Volume 12, Issue 35, October 7, 2020

CDC Science Clips: Volume 12, Issue 35, October 7, 2020

This week, Science Clips is pleased to feature the Surgeon General's Call to Action on Hypertension Control.

Hypertension is a major preventable risk factor for heart disease and stroke.  Hypertension can also lead to health problems such as chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, and pregnancy related complications. Health inequalities and disparities exist across all aspects of hypertension, from awareness to disease prevalence, severity, treatment, and control. Certain racial and ethnic groups have higher rates of hypertension, lower rates of control, and experience a greater burden of associated health outcomes. 

The Surgeon General's Call to Action makes it clear that if we make hypertension control a national priority, ensure community support for hypertension control, and optimize patient care for hypertension using evidence-based strategies, hundreds of thousands of lives can be saved, and progress toward health equity can be made. CDC undertakes activities to strengthen hypertension awareness and control  through support of HHS Initiatives such as Million Hearts©, support of states and local health departments, and partners throughout the community, and the development and dissemination of resources such as the Hypertension Communications Kit, Measure Your Blood Pressure, Prevent and Manage High Blood Pressure, and the Million Hearts® Hypertension Control Change Packageexternal icon.

The accompanying reading list is intended to build knowledge about hypertension, its control, barriers to control, disparities and health equity, and other areas related to hypertension management.

Guest Editors from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention: LCDR Angela Thompson-Paul, PhD, MSPH and CAPT Fleetwood Loustalot, FNP, PhD, FAHA

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    • Hypertension in the United States
      1. Trends in blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension, 1999-2000 to 2017-2018external icon
        Muntner P, Hardy ST, Fine LJ, Jaeger BC, Wozniak G, Levitan EB, Colantonio LD.
        Jama. 2020 Sep 9;324(12):1-12.
        IMPORTANCE: Controlling blood pressure (BP) reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether BP control among US adults with hypertension changed from 1999-2000 through 2017-2018. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Serial cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, weighted to be representative of US adults, between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018 (10 cycles), including 18 262 US adults aged 18 years or older with hypertension defined as systolic BP level of 140 mm Hg or higher, diastolic BP level of 90 mm Hg or higher, or use of antihypertensive medication. The date of final data collection was 2018. EXPOSURES: Calendar year. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mean BP was computed using 3 measurements. The primary outcome of BP control was defined as systolic BP level lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP level lower than 90 mm Hg. RESULTS: Among the 51 761 participants included in this analysis, the mean (SD) age was 48 (19) years and 25 939 (50.1%) were women; 43.2% were non-Hispanic White adults; 21.6%, non-Hispanic Black adults; 5.3%, non-Hispanic Asian adults; and 26.1%, Hispanic adults. Among the 18 262 adults with hypertension, the age-adjusted estimated proportion with controlled BP increased from 31.8% (95% CI, 26.9%-36.7%) in 1999-2000 to 48.5% (95% CI, 45.5%-51.5%) in 2007-2008 (P < .001 for trend), remained stable and was 53.8% (95% CI, 48.7%-59.0%) in 2013-2014 (P = .14 for trend), and then declined to 43.7% (95% CI, 40.2%-47.2%) in 2017-2018 (P = .003 for trend). Compared with adults who were aged 18 years to 44 years, it was estimated that controlled BP was more likely among those aged 45 years to 64 years (49.7% vs 36.7%; multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.02-1.37]) and less likely among those aged 75 years or older (37.3% vs 36.7%; multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.65-0.97]). It was estimated that controlled BP was less likely among non-Hispanic Black adults vs non-Hispanic White adults (41.5% vs 48.2%, respectively; multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96). Controlled BP was more likely among those with private insurance (48.2%), Medicare (53.4%), or government health insurance other than Medicare or Medicaid (43.2%) vs among those without health insurance (24.2%) (multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.08-1.80], 1.47 [95% CI, 1.15-1.89], and 1.36 [95% CI, 1.04-1.76], respectively). Controlled BP was more likely among those with vs those without a usual health care facility (48.4% vs 26.5%, respectively; multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.13-1.94]) and among those who had vs those who had not had a health care visit in the past year (49.1% vs 8.0%; multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratio, 5.23 [95% CI, 2.88-9.49]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In a series of cross-sectional surveys weighted to be representative of the adult US population, the prevalence of controlled BP increased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, did not significantly change from 2007-2008 through 2013-2014, and then decreased after 2013-2014.

      2. Potential need for expanded pharmacologic treatment and lifestyle modification services under the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guidelineexternal icon
        Ritchey MD, Gillespie C, Wozniak G, Shay CM, Thompson-Paul AM, Loustalot F, Hong Y.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2018 Oct;20(10):1377-1391.
        Application of the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline expands the number of US adults requiring blood pressure (BP) management. The authors use 2011-2014 NHANES data to describe the population groups most affected by the new guideline, compared with the previous JNC-7 guideline, and describe the previous interaction with the health care sector among those adults recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification. The 2017 Hypertension Guideline reclassifies 32.3 million US adults as newly hypertensive and recommends BP-related treatment of 133.7 million adults, including 57.8 million with uncontrolled BP recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment and 50.5 million newly recommended lifestyle modification alone. An estimated 13.1 million (22.7%) adults recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment, and 20.6 million (40.8%) adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone report not having established health care linkages. Among the adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone, the odds of reclassification from no recommended intervention, under JNC-7, to recommended lifestyle modification alone were lower for adults with established linkages to care (aOR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.67-0.91]) compared to those without, decreased with increasing age, were greater for men (1.72 [1.52-1.94]) compared to women and were greater for obese adults (1.23 [1.00-1.53]) compared with normal or underweight adults. Application of the 2017 Hypertension Guideline increases the number and alters the distribution of US adults in need of initiating or intensifying BP treatment. This includes identifying millions of US adults who previously had limited interaction with health care and are now recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification.

      3. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2020 update: A report from the American Heart Associationexternal icon
        Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, Chamberlain AM, Chang AR, Cheng S, Delling FN, Djousse L, Elkind MS, Ferguson JF, Fornage M, Khan SS, Kissela BM, Knutson KL, Kwan TW, Lackland DT, Lewis TT, Lichtman JH, Longenecker CT, Loop MS, Lutsey PL, Martin SS, Matsushita K, Moran AE, Mussolino ME, Perak AM, Rosamond WD, Roth GA, Sampson UK, Satou GM, Schroeder EB, Shah SH, Shay CM, Spartano NL, Stokes A, Tirschwell DL, VanWagner LB, Tsao CW.
        Circulation. 2020 Mar 3;141(9):e139-e596.
        BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2020 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals. RESULTS: Each of the 26 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

      4. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelinesexternal icon
        Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA, Williamson JD, Wright JT.
        Hypertension. 2018 Jun;71(6):1269-1324.

    • Blood Pressure Control is Possible

      1. Notes from the Field: Characteristics of Million Hearts Hypertension Control Champions, 2012-2019external icon
        Ritchey MD, Hannan J, Wall HK, George MG, Sperling LS.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):196-197.

    • Barriers to Control
      1. Insurance status among adults with hypertension-the impact of underinsuranceexternal icon
        Fang J, Zhao G, Wang G, Ayala C, Loustalot F.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Dec 21;5(12).
        BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Health insurance coverage affects hypertension treatment and control, but limited information is available for US adults with hypertension who are classified as underinsured. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2013 data, we identified adults with self-reported hypertension. On the basis of self-reported health insurance status and health care-related financial burdens, participants were categorized as uninsured, underinsured, or adequately insured. Proxies for health care received included whether they reported taking antihypertensive medications and whether they visited a doctor for a routine checkup in the past year. We assessed the association between health insurance status and health care received, adjusting for selected sociodemographic characteristics. Among 123 257 participants from 38 states and District of Columbia with self-reported hypertension, 12% were uninsured, 26% were underinsured, and 62% were adequately insured. In adjusted models using adequately insured participants as referent, both uninsured (adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.35-0.43) and underinsured (0.83, 0.76-0.89) participants were less likely to report using antihypertensive medication than those of adequately insured participants. Similarly, adjusted odds ratio of visiting a doctor for routine checkup in the past year were 0.25 (0.23-0.28) for those who were uninsured and 0.78 (0.72-0.84) for those who were underinsured compared to those with adequate insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Uninsured and underinsured participants with hypertension were less likely to report receiving care compared to those with adequate insurance coverage. Disparities in health care coverage may necessitate targeted interventions, even among people with health insurance.

      2. A population-based policy and systems change approach to prevent and control hypertensionexternal icon
        Institute of Medicine Committee on Public Health Priorities to Reduce and Control Hypertension .
        Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). 2010 .
        Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, affecting nearly one in three Americans. It is prevalent in adults and endemic in the older adult population. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and disability. Although there is a simple test to diagnose hypertension and relatively inexpensive drugs to treat it, the disease is often undiagnosed and uncontrolled. A Population-Based Policy and Systems Change Approach to the Prevention and Control Hypertension identifies a small set of high-priority areas in which public health officials can focus their efforts to accelerate progress in hypertension reduction and control. It offers several recommendations that embody a population-based approach grounded in the principles of measurement, system change, and accountability. The recommendations are designed to shift current hypertension reduction strategies from an individual-based approach to a population-based approach. They are also designed to improve the quality of care provided to individuals with hypertension and to strengthen the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's leadership in seeking a reduction in the sodium intake in the American diet to meet dietary guidelines. The book is an important resource for federal public health officials and organizations, especially the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as medical professionals and community health workers.

      3. Million Hearts 2022: Small steps are needed for cardiovascular disease preventionexternal icon
        Wright JS, Wall HK, Ritchey MD.
        Jama. 2018 Nov 13;320(18):1857-1858.

