, without language restrictions, for prospective or retrospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials that followed up children younger than 15 years for defined periods after hospital discharge in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. We excluded the intervention groups in trials and studies or subgroups involving children with sickle cell anaemia, malignancies, or surgery or trauma, or those reporting follow-up data that were combined with the in-hospital period. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the quality and risk of bias using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale or the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. The coprimary outcomes were all-cause death and all-cause readmissions 6 months after discharge. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42017079282. FINDINGS: Of 2930 articles identified in our search, 27 studies were included. For children who were recently discharged following hospital admission with severe anaemia, all-cause mortality by 6 months was higher than during the in-hospital period (n=5 studies; Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 1·72, 95% CI 1·22-2·44; p=0·0020; I(2)=51·5%) and more than two times higher than children previously admitted without severe anaemia (n=4 studies; relative risk [RR] 2·69, 95% CI 1·59-4·53; p<0·0001; I(2)=69·2%). Readmissions within 6 months of discharge were also more common in children admitted with severe anaemia than in children admitted with other conditions (n=1 study; RR 3·05, 1·12-8·35; p<0·0001). Children admitted with severe acute malnutrition (regardless of severe anaemia) also had a higher 6-month mortality after discharge than those admitted for other reasons (n=2 studies; RR=3·12, 2·02-4·68; p<0·0001; I(2)=54·7%). Other predictors of mortality after discharge included discharge against medical advice, HIV, bacteraemia, and hypoxia. INTERPRETATION: In malaria-endemic settings in Africa, children admitted to hospital with severe anaemia and severe acute malnutrition are at increased risk of mortality in the first 6 months after discharge compared with children admitted with other health conditions. Improved strategies are needed for the management of these high-risk groups during the period after discharge. FUNDING: Research Council of Norway and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      2. Polymorphic molecular signatures in variable regions of the plasmodium falciparum var2csa DBL3x domain are associated with virulence in placental malaria
        Talundzic E, Scott S, Owino SO, Campo DS, Lucchi NW, Udhayakumar V, Moore JM, Peterson DS.
        Pathogens. 2022 ;11(5).
        The Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA allows infected erythrocytes to accumulate within the placenta, inducing pathology and poor birth outcomes. Multiple exposures to placental malaria (PM) induce partial immunity against VAR2CSA, making it a promising vaccine candidate. However, the extent to which VAR2CSA genetic diversity contributes to immune evasion and virulence remains poorly understood. The deep sequencing of the var2csa DBL3X domain in placental blood from forty-nine primigravid and multigravid women living in malaria-endemic western Kenya revealed numerous unique sequences within individuals in association with chronic PM but not gravidity. Additional analysis unveiled four distinct sequence types that were variably present in mixed proportions amongst the study population. An analysis of the abundance of each of these sequence types revealed that one was inversely related to infant gestational age, another was inversely related to placental parasitemia, and a third was associated with chronic PM. The categorization of women according to the type to which their dominant sequence belonged resulted in the segregation of types as a function of gravidity: two types predominated in multigravidae whereas the other two predominated in primigravidae. The univariate logistic regression analysis of sequence type dominance further revealed that gravidity, maternal age, placental parasitemia, and hemozoin burden (within maternal leukocytes), reported a lack of antimalarial drug use, and infant gestational age and birth weight influenced the odds of membership in one or more of these sequence predominance groups. Cumulatively, these results show that unique var2csa sequences differentially appear in women with different PM exposure histories and segregate to types independently associated with maternal factors, infection parameters, and birth outcomes. The association of some var2csa sequence types with indicators of pathogenesis should motivate vaccine efforts to further identify and target VAR2CSA epitopes associated with maternal morbidity and poor birth outcomes. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