    • Strategies to Support Hypertension Control

      1. Reducing US cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling studyexternal icon
        Pearson-Stuttard J, Bandosz P, Rehm CD, Penalvo J, Whitsel L, Gaziano T, Conrad Z, Wilde P, Micha R, Lloyd-Williams F, Capewell S, Mozaffarian D, O'Flaherty M.
        PLoS Med. 2017 Jun;14(6):e1002311.
        BACKGROUND: Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects on total CVD mortality and disparities of specific dietary policies to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the US IMPACT Food Policy Model and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, we estimated and compared the reductions in CVD mortality and socio-economic disparities in the US population potentially achievable from 2015 to 2030 with specific dietary policy scenarios: (a) a national mass media campaign (MMC) aimed to increase consumption of F&Vs and reduce consumption of SSBs, (b) a national fiscal policy to tax SSBs to increase prices by 10%, (c) a national fiscal policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 10%, and (d) a targeted policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 30% among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants only. We also evaluated a combined policy approach, combining all of the above policies. Data sources included the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, National Vital Statistics System, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and published meta-analyses. Among the individual policy scenarios, a national 10% F&V subsidy was projected to be most beneficial, potentially resulting in approximately 150,500 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 141,400-158,500) CVD deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs) by 2030 in the US. This far exceeds the approximately 35,100 (95% UI 31,700-37,500) DPPs potentially attributable to a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants, the approximately 25,800 (95% UI 24,300-28,500) DPPs for a 1-y MMC, or the approximately 31,000 (95% UI 26,800-35,300) DPPs for a 10% SSB tax. Neither the MMC nor the individual national economic policies would significantly reduce CVD socio-economic disparities. However, the SNAP-targeted intervention might potentially reduce CVD disparities between SNAP participants and SNAP-ineligible individuals, by approximately 8% (10 DPPs per 100,000 population). The combined policy approach might save more lives than any single policy studied (approximately 230,000 DPPs by 2030) while also significantly reducing disparities, by approximately 6% (7 DPPs per 100,000 population). Limitations include our effect estimates in the model; these estimates use interventional and prospective observational studies (not exclusively randomised controlled trials). They are thus imperfect and should be interpreted as the best available evidence. Another key limitation is that we considered only CVD outcomes; the policies we explored would undoubtedly have additional beneficial effects upon other diseases. Further, we did not model or compare the cost-effectiveness of each proposed policy. CONCLUSIONS: Fiscal strategies targeting diet might substantially reduce CVD burdens. A national 10% F&V subsidy would save by far the most lives, while a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants would most reduce socio-economic disparities. A combined policy would have the greatest overall impact on both mortality and socio-economic disparities.

    • Standardized Treatment Approaches
      1. Hypertension control change package (2nd ed.)external icon
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
        Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 .
        The Hypertension Control Change Package (HCCP) was originally published in 2015 and has been used in the field to improve hypertension (HTN) control by a variety of health centers and clinics. New clinical guidelines, development of new resources, and general advances in quality improvement for HTN management prompted the need for this updated version.

    • Team-Based Care
      1. Cardiovascular disease: team-based care to improve blood pressure control websiteexternal icon
        Community Preventive Services Task Force .
        Systematic Review. 2012 .
        The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) recommends team-based care to improve patients’ blood pressure. Evidence shows team-based care increases the proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure and reduces systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Economic evidence indicates team-based care is cost-effective. Studies included in the systematic review primarily used teams in which nurses and pharmacists collaborated with primary care providers, patients, and other professionals.

    • Self-Measured Blood Pressure

    • Medication Adherence
      1. Vital Signs: Disparities in antihypertensive medication nonadherence among Medicare part D beneficiaries - United States, 2014external icon
        Ritchey M, Chang A, Powers C, Loustalot F, Schieb L, Ketcham M, Durthaler J, Hong Y.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 16;65(36):967-76.
        INTRODUCTION: Nonadherence to taking prescribed antihypertensive medication (antihypertensive) regimens has been identified as a leading cause of poor blood pressure control among persons with hypertension and an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. CDC and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analyzed geographic, racial-ethnic, and other disparities in nonadherence to antihypertensives among Medicare Part D beneficiaries in 2014. METHODS: Antihypertensive nonadherence, defined as a proportion of days a beneficiary was covered with antihypertensives of <80%, was assessed using prescription drug claims data among Medicare Advantage or Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years with Medicare Part D coverage during 2014 (N = 18.5 million). Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive class, beneficiaries' state and county of residence, type of prescription drug plan, and treatment and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 26.3% (4.9 million) of Medicare Part D beneficiaries using antihypertensives were nonadherent to their regimen. Nonadherence differed by multiple factors, including medication class (range: 16.9% for angiotensin II receptor blockers to 28.9% for diuretics); race-ethnicity (24.3% for non-Hispanic whites, 26.3% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 33.8% for Hispanics, 35.7% for blacks, and 38.8% for American Indians/Alaska Natives); and state of residence (range 18.7% for North Dakota to 33.7% for the District of Columbia). Considerable county-level variation in nonadherence was found; the highest nonadherence tended to occur in the southern United States (U.S. Census region nonadherence = 28.9% [South], 26.7% [West], 24.1% [Northeast], and 22.8% [Midwest]) CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: More than one in four Medicare Part D beneficiaries using antihypertensives were nonadherent to their regimen, and certain racial/ethnic groups, states, and geographic areas were at increased risk for nonadherence. These findings can help inform focused interventions among these groups, which might improve blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease outcomes.

    • Community-Based Approaches for Hypertension Control
      1. Community-based approaches to prevention and management of hypertension and cardiovascular diseaseexternal icon
        Ferdinand KC, Patterson KP, Taylor C, Fergus IV, Nasser SA, Ferdinand DP.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012 May;14(5):336-43.
        Community hypertension (HTN) outreach seeks to improve public health by identifying HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. In the 1980s, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multiple positive community studies. Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program addresses CVD risks. In 1978, in Baltimore, MD, the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), organized barbershops and churches as HTN control centers, as in New Orleans, LA, since 1993, the Healthy Heart Community Prevention Project (HHCPP). Also, the NHLBI Community Health Workers and Promotores de Salud are beneficial. The American Society of Hypertension (ASH) Hypertension Community Outreach program provides free HTN and CVD screenings, digital BP monitors, multilingual and literacy-appropriate information, and videos. Contemporary major federal programs, such as the Million Hearts Initiative, are ongoing. Overall, the evidence-based Logic Model should enhance planning, implementation, and dissemination.

      2. American Heart Association Guide for Improving Cardiovascular Health at the Community Level, 2013 update: a scientific statement for public health practitioners, healthcare providers, and health policy makersexternal icon
        Pearson TA, Palaniappan LP, Artinian NT, Carnethon MR, Criqui MH, Daniels SR, Fonarow GC, Fortmann SP, Franklin BA, Galloway JM, Goff DC, Heath GW, Frank AT, Kris-Etherton PM, Labarthe DR, Murabito JM, Sacco RL, Sasson C, Turner MB.
        Circulation. 2013 Apr 23;127(16):1730-53.

    • Disparities and Health Equity in Hypertension
      1. Social determinants of risk and outcomes for cardiovascular disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Associationexternal icon
        Havranek EP, Mujahid MS, Barr DA, Blair IV, Cohen MS, Cruz-Flores S, Davey-Smith G, Dennison-Himmelfarb CR, Lauer MS, Lockwood DW, Rosal M, Yancy CW.
        Circulation. 2015 Sep 1;132(9):873-98.

      2. Twenty years of progress toward understanding the Stroke Beltexternal icon
        Howard G, Howard VJ.
        Stroke. 2020 Mar;51(3):742-750.

      3. The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

      4. INTRODUCTION: Despite available, effective therapies, racial and ethnic disparities in care and outcomes of hypertension persist. Several interventions have been tested to reduce disparities; however, their translation into practice and policy is hampered by knowledge gaps and limited collaboration among stakeholders. METHODS: We characterized factors influencing disparities in blood pressure (BP) control by levels of an ecological model. We then conducted a literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases to identify interventions targeted toward reducing disparities in BP control, categorized them by the levels of the model at which they were primarily targeted, and summarized the evidence regarding their effectiveness. RESULTS: We identified 39 interventions and several state and national policy initiatives targeted toward reducing racial and ethnic disparities in BP control, 5 of which are ongoing. Most had patient populations that were majority African-American. Of completed interventions, 27 demonstrated some improvement in BP control or related process measures, and 7 did not; of the 6 studies examining disparities, 3 reduced, 2 increased, and 1 had no effect on disparities. CONCLUSIONS: Several effective interventions exist to improve BP in racial and ethnic minorities; however, evidence that they reduce disparities is limited, and many groups are understudied. To strengthen the evidence and translate it into practice and policy, we recommend rigorous evaluation of pragmatic, sustainable, multilevel interventions; institutional support for training implementation researchers and creating broad partnerships among payers, patients, providers, researchers, policymakers, and community-based organizations; and balance and alignment in the priorities and incentives of each stakeholder group.

      5. Cumulative incidence of hypertension by 55 years of age in Blacks and whites: The CARDIA Studyexternal icon
        Thomas SJ, Booth JN, Dai C, Li X, Allen N, Calhoun D, Carson AP, Gidding S, Lewis CE, Shikany JM, Shimbo D, Sidney S, Muntner P.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Jul 11;7(14).
        BACKGROUND: Blacks have higher blood pressure levels compared with whites beginning in childhood. Few data are available on racial differences in the incidence of hypertension from young adulthood through middle age. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated the cumulative incidence of hypertension from age 18 to 55 years among participants in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Incident hypertension was defined by the first visit with mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, mean diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Among 3890 participants without hypertension at baseline (aged 18-30 years), cumulative incidence of hypertension by age 55 years was 75.5%, 75.7%, 54.5%, and 40.0% in black men, black women, white men, and white women, respectively. Among participants with systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure <110 and 70, 110 to 119/70 to 74, and 120 to 129/75 to 79 mm Hg at baseline, blacks were more likely than whites to develop hypertension: multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.65, 2.35), 1.80 (95% confidence interval, 1.52, 2.14), and 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.31, 1.93), respectively. Parental history of hypertension and higher body mass index, serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure categories were associated with a higher risk for hypertension among blacks and whites. A higher Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet adherence score was associated with a lower risk for hypertension in blacks and whites. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of blood pressure level in young adulthood, blacks have a substantially higher risk for hypertension compared with whites through 55 years of age.