      3. The use of a chimeric antigen for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence estimates from community surveys in Ethiopia and Costa Rica
        McCaffery JN, Singh B, Nace D, Assefa A, Hwang J, Plucinski M, Calvo N, Moreno A, Udhayakumar V, Rogier E.
        PLoS One. 2022 ;17(5):e0263485.
        BACKGROUND: In low-transmission settings, accurate estimates of malaria transmission are needed to inform elimination targets. Detection of antimalarial antibodies provides exposure history, but previous studies have mainly relied on species-specific antigens. The use of chimeric antigens that include epitopes from multiple species of malaria parasites in population-based serological surveys could provide data for exposure to multiple Plasmodium species circulating in an area. Here, the utility of P. vivax/P. falciparum chimeric antigen for assessing serological responses was evaluated in Ethiopia, an endemic country for all four human malarias, and Costa Rica, where P. falciparum has been eliminated with reports of sporadic P. vivax cases. METHODS: A multiplex bead-based assay was used to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against a chimeric malaria antigen (PvRMC-MSP1) from blood samples collected from household surveys in Ethiopia in 2015 (n = 7,077) and Costa Rica in 2015 (n = 851). Targets specific for P. falciparum (PfMSP1) and P. vivax (PvMSP1) were also included in the serological panel. Seroprevalence in the population and seroconversion rates were compared among the three IgG targets. RESULTS: Seroprevalence in Costa Rica was 3.6% for PfMSP1, 41.5% for PvMSP1 and 46.7% for PvRMC-MSP1. In Ethiopia, seroprevalence was 27.6% for PfMSP1, 21.4% for PvMSP1, and 32.6% for PvRMC-MSP1. IgG levels in seropositive individuals were consistently higher for PvRMC-MSP1 when compared to PvMSP1 in both studies. Seroconversion rates were 0.023 for PvMSP1 and 0.03 for PvRMC-MSP1 in Costa Rica. In Ethiopia, seroconversion rates were 0.050 for PfMSP1, 0.044 for PvMSP1 and 0.106 for PvRMC-MSP1. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that chimeric antigen PvRMC-MSP1 is able to capture antibodies to multiple epitopes from both prior P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, and suitable chimeric antigens can be considered for use in serosurveys with appropriate validation.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. The Epidemic Intelligence Service: An exciting opportunity for pharmacists to improve population health
        Minhaj FS, Carranza D, Adeyemo A, Smith DJ.
        J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2022 Apr 20.

      2. A national HIV clinical mentorship program: enabling Zambia to accelerate control of the HIV epidemic
        Boyd MA, Fwoloshi S, Minchella PA, Simpungwe J, Siansalama T, Barradas DT, Shah M, Mulenga L, Agolory S.
        PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(2).
        Although Zambia has increased the proportion of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in recent years, progress toward HIV epidemic control remains inconsistent. Some districts are still failing to meet the UNAIDS 90/90/90 targets where 90% of PLHIV should know their status, 90% of those diagnosed should be on ART, and 90% of those on ART should achieve viral load suppression (VLS) by 2020. Providing consistently excellent HIV services at all ART health facilities is critical for achieving the UNAIDS 90/90/90 targets and controlling the HIV epidemic in Zambia. Zambia Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), aimed to achieve these targets through establishing a national HIV clinical mentorship program in which government-employed mentors were assigned to specific facilities with a mandate to identify and ameliorate programmatic challenges. Mentors were hired, trained and deployed to individual facilities in four provinces to mentor staff on quality HIV clinical and program management. The pre-mentorship period was July 2018-September 2018 and the post-mentorship period was July 2019-September 2019. Review of key programmatic indicators from the pre and post-deployment periods revealed the proportion of people who had a positive HIV test result out of those tested increased from 4.2% to 6.8% (P < 0.001) as fewer HIV tests were needed despite the number of PLHIV being identified and placed on ART increasing from 492,613 to 521,775, and VLS increased from 84.8% to 90.1% (p < 0.001). Key considerations in the establishment of an HIV clinical mentorship program include having a government-led process of regular site level data review and continuous clinical mentorship underpinned by quality improvement methodology.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Successful provision of long-acting reversible contraception in a sexual health clinic
        Obafemi OA, Leichliter JS, Maravi M, Alfonsi GA, Shlay JC, Wendel KA, Rietmeijer CA.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2022 Jun 1;49(6):443-447.
        BACKGROUND: Women who attend sexual health clinics are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are very effective contraceptive methods, but the provision of LARC in such clinics is not well described in the literature. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women who presented to Denver Sexual Health Clinic for any reason and received family planning services between April 1, 2016, and October 31, 2018. We assessed demographic and clinical factors associated with contraceptive method received and conducted a subanalysis of those with intrauterine device (IUD) insertions on the same-day versus delayed insertion. Among those who received an IUD, we assessed rates of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) 30 days after insertion. RESULTS: Of the 5064 women who received family planning services in our clinic, 1167 (23%) were using a LARC method at the time of their visit. Of the 3897 who were not using a LARC, fewer women, 12.6%, chose LARC (IUD and progestin implant), compared with 33.3% who chose new short-acting reversible contraceptives. Further analysis of the 270 IUD initiators revealed 202 (74.8%) received the IUD on the same day, whereas 68 (25.2%) had delayed IUD insertion. There were 9 incident cases of gonorrhea or chlamydia in those who received same-day IUD and 1 incident case among those who had delayed IUD insertion. There were no cases of PID at 30 days after insertion in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings support IUD provision in a sexual health clinic on the day of initial visit without increased risk of PID.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Different times call for different measures: Using retail sales to monitor the tobacco product landscape
        Seaman EL, Ali FR, Schillo BA, Vallone DM, King BA.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 May 19.