      6. Heart disease death rates among Blacks and whites aged >/= 35 years - United States, 1968-2015external icon
        Van Dyke M, Greer S, Odom E, Schieb L, Vaughan A, Kramer M, Casper M.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018 Mar 30;67(5):1-11.
        PROBLEM/CONDITION: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. PERIOD COVERED: 1968-2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. RESULTS: From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady increases until approximately 2005. Since 2005, modest decreases have occurred in the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates at the national level. The majority of states had increases in black-white mortality ratios from 1968 to 2015. The number of states with black-white mortality ratios >1 increased from 16 (40%) to 27 (67.5%). INTERPRETATION: Although heart disease death rates decreased both for blacks and whites from 1968 to 2015, substantial differences in decreases were found by race and state. At the national level and in most states, blacks experienced smaller decreases in heart disease death rates than whites for the majority of the period. Overall, the black-white disparity in heart disease death rates increased from 1968 to 2005, with a modest decrease from 2005 to 2015. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Since 1968, substantial increases have occurred in black-white disparities of heart disease death rates in the United States at the national level and in many states. These increases appear to be due to faster decreases in heart disease death rates for whites than blacks, particularly from the late 1970s until the mid-2000s. Despite modest decreases in black-white disparities at the national level since 2005, in 2015, heart disease death rates were 21% higher among blacks than among whites. This study demonstrates the use of NVSS data to conduct surveillance of heart disease death rates by race and of black-white disparities in heart disease death rates. Continued surveillance of temporal trends in heart disease death rates by race can provide valuable information to policy makers and public health practitioners working to reduce heart disease death rates both for blacks and whites and disparities between blacks and whites.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions among US adults, 2018external icon
        Boersma P, Black LI, Ward BW.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2020 Sep 17;17:E106.
        This analysis provides prevalence estimates of diagnosed single and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions among the noninstitutionalized, civilian US adult population. Data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate percentages for US adults by selected demographic characteristics. More than half (51.8%) of adults had at least 1 of 10 selected diagnosed chronic conditions (arthritis, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, current asthma, diabetes, hepatitis, hypertension, stroke, and weak or failing kidneys), and 27.2% of US adults had multiple chronic conditions.

      2. Vision impairment and blindness prevalence in the United States: Variability of vision health responses across multiple national surveysexternal icon
        Rein DB, Lamuda PA, Wittenborn JS, Okeke N, Davidson CE, Swenor BK, Saaddine J, Lundeen EA.
        Ophthalmology. 2020 Jul 11.
        PURPOSE: To support survey validation efforts by comparing prevalence rates of self-reported and examination evaluated presenting visual impairment (VI) and blindness measured across national surveys. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the 2016 American Community Survey, the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the 2016 National Health Interview Survey, the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health. METHODS: We estimated VI and blindness prevalence rates and confidence intervals for each survey measure and age group using the Clopper-Pearson method. We used inverse variance weighting to estimate the central tendency across measures by age-group, fitted trend lines to age-group estimates, and used the trend-line equations to estimate the number of United States persons with VI and blindness in 2016. We compared self-report estimates with those from NHANES physical evaluations of presenting VI and blindness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variability of prevalence estimates of VI and blindness. RESULTS: Self-report estimates of blindness varied between 0.1% and 5.6% for those younger than 65 years and from 0.6% to 16.6% for those 65 or older. Estimates of VI varied between 1.6% and 24.8% for those younger than 65 years and between 2.2% and 26.6% for those 65 years or older. For summarized survey results and NHANES physical evaluation, prevalence rates for VI increased significantly with increasing age group. Blindness prevalence increased significantly with increasing age group for summarized survey responses but not for NHANES physical examination. Based on extrapolations of NHANES physical examination data to all ages, we estimated that in 2016, 23.4 million persons in the United States (7.2%) had VI or blindness, an evaluated presenting visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better-seeing eye before correction. Based on weighted self-reported surveys, we estimated that 24.8 million persons (7.7%) had presenting VI or blindness. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of VI and blindness obtained from national survey measures varied widely across surveys and age groups. Additional research is needed to validate the ability of survey self-report measures of VI and blindness to replicate results obtained through examination by an eye health professional.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Diarrhoeal disease surveillance in Papua New Guinea: findings and challengesexternal icon
        Abdad MY, Soli KW, Pham B, Bande G, Maure T, Jonduo M, Kisa D, Rai G, Phuanukoonnon S, Siba PM, Horwood PF, Greenhill AR.
        Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):7-12.
        Diarrhoeal diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western Pacific Region. However, data on the major causes of infectious diarrhoea are limited in many countries within the Region, including Papua New Guinea. In 2013-2014, we conducted surveillance for acute diarrhoeal illness in four provinces in Papua New Guinea. One rural health clinic from each province participated in the surveillance activity. Samples were sent to central laboratories and batch analysed for bacterial and viral gastrointestinal pathogens that are commonly associated with diarrhoea. Across the four sites, the most commonly detected pathogens were Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and rotavirus. In this paper, we report the results of the surveillance activity and the challenges that we faced. The lessons learnt may be applicable to other parts of the Region with a similar socioeconomic status.

      2. Enhanced surveillance for histoplasmosis - 9 states, 2018-2019external icon
        Benedict K, McCracken S, Signs K, Ireland M, Amburgey V, Serrano JA, Christophe N, Gibbons-Burgener S, Hallyburton S, Warren KA, Keyser Metobo A, Odom R, Groenewold MR, Jackson BR.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Sep;7(9):ofaa343.
        BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is often described as the most common endemic mycosis in the United States, but much remains unknown about its epidemiology among the general population. METHODS: We conducted enhanced surveillance in 9 states during 2018-2019 by identifying cases through routine surveillance and interviewing 301 patients about their clinical features and exposures. RESULTS: Before being tested for histoplasmosis, 60% saw a health care provider ≥3 times, and 53% received antibacterial medication. The median time from seeking health care to diagnosis (range) was 23 (0-269) days. Forty-nine percent were hospitalized, and 69% said that histoplasmosis interfered with their daily activities (median [range], 56 [2-3960] days). Possible exposures included handling plants (48%) and bird or bat droppings (24%); 22% reported no specific exposures. Only 15% had heard of histoplasmosis before their illness. CONCLUSIONS: Histoplasmosis can be severe and prolonged. Additional educational efforts to increase public and provider awareness and reduce delays in diagnosis are needed.

      3. Changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic - United States, May-August 2020external icon
        Boehmer TK, DeVies J, Caruso E, van Santen KL, Tang S, Black CL, Hartnett KP, Kite-Powell A, Dietz S, Lozier M, Gundlapalli AV.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1404-1409.
        As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.

      4. CDC deployments to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments for COVID-19 emergency public health response - United States, January 21-July 25, 2020external icon
        Dirlikov E, Fechter-Leggett E, Thorne SL, Worrell CM, Smith-Grant JC, Chang J, Oster AM, Bjork A, Young S, Perez AU, Aden T, Anderson M, Farrall S, Jones-Wormley J, Walters KH, LeBlanc TT, Kone RG, Hunter D, Cooley LA, Krishnasamy V, Fuld J, Luna-Pinto C, Williams T, O'Connor A, Nett RJ, Villanueva J, Oussayef NL, Walke HT, Shugart JM, Honein MA, Rose DA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1398-1403.
        Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. During January 21-July 25, 2020, in response to official requests for assistance with COVID-19 emergency public health response activities, CDC deployed 208 teams to assist 55 state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments. CDC deployment data were analyzed to summarize activities by deployed CDC teams in assisting state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to identify and implement measures to contain SARS-CoV-2 transmission (1). Deployed teams assisted with the investigation of transmission in high-risk congregate settings, such as long-term care facilities (53 deployments; 26% of total), food processing facilities (24; 12%), correctional facilities (12; 6%), and settings that provide services to persons experiencing homelessness (10; 5%). Among the 208 deployed teams, 178 (85%) provided assistance to state health departments, 12 (6%) to tribal health departments, 10 (5%) to local health departments, and eight (4%) to territorial health departments. CDC collaborations with health departments have strengthened local capacity and provided outbreak response support. Collaborations focused attention on health equity issues among disproportionately affected populations (e.g., racial and ethnic minority populations, essential frontline workers, and persons experiencing homelessness) and through a place-based focus (e.g., persons living in rural or frontier areas). These collaborations also facilitated enhanced characterization of COVID-19 epidemiology, directly contributing to CDC data-informed guidance, including guidance for serial testing as a containment strategy in high-risk congregate settings, targeted interventions and prevention efforts among workers at food processing facilities, and social distancing.

      5. Predictors at admission of mechanical ventilation and death in an observational cohort of adults hospitalized with COVID-19external icon
        Jackson BR, Gold JA, Natarajan P, Rossow J, Neblett Fanfair R, da Silva J, Wong KK, Browning SD, Bamrah Morris S, Rogers-Brown J, Hernandez-Romieu AC, Szablewski CM, Oosmanally N, Tobin-D'Angelo M, Drenzek C, Murphy DJ, Hollberg J, Blum JM, Jansen R, Wright DW, SeweSll WM, Owens JD, Lefkove B, Brown FW, Burton DC, Uyeki TM, Bialek SR, Patel PR, Bruce BB.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 24.
        BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to eight academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aOR 3.12, CI 1.47-6.60; aOR 2.79, CI 1.23-6.33) and the strongest predictors for death (aOR 12.92, CI 3.26-51.25; aOR 18.06, CI 4.43-73.63). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs from 2.4 to 3.8, p <0.05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Pre-hospital use vs. non-use of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR 2.02, CI 1.03-3.96) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR 1.91, CI 1.03-3.55) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.

      6. Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Systemexternal icon
        Ko JY, Danielson ML, Town M, Derado G, Greenlund KJ, Daily Kirley P, Alden NB, Yousey-Hindes K, Anderson EJ, Ryan PA, Kim S, Lynfield R, Torres SM, Barney GR, Bennett NM, Sutton M, Talbot HK, Hill M, Hall AJ, Fry AM, Garg S, Kim L.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 18.
        BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization are needed to guide prevention efforts and clinical care. We sought to identify factors independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. METHODS: U.S. community-dwelling adults (≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 1-June 23, 2020 were identified from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a multi-state surveillance system. To calculate hospitalization rates by age, sex, and race/ethnicity strata, COVID-NET data served as the numerator and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates served as the population denominator for characteristics of interest. Underlying medical conditions examined included hypertension, coronary artery disease, history of stroke, diabetes, obesity [BMI ≥30 kg/m 2], severe obesity [BMI≥40 kg/m 2], chronic kidney disease, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Generalized Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted rate ratios (aRR) for hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 5,416 adults, hospitalization rates were higher among those with ≥3 underlying conditions (versus without)(aRR: 5.0; 95%CI: 3.9, 6.3), severe obesity (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7), after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults aged ≥65, 45-64 (versus 18-44 years), males (versus females), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). CONCLUSION: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

      7. Declining chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnoses among pregnant women in South Carolina, 2008-2018external icon
        Lazenby GB, Savage AH, Horner G, Richmond J, Peterman TA.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2020 Sep 18.
        BACKGROUND: Reported U.S. cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea have increased since 2000, while studies in select populations suggest the prevalence of these diseases has decreased. We sought to determine if these diagnoses are increasing among pregnant women delivering at our center. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of women delivering at least one infant > 18 weeks gestation at the Medical University of South Carolina over eleven years (2008-2018). Using the perinatal information system, we collected maternal race, age, insurer, and chlamydia and gonorrhea screening results during the pregnancy of record. Cochran-Armitage trend analyses were performed to evaluate trends in these diagnoses by delivery year for all women and for age/race subgroups. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 24,807 deliveries. The median age of women was 28 years (IQR 23-32). Five percent (5.0%) of women were diagnosed with chlamydia and 1.2% with gonorrhea. The percent of women diagnosed decreased for both chlamydia (9.6% to 3.4%) and gonorrhea (2.5% to 1.1%) (p <0.001 trend analyses for both). A higher percentage of Black women had chlamydia and gonorrhea and both diagnoses declined over time, chlamydia 17.4% to 6.9%, p<0.0001 and gonorrhea 5.8% to 2.1%, p< 0.0001. In a sub-analysis of race and age, Black women < 25 experienced the most significant decline in chlamydia diagnoses (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed declining diagnoses of chlamydia and gonorrhea among pregnant women in our center. Although Black women delivering were more likely to have either diagnoses, they experienced a significant decline in both chlamydia and gonorrhea over time.

      8. COVID-19 trends among school-aged children - United States, March 1-September 19, 2020external icon
        Leeb RT, Price S, Sliwa S, Kimball A, Szucs L, Caruso E, Godfred-Cato S, Lozier M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1410-1415.
        Approximately 56 million school-aged children (aged 5-17 years) resumed education in the United States in fall 2020.* Analysis of demographic characteristics, underlying conditions, clinical outcomes, and trends in weekly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence during March 1-September 19, 2020 among 277,285 laboratory-confirmed cases in school-aged children in the United States might inform decisions about in-person learning and the timing and scaling of community mitigation measures. During May-September 2020, average weekly incidence (cases per 100,000 children) among adolescents aged 12-17 years (37.4) was approximately twice that of children aged 5-11 years (19.0). In addition, among school-aged children, COVID-19 indicators peaked during July 2020: weekly percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results increased from 10% on May 31 to 14% on July 5; SARS-CoV-2 test volume increased from 100,081 tests on May 31 to 322,227 on July 12, and COVID-19 incidence increased from 13.8 per 100,000 on May 31 to 37.9 on July 19. During July and August, test volume and incidence decreased then plateaued; incidence decreased further during early September and might be increasing. Percentage of positive test results decreased during August and plateaued during September. Underlying conditions were more common among school-aged children with severe outcomes related to COVID-19: among school-aged children who were hospitalized, admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), or who died, 16%, 27%, and 28%, respectively, had at least one underlying medical condition. Schools and communities can implement multiple, concurrent mitigation strategies and tailor communications to promote mitigation strategies to prevent COVID-19 spread. These results can provide a baseline for monitoring trends and evaluating mitigation strategies.

      9. Sustained virological response does not improve long-term glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic hepatitis Cexternal icon
        Li J, Gordon SC, Rupp LB, Zhang T, Trudeau S, Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Spradling PR, Teshale EH, Boscarino JA, Schmidt MA, Daida YG, Lu M.
        Liver Int. 2019 Jun;39(6):1027-1032.
        BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response to treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus may improve short-term glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes, but the long-term impact remains largely unknown. We used data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study to investigate the impact of sustained virological response on long-term trends in haemoglobin A1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: "Index date" was defined as the date of treatment initiation (treated patients) or hepatitis C virus diagnosis (untreated patients). To address treatment selection bias, we used a propensity score approach. We used a piecewise, linear spline, mixed-effects model to evaluate changes in haemoglobin A1c over a 5-year period. RESULTS: Our sample included 384 hepatitis C virus patients with type 2 diabetes (192 untreated, 192 treated, with sustained virological response or treatment failure). After adjusting for body mass index, haemoglobin A1c was stable among untreated and treatment failure patients. In sustained virological response patients, Hb1Ac trajectories evolved in three phases: (a) index through 6 months post-index, average haemoglobin A1c decreased significantly from 7.7% to 5.4% per 90 days (P < 0.001); (b) 6-30 months post-index, haemoglobin A1c rebounded at a rate of 1.5% every 90 days (P = 0.003); and (c) from 30 months onward, haemoglobin A1c stabilized at an average level of 7.9 (P-value = 0.34). Results from an analysis restricted to patients receiving direct-acting antivirals were consistent with the main findings. CONCLUSION: Successful hepatitis C virus treatment among patients with type 2 diabetes significantly reduces HbA1c shortly after treatment, but these decreases are not sustained long-term. Less than three years after sustained virological response, haemoglobin A1c rebounds to levels similar to untreated/treatment failure patients, and higher than recommended for type 2 diabetic maintenance.

      10. Syphilitic reinfections during the same pregnancy - Florida, 2018external icon
        Matthias J, Sanon R, Bowen VB, Spencer EC, Peterman TA.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2020 Sep 18.
        We reviewed all cases of syphilis reported among pregnant women in Florida during 2018 for syphilitic reinfection. Nineteen (7.3%) of 261 pregnant women with syphilis were reported as reinfected during the same pregnancy. Timely rescreening and treatment prevented six (31.6%) of nineteen reinfected women from delivering infants with congenital syphilis.

      11. We (1) estimated the prevalence of not getting patient navigation despite feeling a need for the service (unmet subjective need) or despite having unsuppressed viral load (unmet objective need) among people with HIV (PWH), (2) determined reasons why PWH did not use the service, and (3) determined factors associated with unmet need for patient navigation. We used combined data from the 2015 to 2017 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, an HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of the characteristics of adults with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States. Six percent reported unmet subjective need and 28% had unmet objective need for patient navigation. When needs were combined, more than a third had unmet need for the service. Among PWH with unmet subjective need for patient navigation, 77% reported lack of knowledge about patient navigation as a reason for nonuse. Younger age, female gender, racial/ethnic minority status, limited health literacy, homelessness, incarceration history, lack of health insurance/coverage, noninjection drug use, depression, and recent HIV diagnosis were associated with unmet subjective or objective need for patient navigation. One in three PWH did not use patient navigation despite needing the service. Lack of knowledge about patient navigation was a barrier to use, calling for increased availability, and promotion of such services. PWH with social and economic vulnerabilities were less likely to get patient navigation when needed. It is important to address the question of how to make this service available to everyone who needs it.

      12. Multipronged approach to controlling a tuberculosis outbreak among persons experiencing homelessnessexternal icon
        Muloma E, Stewart R, Townsend H, Koch S, Burkholder S, Railey S, White K, Redington-Noble R, Caine V.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2020 Sep 9.
        In May 2009, the Marion County Public Health Department in Indiana declared a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among persons experiencing homelessness in Marion County, began active case finding to detect additional cases, and formed a TB outbreak response team to plan and coordinate outbreak activities. Outbreak-associated cases had 1 of 2 outbreak genotypes and either reported experiencing homelessness themselves or had an epidemiologic link to a shelter or a person experiencing homelessness. The last of 53 outbreak-associated cases was detected in 2019 after more than 2 years without a case. The Marion County Public Health Department continues to address TB-related issues and implement prevention measures at homeless shelters and among persons experiencing homelessness in 2019. This example, in addition to other published guidance, can be used by jurisdictions to plan and implement their own TB outbreak prevention and response activities among persons experiencing homelessness.