      2. Hydrogen cyanide and aromatic amine yields in the mainstream smoke of 60 little cigars
        Ai J, Hassink M, Taylor KM, Deycard VN, Hearn B, Williams K, McGuigan M, Valentin-Blasini L, Watson CH.
        Chem Res Toxicol. 2022 May 25.
        Mainstream smoke yields of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and three aromatic amines, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl, from 60 little cigar brands currently on the US market were measured for both International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimens. The smoke yields are compared with those from 50 cigarette products measured by Counts et al. of Philip Morris USA (PMUSA) in 2005 [Counts et al. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2005 41, 185-227] and 50 cigarette products measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in cooperation with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 [Tynan et al. Consumption of Cigarettes and Combustible Tobacco: United States, 2000-2011. In Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; 565-580]. For the little cigars, the average HCN yield with the ISO smoking regimen is 335 μg/cigar (range: 77-809 μg/cigar), which is 332% higher than the average of 50 PMUSA 2005 cigarettes and 243% higher than the average of 50 CDC/FDA 2012 cigarettes. For the CI smoking regimen, the average HCN yield is 619 μg/cigar (range: 464-1045 μg/cigar), which is 70.5% higher than the average of 50 PMUSA 2005 cigarettes and 69% higher than the average of the 50 CDC/FDA 2012 cigarettes. For aromatic amines, the average ISO smoking regimen smoke yields are 36.6 ng/cigar (range: 15.9-70.6 ng/cigar) for 1-aminonaphthalene, 24.6 ng/cigar (range: 12.3-36.7 ng/cigar) for 2-aminonaphthalene, and 5.6 ng/cigar (range: 2.3-17.2 ng/cigar) for 4-aminobiphenyl. The average ISO yields of aromatic amines from little cigars are 141% to 210% higher compared to the average yields of 50 PMUSA cigarettes. The average CI smoke regimen yields are 73.0 ng/cigar (range: 32.1-112.2 ng/cigar) for 1-aminonaphthalene, 45.2 ng/cigar (range: 24.6-74.8 ng/cigar) for 2-aminonaphthalene, and 12.7 ng/cigar (range: 5.5-37.5 ng/cigar) for 4-aminobiphenyl. The average CI aromatic amine yields are 143% to 220% higher compared to the average yields of 50 PMUSA cigarettes, almost identical to the relative yields under the ISO smoking regimen. Both HCN and aromatic amine yields are 1.5× to 3× higher for the tested little cigars than for the conventional cigarettes; however, there are notable differences in the relationships of these yields to certain product characteristics, such as weight, ventilation, and tobacco type. The higher smoke yields of these compounds from little cigars indicates that cigar smokers may be at risk of a higher exposure to HCN and aromatic amines on a per stick basis and thus increased health concerns.

      3. Signals of increasing co-use of stimulants and opioids from online drug forum data
        Sarker A, Al-Garadi MA, Ge Y, Nataraj N, Jones CM, Sumner SA.
        Harm Reduct J. 2022 May 25;19(1):51.
        BACKGROUND: Despite recent rises in fatal overdoses involving multiple substances, there is a paucity of knowledge about stimulant co-use patterns among people who use opioids (PWUO) or people being treated with medications for opioid use disorder (PTMOUD). A better understanding of the timing and patterns in stimulant co-use among PWUO based on mentions of these substances on social media can help inform prevention programs, policy, and future research directions. This study examines stimulant co-mention trends among PWUO/PTMOUD on social media over multiple years. METHODS: We collected publicly available data from 14 forums on Reddit (subreddits) that focused on prescription and illicit opioids, and medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Collected data ranged from 2011 to 2020, and we also collected timelines comprising past posts from a sample of Reddit users (Redditors) on these forums. We applied natural language processing to generate lexical variants of all included prescription and illicit opioids and stimulants and detect mentions of them on the chosen subreddits. Finally, we analyzed and described trends and patterns in co-mentions. RESULTS: Posts collected for 13,812 Redditors showed that 12,306 (89.1%) mentioned at least 1 opioid, opioid-related medication, or stimulant. Analyses revealed that the number and proportion of Redditors mentioning both opioids and/or opioid-related medications and stimulants steadily increased over time. Relative rates of co-mentions by the same Redditor of heroin and methamphetamine, the substances most commonly co-mentioned, decreased in recent years, while co-mentions of both fentanyl and MOUD with methamphetamine increased. CONCLUSION: Our analyses reflect increasing mentions of stimulants, particularly methamphetamine, among PWUO/PTMOUD, which closely resembles the growth in overdose deaths involving both opioids and stimulants. These findings are consistent with recent reports suggesting increasing stimulant use among people receiving treatment for opioid use disorder. These data offer insights on emerging trends in the overdose epidemic and underscore the importance of scaling efforts to address co-occurring opioid and stimulant use including harm reduction and comprehensive healthcare access spanning mental-health services and substance use disorder treatment.