      13. Prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women in Fiji, the Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea and Samoa, 1995-2017: Spectrum-STI 
model estimatesexternal icon
        Nishijima T, Nand D, David N, Bauri M, Carney R, Htin KC, Shwe YY, Gurung A, Mahiane G, Ishikawa N, Taylor MM, Korenromp EL.
        Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):29-40.
        OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence levels of and time trends for active syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women aged 15-49 years in four countries in the Pacific (Fiji, the Federated States of Micronesia [FSM], Papua New Guinea [PNG] and Samoa) to inform surveillance and control strategies for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHODS: The Spectrum-STI model was fitted to data from prevalence surveys and screenings of adult female populations collected during 1995-2017 and adjusted for diagnostic test performance and to account for undersampled high-risk populations. For chlamydia and gonorrhoea, data were further adjusted for age and differences between urban and rural areas. RESULTS: Prevalence levels were estimated as a percentage (95% confidence interval). In 2017, active syphilis prevalence was estimated in Fiji at 3.89% (2.82 to 5.06), in FSM at 1.48% (0.93 to 2.16), in PNG at 3.91% (1.67 to 7.24) and in Samoa at 0.16% (0.07 to 0.37). For gonorrhoea, the prevalence in Fiji was 1.63% (0.50 to 3.87); in FSM it was 1.59% (0.49 to 3.58); in PNG it was 11.0% (7.25 to 16.1); and in Samoa it was 1.61% (1.17 to 2.19). The prevalence of chlamydia in Fiji was 24.1% (16.5 to 32.7); in FSM it was 23.9% (18.5 to 30.6); in PNG it was 14.8% (7.39 to 24.7); and in Samoa it was 30.6% (26.8 to 35.0). For each specific disease within each country, the 95% confidence intervals overlapped for 2000 and 2017, although in PNG the 2017 estimates for all three STIs were below the 2000 estimates. These patterns were robust in the sensitivity analyses. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated a persistently high prevalence of three major bacterial STIs across four countries in WHO's Western Pacific Region during nearly two decades. Further strengthening of strategies to control and prevent STIs is warranted.

      14. Recent increase in COVID-19 cases reported among adults aged 18-22 years - United States, May 31-September 5, 2020external icon
        Salvatore PP, Sula E, Coyle JP, Caruso E, Smith AR, Levine RS, Baack BN, Mir R, Lockhart ER, Tiwari TS, Dee DL, Boehmer TK, Jackson BR, Bhattarai A.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1419-1424.
        Although children and young adults are reportedly at lower risk for severe disease and death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), than are persons in other age groups (1), younger persons can experience infection and subsequently transmit infection to those at higher risk for severe illness (2-4). Although at lower risk for severe disease, some young adults experience serious illness, and asymptomatic or mild cases can result in sequelae such as myocardial inflammation (5). In the United States, approximately 45% of persons aged 18-22 years were enrolled in colleges and universities in 2019 (6). As these institutions reopen, opportunities for infection increase; therefore, mitigation efforts and monitoring reports of COVID-19 cases among young adults are important. During August 2-September 5, weekly incidence of COVID-19 among persons aged 18-22 years rose by 55.1% nationally; across U.S. Census regions,* increases were greatest in the Northeast, where incidence increased 144.0%, and Midwest, where incidence increased 123.4%. During the same period, changes in testing volume for SARS-CoV-2 in this age group ranged from a 6.2% decline in the West to a 170.6% increase in the Northeast. In addition, the proportion of cases in this age group among non-Hispanic White (White) persons increased from 33.8% to 77.3% during May 31-September 5. Mitigation and preventive measures targeted to young adults can likely reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission among their contacts and communities. As colleges and universities resume operations, taking steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among young adults is critical (7).

      15. Estimated number of people who inject drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Findings from a two-survey capture-recapture population size estimation exerciseexternal icon
        Van Khuu N, Nguyen PD, Le GT, Luong HT, Tieu VT, Tran HP, Nguyen TV, Morgan M, Abdul-Quader AS.
        J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2020 Jun 19.
        BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS program managers in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam have always relied on the police reports and the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package for population size estimation of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). METHODS: We used Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) to implement a two-source capture-recapture study to estimate the population size of PWID in HCMC in 2017. The study was implemented in seven out of 24 districts and included men and women ages 18 years and older who reported injecting illicit drugs in the last 90 days, and who had lived in the city for the past six months. Estimates of the PWID population size for each of the seven districts were calculated accounting for the RDS sampling design. These were then adjusted to account for the district sampling probabilities to give an estimate for HCMC. Chapman two-source capture-recapture estimates of population size, based on simple random sampling assumptions, were also calculated for comparison. RESULTS: The estimates resulted in a population size for HCMC of 19,155 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 17,006-25,039] using the RDS approach and 17,947 (95% CI: 15,968-19,928), using the Chapman approach. CONCLUSION: The two-survey capture-recapture exercise provided estimates of PWID in HCMC - based on Chapman estimator and RDS approach - are similar. For planning HIV prevention and care service needs among PWID in HCMC, both estimates may need to be taken into consideration together with size estimates from other sources.

      16. Editorial: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIVexternal icon
        von Kleist M, García-Lerma JG, Liu A, Anderson PL.
        Front Pharmacol. 2020 ;11.

      17. Trajectories of and disparities in HIV prevalence among Black, white, and Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men in 86 large U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1992-2013external icon
        Williams LD, Stall R, Tempalski B, Jefferson K, Smith J, Ibragimov U, Hall HI, Satcher Johnson A, Wang G, Purcell DW, Cooper HL, Friedman SR.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2020 Sep 17.
        The challenges of producing adequate estimates of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) are well known. Among them are accurately estimating MSM population size and obtaining HIV testing data from unbiased samples. Previous research has produced rigorous estimates of HIV prevalence among MSM in specific geographic locations (e.g., large cities with large populations of MSM), or for a broader range of locations, but only over a relatively short period of time (e.g., one year). No one, to our knowledge, has published annual estimates of HIV prevalence among MSM over an extended period of time and across a wide range of geographic areas. This is an important gap in the literature, given that this information is needed to identify multi-level predictors of change over time in HIV prevalence among MSM and to help target resources to high-need areas - a national priority. This paper integrates data from numerous sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National HIV Surveillance System and National HIV Prevention Monitoring and Evaluation data; estimates of 1992 MSM population size and HIV prevalence and incidence among MSM by Holmberg, 1997; and estimates of HIV among MSM from published literature using 1992-2013 data. It applies multilevel modeling to these data to estimate and validate trajectories of HIV prevalence among MSM from 1992-2013 for 86 of the largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. Our estimates indicate that, consistently, HIV prevalence among MSM increased during this time period in each MSA, from an across-MSA mean of 11% in 1992 to 20% in 2013 (with slightly smaller increases among MSAs with the initially-largest HIV burden among MSM; S.D. across all years = 3.5%). Our estimates by racial/ethnic subgroups of MSM suggest higher mean HIV prevalence among minority (Black and Hispanic/Latino) MSM than among white MSM across all years and geographic regions. The consistent increases found in HIV prevalence among all MSM are likely primarily attributable to decreases in mortality among HIV-positive MSM, and are likely secondarily attributable to increasing HIV incidence among racial/ethnic minority subpopulations of MSM. Future research is needed to confirm that these are in fact the factors driving the increases in HIV prevalence observed in our estimates. If so, without detracting from HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM, new healthcare initiatives may be needed which focus on targeted HIV prevention efforts among racial/ethnic minority MSM and on training healthcare providers to address cross-cutting health challenges of increased longevity among HIV-positive MSM populations.

      18. Multiple COVID-19 clusters on a university campus - North Carolina, August 2020external icon
        Wilson E, Donovan CV, Campbell M, Chai T, Pittman K, Seña AC, Pettifor A, Weber DJ, Mallick A, Cope A, Porterfield DS, Pettigrew E, Moore Z.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1416-1418.
        Preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in institutes of higher education presents a unique set of challenges because of the presence of congregate living settings and difficulty limiting socialization and group gatherings. Before August 2020, minimal data were available regarding COVID-19 outbreaks in these settings. On August 3, 2020, university A in North Carolina broadly opened campus for the first time since transitioning to primarily remote learning in March. Consistent with CDC guidance at that time (1,2), steps were taken to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on campus. During August 3-25, 670 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were identified; 96% were among patients aged <22 years. Eighteen clusters of five or more epidemiologically linked cases within 14 days of one another were reported; 30% of cases were linked to a cluster. Student gatherings and congregate living settings, both on and off campus, likely contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 within the university community. On August 19, all university A classes transitioned to online, and additional mitigation efforts were implemented. At this point, 334 university A-associated COVID-19 cases had been reported to the local health department. The rapid increase in cases within 2 weeks of opening campus suggests that robust measures are needed to reduce transmission at institutes of higher education, including efforts to increase consistent use of masks, reduce the density of on-campus housing, increase testing for SARS-CoV-2, and discourage student gatherings.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Flooding poses a serious public health hazard throughout the world. Flood modeling is an important tool for emergency preparedness and response, but some common methods require a high degree of expertise or may be unworkable due to poor data quality or data availability issues. The conceptually simple method of inverse distance weight modeling offers an alternative. Using stream gauges as inputs, this study interpolated stream elevation via inverse distance weight modeling under 15 different model input parameter scenarios for Harris County, Texas, USA, from August 25th to September 15th, 2017 (before, during, and after Hurricane Harvey inundated the county). A digital elevation model was used to identify areas where modeled stream elevation exceeded ground elevation, indicating flooding. Imagery and observed high water marks were used to validate the models’ outputs. There was a high degree of agreement (between 79 and 88%) between imagery and model outputs of parameterizations visually validated. Quantitative validations based on high water marks were also positive, with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of in excess of.6 for all parameterizations relative to a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of the benchmark of 0.56. Inverse distance weight modeling offers a simple, accurate method for first-order estimations of riverine flooding in near real-time using readily available data, and outputs are robust to some alterations to input parameters.

      2. Neurochemical and neurobiological weaponsexternal icon
        Sejvar JJ.
        Neurologic Clinics. 2020 .
        Nerve agents and neurobiological weapons are among the most devastating and lethal of weapons. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors act by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction, resulting in flaccid paralysis. Tabun, VX, soman, and sarin are the major agents in this category. Exposure to nerve agents can be inhalational or through dermal contact. Neurotoxins may have peripheral and central effects on the nervous system. Atropine is an effective antidote to nerve agents. Neurobiological weapons entail using whole organisms or organism-synthesized toxins as agents. Some organisms that can be used as biological weapons include smallpox virus.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Pre- and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in relation to thyroid parameters measured during early childhoodexternal icon
        Cowell WJ, Sjödin A, Jones R, Wang Y, Wang S, Whyatt RM, Factor-Litvak P, Bradwin G, Hassoun A, Oberfield S, Herbstman JB.
        Thyroid. 2019 May;29(5):631-641.
        Background: Penta-brominated diphenyl ethers (PentaBDEs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that structurally resemble thyroid hormones and were widely used as flame retardants in household consumer products from 1975 to 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) cross the placenta, and evidence suggests that for many children, body burdens may peak during the toddler years. This study aimed to understand the impact of exposure timing by examining both pre- and postnatal exposure to BDE-47, the predominant penta-brominated diphenyl ether congener detected in humans, in relation to thyroid hormone parameters measured during early childhood. Methods: The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health Mothers and Newborns Study is a prospective birth cohort of African American and Dominican maternal-child pairs. Pregnant women were recruited from two prenatal clinics in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx between 1998 and 2006. Participants included 158 children with (i) plasma PBDE concentrations measured at birth and in the toddler years (age 2-3 years), and (ii) serum thyroid parameters measured at three and/or five years of age. Outcomes included concentrations of serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and total thyroxine. Results: Children with high exposure to BDE-47 during the prenatal period (-17% [confidence interval -29 to -2]) or toddler age (-19% [confidence interval -31 to -5]) had significantly lower geometric mean thyrotropin levels compared to children with low BDE-47 exposure throughout early life. Associations with thyroxine were also inverse; however, they did not reach statistical significance at the p = 0.05 level. Sex-stratified models suggest associations with postnatal exposure may be stronger among boys compared to girls. Conclusions: The thyroid regulatory system may be sensitive to BDE-47 during pre- and postnatal periods.

      2. Serum concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and risk of renal cell carcinomaexternal icon
        Shearer JJ, Callahan CL, Calafat AM, Huang WY, Jones RR, Sabbisetti VS, Freedman ND, Sampson JN, Silverman DT, Purdue MP, Hofmann JN.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2020 Sep 18.
        BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are highly persistent chemicals that have been detected in the serum of > 98% of the U.S. population. Studies among highly exposed individuals suggest an association with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and kidney cancer. It remains unclear whether PFOA or other PFAS are renal carcinogens, or if they influence risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at concentrations observed in the general population. METHODS: We measured pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of PFOA and seven additional PFAS in 324 RCC cases and 324 individually matched controls within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating serum PFAS concentrations and RCC risk. Individual PFAS were modeled continuously (log2-transformed) and categorically, with adjustment for kidney function and additional potential confounders. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We observed a positive association with RCC risk for PFOA (doubling in serum concentration, ORcontinuous = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.37; P = .002), and a greater than two-fold increased risk among those in the highest quartile vs. the lowest (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.20; Ptrend = .007). The association with PFOA was similar after adjustment for other PFAS (ORcontinuous = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.63; P = .02), and remained apparent in analyses restricted to individuals without evidence of diminished kidney function and in cases diagnosed ≥8 years after phlebotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add substantially to the weight of evidence that PFOA is a renal carcinogen and may have important public health implications for the many individuals exposed to this ubiquitous and highly persistent chemical.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Barriers and facilitators for cascade testing in genetic conditions: a systematic reviewexternal icon
        Srinivasan S, Won NY, Dotson WD, Wright ST, Roberts MC.
        Eur J Hum Genet. 2020 Sep 18.
        Cascade testing is the process of offering genetic counseling and testing to at-risk relatives of an individual who has been diagnosed with a genetic condition. It is critical for increasing the identification rates of individuals with these conditions and the uptake of appropriate preventive health services. The process of cascade testing is highly varied in clinical practice, and a comprehensive understanding of factors that hinder or enhance its implementation is necessary to improve this process. We conducted a systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators for cascade testing and searched PubMed, CINAHL via EBSCO, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for articles published from the databases' inception to November 2018. Thirty articles met inclusion criteria. Barriers and facilitators identified from these studies at the individual-level were organized into the following categories: (1) demographics, (2) knowledge, (3) attitudes, beliefs, and emotional responses of the individual, and (4) perceptions of relatives, relatives' responses, and attitudes toward relatives. At the interpersonal-level, barriers and facilitators were categorized as (1) family communication-, support- and dynamics-, and (2) provider-factors. Finally, barriers at the environmental-level relating to accessibility of genetic services were also identified. Our findings suggest that several individual, interpersonal and environmental factors may play a role in cascade testing. Future studies to further investigate these barriers and facilitators are needed to inform future interventions for improving the implementation of cascade testing for genetic conditions in clinical practice.

    • Health Economics
      1. Estimating costs of diabetes complications in people <65 years in the U.S. using panel dataexternal icon
        Yang W, Cintina I, Hoerger T, Neuwahl SJ, Shao H, Laxy M, Zhang P.
        J Diabetes Complications. 2020 Sep 6:107735.
        AIMS: To estimate the cost of diabetes complications in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: We constructed longitudinal panel data using one of the largest claims databases in the U.S. for privately insured Type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes patients with a follow-up time of one to ten years. Complication costs were estimated both in years of the first occurrence and in subsequent years, using individual fixed-effects models. All costs were in 2016 dollars. RESULTS: 47,166 people with T1DM and 608,237 with T2DM were included in our study. Aside from organ transplants, which were rare, the estimated average costs for the top three most costly conditions in the first vs. subsequent years were: end stage renal disease ($73,534 vs. $97,431 for T1DM; $94,231 vs. $98,981 for T2DM), congestive heart failure ($41,681 vs. $14,855 for T1DM; $31,202 vs. $7062 for T2DM), and myocardial infarction ($40,899 vs. $9496 for T1DM; $45,251 vs. $8572 for T2DM). For both diabetes types, retinopathy and neuropathy tend to have the lowest cost estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the latest and most comprehensive cost estimates for a broad set of diabetes complications needed to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of interventions for preventing and managing diabetes.

    • Immune System Disorders

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. INTRODUCTION: Toward the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2020 goal, almost 90% of countries have established a National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG). However, little is known about NITAG's contributions to governance. METHODS: In 2017-2018, a two-step, qualitative retrospective study was conducted. Jordan (JO), Argentina (AR), and South Africa (SA) were selected owing to government-financed NITAGs from middle-income countries (MICs), geographic diversity, and a vaccine introduction with NITAG support. Country case studies were developed, collecting data through desk review and face-to-face key informant interviews (KIIs) from Ministry of Health (MoH) and NITAG. Case studies were analyzed together, to assess governance applying the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies framework focusing on transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and policy capacity (TAPIC). RESULTS: Document review and 53 KII (22 AR, 20 SA, 11 JO) showed NITAGs played a pivotal role as advisors promoting a culture of evidence-informed policies. NITAGs strengthened governance, although practices varied among countries. Meetings were conducted behind-closed-doors, participation restricted to members, only in one country agendas, and recommendations were public (AR). To increase participation, policy capacity, and transparency, countries considered adding experts in communications, advocacy, and economics. AR and SA contemplated including community members. NITAGs functioned autonomously from the government, with no established internal or external monitoring or supervision. NITAG meeting minutes allowed the review of integrity, adherence to terms of reference, standard operating procedures, and conflict of interest (CoI). For the most part, NITAGs abided by their mandates. Significant issues were related to the level of MoH support and oversight of CoI declaration and documentation. CONCLUSIONS: Systematically implementing governance approaches could improve processes, better tailor policies, and implementation. The long-term survival and resilience of NITAGs in these countries showed they play a significant role in strengthening governance. Lessons learned could be useful to those promoting country-driven evidence-informed decision-making.

      2. Vaccination status of Alaska Native persons with hepatitis a virus infection - Alaska, 1996-2018external icon
        Plumb ID, Gounder PP, Nolen LD, Massay SC, Castrodale L, McLaughlin J, Snowball M, Homan C, Nelson NP, Singleton R, Bruce MG, McMahon BJ.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 24.
        Following increases in reported cases of hepatitis A, we assessed the impact of hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska Native persons. During 1996-2018, only 6 cases of hepatitis A were identified, all in unvaccinated adults. Populations can be protected against hepatitis A by achieving sufficient vaccination coverage over time.

      3. Influenza and Tdap vaccination coverage among pregnant women - United States, April 2020external icon
        Razzaghi H, Kahn KE, Black CL, Lindley MC, Jatlaoui TC, Fiebelkorn AP, Havers FP, D'Angelo DV, Cheung A, Ruther NA, Williams WW.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1391-1397.
        Vaccination of pregnant women with influenza vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) can decrease the risk for influenza and pertussis among pregnant women and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be administered at any time during pregnancy (1). ACIP also recommends that women receive Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 27-36 (2,3). Despite these recommendations, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been found to be suboptimal with racial/ethnic disparities persisting (4-6). To assess influenza and Tdap vaccination coverage among women pregnant during the 2019-20 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during April 2020. Among 1,841 survey respondents who were pregnant anytime during October 2019-January 2020, 61.2% reported receiving influenza vaccine before or during their pregnancy, an increase of 7.5 percentage points compared with the rate during the 2018-19 season. Among 463 respondents who had a live birth by their survey date, 56.6% reported receiving Tdap during pregnancy, similar to the 2018-19 season (4). Vaccination coverage was highest among women who reported receiving a provider offer or referral for vaccination (influenza = 75.2%; Tdap = 72.7%). Compared with the 2018-19 season, increases in influenza vaccination coverage were observed during the 2019-20 season for non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (14.7 percentage points, to 52.7%), Hispanic women (9.9 percentage points, to 67.2%), and women of other non-Hispanic (other) races (7.9 percentage points, to 69.6%), and did not change for non-Hispanic White (White) women (60.6%). As in the 2018-19 season, Hispanic and Black women had the lowest Tdap vaccination coverage (35.8% and 38.8%, respectively), compared with White women (65.5%) and women of other races (54.0%); in addition, a decrease in Tdap vaccination coverage was observed among Hispanic women in 2019-20 compared with the previous season. Racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination coverage decreased but persisted, even among women who received a provider offer or referral for vaccination. Consistent provider offers or referrals, in combination with conversations culturally and linguistically tailored for patients of all races/ethnicities, could increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women in all racial/ethnic groups and reduce disparities in coverage.