      4. Tobacco product harm perceptions among US middle and high school students, 2016-2020
        Glidden E, Hawkins NA, Jamal A, Wang TW.
        J Adolesc Health. 2022 May 19.
        PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine US youths' harm perceptions toward nondaily use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and hookahs. METHODS: The nationally representative, cross-sectional National Youth Tobacco Survey annually assessed the following: "How much do you think people harm themselves when they [use tobacco products] some days but not every day?" Weighted estimates for 2020 were generated overall (grades 6-12) and by select demographics. Multivariable regression examined linear and quadratic changes during 2016-2020 (excluding cigars). RESULTS: In 2020, the prevalence of middle and high school students reporting "no" or "little" harm (vs. "some" or "a lot") was 20.1% for e-cigarettes, 17.4% for hookahs, 14.6% for cigars, 13.5% for smokeless tobacco, and 11.0% for cigarettes. During 2016-2020, perceptions of "no" or "little" harm decreased for e-cigarettes, increased for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco, and exhibited nonlinear changes for hookahs. DISCUSSION: Most youth are aware of tobacco product harms, but opportunities exist to educate youth about the harms of nondaily tobacco product use.

    • Telehealth and Telemedicine
      1. Pairing Project ECHO and patient navigation as an innovative approach to improving the health and wellness of cancer survivors in rural settings
        Rohan E, Kuiper N, Bowen SA, Mast DK, House M, French C, Tharpe FS, Henley SJ, Wanliss E, Puckett M.
        J Rural Health. 2022 May 25.
        PURPOSE: We conducted a 12-month pilot study of 2 complementary strategies for improving rural cancer survivorship outcomes: (1) Project ECHO, a telementoring model to increase knowledge and skills about cancer survivorship among multidisciplinary health care provider teams in rural areas and (2) patient navigation (PN) services to connect rural cancer survivors with resources for enhancing health and wellness. METHODS: We recruited 4 CDC-funded National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program sites to implement Project ECHO and PN interventions for a defined rural population in each of their jurisdictions. Sites received ongoing technical assistance and a stipend to support implementation. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation consisting of quantitative performance monitoring data and qualitative interviews with site staff to assess implementation. FINDINGS: Site teams delivered 21 cancer survivorship ECHO sessions to rural providers resulting in 329 participant encounters. Almost all (93%) ECHO participants reported enhanced knowledge of cancer survivorship issues, and 80% reported intent to apply learnings to their practices. Site teams engaged 16 patient navigators who navigated 164 cancer survivors during the study period. Successful implementation required strong partnerships, clear avenues for recruitment of rural providers and cancer survivors, and activities tailored to local needs. Fostering ongoing relationships among sites through community of practice calls also enhanced implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Sites successfully implemented a novel approach for enhancing care for cancer survivors in rural communities. Pairing Project ECHO to address structural barriers and PN to address individual factors affecting survivorship may help bridge the health equity gap experienced by cancer survivors in rural communities.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Rabies in a dog imported from Azerbaijan - Pennsylvania, 2021
        Whitehill F, Bonaparte S, Hartloge C, Greenberg L, Satheshkumar PS, Orciari L, Niezgoda M, Yager PA, Pieracci EG, McCullough J, Evenson A, Brown CM, Schnitzler H, Lipton B, Signs K, Stobierski MG, Austin C, Slager S, Ernst M, Kerins J, Simeone A, Singh A, Hale S, Stanek D, Shehee P, Slavinski S, McDermott D, Zinna PA, Campagna R, Wallace RM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 20;71(20):686-689.
        On June 16, 2021, rabies virus infection was confirmed in a dog included in a shipment of rescue animals imported into the United States from Azerbaijan. A multistate investigation was conducted to prevent secondary rabies cases, avoid reintroduction of a dog-maintained rabies virus variant (DMRVV), identify persons who might have been exposed and would be recommended to receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis, and investigate the cause of importation control failures. Results of a prospective serologic monitoring (PSM) protocol suggested that seven of 32 (22%) animals from the same shipment as the dog with confirmed rabies virus infection and who had available titer results after rabies vaccine booster had not been adequately vaccinated against rabies before importation. A requirement for rabies vaccination certificates alone will not adequately identify improper vaccination practices or fraudulent paperwork and are insufficient as a stand-alone rabies importation prevention measure. Serologic titers before importation would mitigate the risk for importing DMRVV.