    • Informatics
      1. BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations have an increased risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. Capturing patient data on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) in the electronic health record (EHR) can enable healthcare organizations to identify inequities in the provision of preventive health screenings and other quality of care services to their LGBTQ patients. However, organizations may not be familiar with methods for analyzing and interpreting SOGI data to detect health disparities. PURPOSE: To assess an approach for using SOGI EHR data to identify potential screening disparities of LGBTQ patients within distinct healthcare organizations. METHODS: Five US federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) retrospectively extracted three consecutive months of EHR patient data on SOGI and routine screening for cervical cancer, tobacco use, and clinical depression. The screening data were stratified across SOGI categories. Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact test were used to identify statistically significant differences in screening compliance across SOGI categories within each FQHC. RESULTS: In all FQHCs, cervical cancer screening percentages were lower among lesbian/gay patients than among bisexual and straight/heterosexual patients. In three FQHCs, cervical cancer screening percentages were lower for transgender men than for cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women. Within each FQHC, we observed statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) between SOGI categories and at least one screening measure. The small number of transgender patients, and limitations in EHR functionality, created challenges in interpretation of SOGI data. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first published report of using SOGI data from EHRs to detect potential disparities in healthcare services to LGBTQ patients. Our finding that lesbian/gay and transgender male patients had lower cervical cancer screening rates compared to heterosexual, bisexual, and cisgender women, is consistent with the research literature and suggests that using SOGI EHR data to detect preventive screening disparities has value. EHR functionality should allow for cross-checking gender identity with sex assigned at birth to reduce errors in data interpretation. Additional functionality, like clinical decision support based on anatomical inventories rather than gender identity, is needed to more accurately identify services that transgender patients need.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. OBJECTIVE: To provide state-level traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visit, hospitalization, and death estimates for 2014. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Core Violence and Injury Prevention Program and State Injury Indicators participating states. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES: Number and incidence rates of TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths in more than 30 states. RESULTS: The rates of TBI-related ED visits in 2014 ranged from 381.1 per 100 000 (South Dakota) to 998.4 per 100 000 (Massachusetts). In 2014, Pennsylvania had the highest TBI-related hospitalization rate (98.9) and Ohio had the lowest (55.1). In 2014, the TBI-related death rate ranged from 9.1 per 100 000 (New Jersey) to 23.0 per 100 000 (Oklahoma). CONCLUSION: The variations in TBI burden among states support the need for tailoring prevention efforts to state needs. Results of this analysis can serve as a baseline for these efforts.

      2. Informing data-driven strategies to prevent traumatic brain injury at the state and local levelexternal icon
        Daugherty J, Thomas K, Waltzman D, Sarmiento K, Haarbauer-Krupa J.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2020 Sep 11.

      3. Abuse and neglect among older adults impact everyone and are recognized internationally as significant and growing public health issues. A systematic review of reviews was conducted to identify effective strategies and approaches for preventing abuse and neglect among older adults. Eligible reviews were systematic or meta-analyses; focused on the older population as reported in the publications; reviewed prevention interventions; included relevant violence and abuse outcomes; written in English; and published in a peer-reviewed journal between January 2000 and May 2020. Eleven unique reviews (12 publications) met the eligibility criteria, including one meta-analysis. Included reviews mainly focused on general abuse directed toward older adults; and educational interventions for professional and paraprofessional caregivers, multidisciplinary teams of health care and legal professionals, and families. Interventions were implemented in a variety of community and institutional settings and addressed primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The reviews indicated weak or insufficient evidence of effectiveness in preventing or reducing abuse, yet several promising practices were identified. Future research is needed to evaluate emerging and promising strategies and approaches to prevent abuse among older adults. Effective interventions are also needed to prevent or reduce abuse and neglect among older adults.

      4. Prevalence of concussion-related policies and practices among public school districts in the United States, 2012 and 2016external icon
        Miller GF, DePadilla L, Everett Jones S, Lionbarger M, Thigpen S.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2020 Sep 9.
        BACKGROUND: Beginning in 2009, there was an increase in the number of states with laws addressing 3 different components of youth sports-related concussion prevention and management: concussion education, removal from play, and medical clearance requirements before allowing an athlete to return to play. Schools are an important setting to implement policies and practices related to concussions, as many youth participate in organized sports through school venues. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the prevalence of concussion-related policies and practices adopted by school districts changed from 2012 to 2016. METHODS: This study used nationally representative data from the 2012 and 2016 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether the prevalence of 4 concussion-related policies and practices changed during 2012 and 2016 and whether comprehensive policies changed during the same time frame. Comprehensive policies were defined as those that address removal from play after injury, medical clearance before returning to play, and concussion-related educational materials and sessions for parents and student athletes. RESULTS: Among school districts nationwide, the prevalence of each of the 4 concussion-related policies and practices significantly increased during 2012 and 2016. The prevalence of comprehensive policies significantly increased from 51.6% in 2012 to 66.7% in 2016. While these findings are promising, it is important to note that one-third of districts still lacked comprehensive policies in 2016 and only 71% of districts provided educational sessions in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study highlight improvements in school districts nationwide in adopting concussion-related policies and practices. Policies such as requiring educational sessions allow parents and student athletes to learn about concussions and understand the importance of reporting a concussion or concussion symptoms.

      5. State-level numbers and rates of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths by age, 2014external icon
        Sarmiento K, Thomas K, Daugherty J, Haarbauer-Krupa J, Waltzman D.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2020 Sep 11.
        OBJECTIVE: To provide state-level traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visit, hospitalization, and death estimates by age group for 2014. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Core Violence and Injury Prevention Program and State Injury Indicators-participating states. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES: Number and population-based incidence rates of TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths by age group-children and young adults (0-24 years), adults (25-64 years), and older adults (≥65 years)-in 36 states. RESULTS: South Dakota had the lowest rates of TBI-related ED visits for all age groups-children and young adults: 566.2 (95% CI: 539.2-593.3) per 100 000; adults: 269.2 (95% CI: 253.0-285.4) per 100 000; and older adults: 324.3 (95% CI: 293.4-355.2) per 100 000. Rhode Island had the lowest rate of TBI-related hospitalizations for children and young adults-25.9 (95% CI: 20.7-32.0) per 100 000. The lowest rate of TBI-related hospitalizations among adults and older adults was in Virginia-39.6 (95% CI: 37.7-41.4) per 100 000-and Ohio-129.3 (95% CI: 124.0-134.6) per 100 000-respectively. Maryland had the lowest rate of TBI-related deaths for children and young adults-3.1 (95% CI: 2.3-3.9) per 100 000. Rhode Island had the lowest rate of TBI-related deaths for adults-7.2 (95% CI: 5.2-9.8) per 100 000-and New Jersey had the lowest rate of TBI-related deaths for older adults-29.4 (95% CI: 26.5-32.4) per 100 000. CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrated that there are variations in TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths by age. State public health professionals may use these findings to develop state-based strategies to address TBI.

      6. State-level numbers and rates of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths by sex, 2014external icon
        Waltzman D, Haarbauer-Krupa J, Daugherty J, Thomas K, Sarmiento K.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2020 Sep 11.
        OBJECTIVE: To provide state-level traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visit, hospitalization, and death estimates by sex for 2014. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Core Violence and Injury Prevention Program and State Injury Indicators-participating states. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES: Number and rate of TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths (indicators) by sex in over 25 states. RESULTS: Across all states that supplied data, males had higher rates of TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths than females. However, for some indicators, high rates for both sexes and low rates for both sexes appeared clustered in a specific region of the United States. There was also within-state variability in TBI rates by indicator and sex. For example, within-state variability between sexes ranged from as low as 2.8% for ED visits and as high as 335% for deaths. CONCLUSION: TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths varied by state and by sex, and evidence was found for within-state variability in TBI rates by indicator and sex in 2014. Differences in TBI indicators by sex may have important implications for public health professionals implementing TBI prevention and care strategies at the state level.

      7. Infant homicides within the context of Safe Haven Laws - United States, 2008-2017external icon
        Wilson RF, Klevens J, Williams D, Xu L.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1385-1390.
        Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent(†) to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Laser-assisted skin delivery of immunocontraceptive rabies nanoparticulate vaccine in poloxamer gelexternal icon
        Bansal A, Gamal W, Menon IJ, Olson V, Wu X, D'Souza MJ.
        Eur J Pharm Sci. 2020 Sep 16:105560.
        A painless skin delivery of vaccine for disease prevention is of great advantage in improving compliance in patients. To test this idea as a proof of concept, we utilized a pDNA vaccine construct, pDNAg333-2GnRH that has a dual function of controlling rabies and inducing immunocontraception in animals. The pDNA was administered to mice in a nanoparticulate form delivered through the skin using the P.L.E.A.S.E.® (Precise Laser Epidermal System) microporation laser device. Laser application was well tolerated, and mild skin reaction was healed completely in 8 days. We demonstrated that adjuvanted nanoparticulate pDNA vaccine significantly upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in dendritic cells. After topical administration of the adjuvanted nano-vaccine in mice, the high avidity serum for GnRH antibodies were induced and maintained up to 9 weeks. The induced immune response was of a mixed Th1/Th2 profile as measured by IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG1) and cytokine levels (IFN-γ and IL-4). Using flow cytometry, we revealed an increase of CD8(+) T-cells and CD45R B cells upon the administration of the adjuvanted vaccine. Our previous study used the same pDNA nanoparticulate vaccine through an IM route, and a comparable immune response was induced using P.L.E.A.S.E. However, the vaccine dose in the current study was four-fold less than what was applied through the IM route. We concluded that laser-assisted skin vaccination has a potential of becoming a safe and reliable vaccination tool for rabies vaccination in animals or even in humans for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis.