      2. Elimination of human rabies in Goa, India through an integrated One Health approach
        Gibson AD, Yale G, Corfmat J, Appupillai M, Gigante CM, Lopes M, Betodkar U, Costa NC, Fernandes KA, Mathapati P, Suryawanshi PM, Otter N, Thomas G, Ohal P, Airikkala-Otter I, Lohr F, Rupprecht CE, King A, Sutton D, Deuzeman I, Li Y, Wallace RM, Mani RS, Gongal G, Handel IG, Bronsvoort M, Naik V, Desai S, Mazeri S, Gamble L, Mellanby RJ.
        Nat Commun. 2022 May 19;13(1):2788.
        Dog-mediated rabies kills tens of thousands of people each year in India, representing one third of the estimated global rabies burden. Whilst the World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have set a target for global dog-mediated human rabies elimination by 2030, examples of large-scale dog vaccination programs demonstrating elimination remain limited in Africa and Asia. We describe the development of a data-driven rabies elimination program from 2013 to 2019 in Goa State, India, culminating in human rabies elimination and a 92% reduction in monthly canine rabies cases. Smartphone technology enabled systematic spatial direction of remote teams to vaccinate over 95,000 dogs at 70% vaccination coverage, and rabies education teams to reach 150,000 children annually. An estimated 2249 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were averted over the program period at 526 USD per DALY, making the intervention 'very cost-effective' by WHO definitions. This One Health program demonstrates that human rabies elimination is achievable at the state level in India.

      3. A generalizable One Health framework for the control of zoonotic diseases
        Ghai RR, Wallace RM, Kile JC, Shoemaker TR, Vieira AR, Negron ME, Shadomy SV, Sinclair JR, Goryoka GW, Salyer SJ, Barton Behravesh C.
        Sci Rep. 2022 May 21;12(1):8588.
        Effectively preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases requires a One Health approach that involves collaboration across sectors responsible for human health, animal health (both domestic and wildlife), and the environment, as well as other partners. Here we describe the Generalizable One Health Framework (GOHF), a five-step framework that provides structure for using a One Health approach in zoonotic disease programs being implemented at the local, sub-national, national, regional, or international level. Part of the framework is a toolkit that compiles existing resources and presents them following a stepwise schematic, allowing users to identify relevant resources as they are required. Coupled with recommendations for implementing a One Health approach for zoonotic disease prevention and control in technical domains including laboratory, surveillance, preparedness and response, this framework can mobilize One Health and thereby enhance and guide capacity building to combat zoonotic disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface.

      4. Influenza A virus circulation in backyard animals in the Pacific coast of Guatemala, 2013-2014
        Müller-Theissen ML, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Ortiz L, Szablewski CM, Alvarez D, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Jara J, Davis CT, Cordon-Rosales C.
        Zoonoses Public Health. 2022 May 25.
        Due to their documented epidemiological relevance as hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV), humans, poultry and pigs in backyard production systems (BPS) within wetlands could be key to the emergence of novel IAV variants able to transmit between humans or animals. To better understand the circulation of IAV at the human-animal interface of BPS within wetlands, we studied IAV in backyard duck flocks and pig herds in the Pacific Coast of Guatemala. From April 2013 to October 2014, we estimated the monthly IAV per cent seropositive and viral positive flocks and herds in two resource-limited communities. We detected antibodies in sera against the IAV nucleoprotein through ELISA. We also detected IAV viral RNA in respiratory (ducks and pigs) and cloacal (ducks) swabs through rRT-PCR directed at the matrix gene. We attempted viral isolation in eggs or MDCK cells followed by sequencing from swabs positive for IAV. During our study period, IAV seropositivity in duck flocks was 38%, and viral positivity was 23% (n = 86 BPS sampled). IAV seropositivity in pig herds was 42%, and viral positivity was 20% (n = 90 BPS sampled). Both flocks and herds had detectable antibodies against IAV mostly year-round, and IAV was detected in several months. We isolated an H3N2 virus from one pig sampled at the end of 2013. Standard nucleotide BLAST searches indicate that the isolated virus was similar to seasonal viruses circulating in humans, suggesting human-to-pig transmission. Our data show concurrent circulation of IAV in multiple species of poultry and pigs that were commingled in rudimentary conditions in proximity to humans, but no significant risk factors could be identified.

DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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