      2. The interplays between Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) M segment-encoded accessory proteins and structural proteins promote virus assembly and infectivityexternal icon
        Freitas N, Enguehard M, Denolly S, Levy C, Neveu G, Lerolle S, Devignot S, Weber F, Bergeron E, Legros V, Cosset FL.
        PLoS Pathog. 2020 Sep 21;16(9):e1008850.
        Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne orthonairovirus that has become a serious threat to the public health. CCHFV has a single-stranded, tripartite RNA genome composed of L, M, and S segments. Cleavage of the M polyprotein precursor generates the two envelope glycoproteins (GPs) as well as three secreted nonstructural proteins GP38 and GP85 or GP160, representing GP38 only or GP38 linked to a mucin-like protein (MLD), and a double-membrane-spanning protein called NSm. Here, we examined the relevance of each M-segment non-structural proteins in virus assembly, egress and infectivity using a well-established CCHFV virus-like-particle system (tc-VLP). Deletion of MLD protein had no impact on infectivity although it reduced by 60% incorporation of GPs into particles. Additional deletion of GP38 abolished production of infectious tc-VLPs. The loss of infectivity was associated with impaired Gc maturation and exclusion from the Golgi, showing that Gn is not sufficient to target CCHFV GPs to the site of assembly. Consistent with this, efficient complementation was achieved in cells expressing MLD-GP38 in trans with increased levels of preGc to Gc conversion, co-targeting to the Golgi, resulting in particle incorporation and restored infectivity. Contrastingly, a MLD-GP38 variant retained in the ER allowed preGc cleavage but failed to rescue miss-localization or infectivity. NSm deletion, conversely, did not affect trafficking of Gc but interfered with Gc processing, particle formation and secretion. NSm expression affected N-glycosylation of different viral proteins most likely due to increased speed of trafficking through the secretory pathway. This highlights a potential role of NSm in overcoming Golgi retention and facilitating CCHFV egress. Thus, deletions of GP38 or NSm demonstrate their important role on CCHFV particle production and infectivity. GP85 is an essential viral factor for preGc cleavage, trafficking and Gc incorporation into particles, whereas NSm protein is involved in CCHFV assembly and virion secretion.

      3. Antibody responses against Anopheles darlingi immunogenic peptides in plasmodium infected humansexternal icon
        Londono-Renteria B, Montiel J, Calvo E, Tobón-Castaño A, Valdivia HO, Escobedo-Vargas K, Romero L, Bosantes M, Fisher ML, Conway MJ, Vásquez GM, Lenhart AE.
        Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 ;10.
        Introduction: Malaria is still an important vector-borne disease in the New World tropics. Despite the recent decline in malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa, a rise in Plasmodium infections has been detected in several low malaria transmission areas in Latin America. One of the main obstacles in the battle against malaria is the lack of innovative tools to assess malaria transmission risk, and the behavioral plasticity of one of the main malaria vectors in Latin America, Anopheles darlingi. Methods: We used human IgG antibodies against mosquito salivary gland proteins as a measure of disease risk. Whole salivary gland antigen (SGA) from Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes was used as antigen in Western blot experiments, in which a ~65 kDa protein was visualized as the main immunogenic band and sent for sequencing by mass spectrometry. Apyrase and peroxidase peptides were designed and used as antigens in an ELISA-based test to measure human IgG antibody responses in people with different clinical presentations of malaria. Results: Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed 17 proteins contained in the ~65 kDa band, with an apyrase and a peroxidase as the two most abundant proteins. Detection of IgG antibodies against salivary antigens by ELISA revealed a significant higher antibody levels in people with malaria infection when compared to uninfected volunteers using the AnDar_Apy1 and AnDar_Apy2 peptides. We also detected a significant positive correlation between the anti-peptides IgG levels and antibodies against the Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum antigens PvMSP1 and PfMSP1. Odd ratios suggest that people with higher IgG antibodies against the apyrase peptides were up to five times more likely to have a malaria infection. Conclusion: Antibodies against salivary peptides from An. darlingi salivary gland proteins may be used as biomarkers for malaria risk.

      4. Shift work influences the outcomes of Chlamydia infection and pathogenesisexternal icon
        Lundy SR, Richardson S, Ramsey A, Ellerson D, Fengxia Y, Onyeabor S, Kirlin W, Thompson W, Black CM, DeBruyne JP, Davidson AJ, Immergluck LC, Blas-Machado U, Eko FO, Igietseme JU, He Q, Omosun YO.
        Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 21;10(1):15389.
        Shift work, performed by approximately 21 million Americans, is irregular or unusual work schedule hours occurring after 6:00 pm. Shift work has been shown to disrupt circadian rhythms and is associated with several adverse health outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer, gastrointestinal and psychiatric diseases and disorders. It is unclear if shift work influences the complications associated with certain infectious agents, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility resulting from genital chlamydial infection. We used an Environmental circadian disruption (ECD) model mimicking circadian disruption occurring during shift work, where mice had a 6-h advance in the normal light/dark cycle (LD) every week for a month. Control group mice were housed under normal 12/12 LD cycle. Our hypothesis was that compared to controls, mice that had their circadian rhythms disrupted in this ECD model will have a higher Chlamydia load, more pathology and decreased fertility rate following Chlamydia infection. Results showed that, compared to controls, mice that had their circadian rhythms disrupted (ECD) had higher Chlamydia loads, more tissue alterations or lesions, and lower fertility rate associated with chlamydial infection. Also, infected ECD mice elicited higher proinflammatory cytokines compared to mice under normal 12/12 LD cycle. These results imply that there might be an association between shift work and the increased likelihood of developing more severe disease from Chlamydia infection.

      5. Tumorigenic response in lung tumor susceptible A/J mice after sub-chronic exposure to calcium chromate or iron (III) oxideexternal icon
        Zeidler-Erdely PC, Falcone LM, Antonini JM, Fraser K, Kashon ML, Battelli LA, Salmen R, Trainor T, Grose L, Friend S, Yang C, Erdely A.
        Toxicol Lett. 2020 Sep 19.
        Iron oxides are Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding and hematite underground mining as well as other iron predominant exposures such as welding are Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of iron as iron (III) oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) to initiate lung tumors in A/J mice, a lung tumor susceptible strain. Male A/J mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to suspensions of Fe(2)O(3) (1 mg) or calcium chromate (CaCrO(4); 100 µg; positive control) for 26 weeks (once per week). Shams were exposed to 50 µL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; vehicle). Mice were euthanized 70 weeks after the first exposure and lung nodules were enumerated. Both CaCrO(4) and Fe(2)O(3) significantly increased gross-observed lung tumor multiplicity in A/J mice (9.63 ± 0.55 and 3.35 ± 0.30, respectively) compared to sham (2.31 ± 0.19). Histopathological analysis showed that bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas (BAA) and carcinomas (BAC) were the primary lung tumor types in all groups and were increased in the exposed groups compared to sham. BAC were significantly increased (146 %) in the CaCrO(4) group and neared significance in the Fe(2)O(3) group (100 % increase; p = 0.085). BAA and other histopathological indices of toxicity followed the same pattern with exposed groups increased compared to sham control. In conclusion, evidence from this study, in combination with our previous studies, demonstrate that exposure to iron alone may be a potential risk factor for lung carcinogenesis.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Changes in provider type and prescription refills among privately insured children and youth with ADHDexternal icon
        Hart LC, Grosse SD, Danielson ML, Baum RA, Kemper AR.
        J Atten Disord. 2020 Sep 18.
        OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to understand associations between age and health care provider type in medication continuation among transition-aged youth with ADHD. METHOD: Using an employer-sponsored insurance claims database, we identified patients with likely ADHD and receipt of ADHD medications. Among patients who had an outpatient physician visit at baseline and maintained enrollment at follow-up 3 years later, we evaluated which ones continued to fill prescriptions for ADHD medications. RESULTS: Patients who were younger at follow-up more frequently continued medication (77% of 11-12 year-olds vs. 52% of 19-20 year-olds). Those who saw a pediatric provider at baseline and follow-up more frequently continued to fill ADHD medication prescriptions than those who saw a pediatric provider at baseline and non-pediatric providers at follow-up (71% vs. 53% among those ages 15-16 years at follow-up). CONCLUSION: Adolescents and young adults with ADHD who changed from pediatric to exclusively non-pediatric providers less frequently continued to receive ADHD medications.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Occupational injury and psychological distress among U.S. workers: The National Health Interview Survey, 2004-2016external icon
        Gu JK, Charles LE, Fekedulegn D, Ma CC, Violanti JM, Andrew ME.
        J Safety Res. 2020 Sep;74:207-217.
        INTRODUCTION: Injuries at work may negatively influence mental health due to lost or reduced working hours and financial burden of treatment. Our objective was to investigate, in U.S. workers (a) the prevalence of serious psychological distress (SPD) by injury status (occupational, non-occupational, and no injury) and injury characteristics, and (b) the association between injury status and SPD. METHODS: Self-reported injuries within the previous three months were collected annually for 225,331 U.S. workers in the National Health Interview Survey (2004-2016). Psychological distress during the past 30 days was assessed using the Kessler 6 (K6) questions with Likert-type scale (0-4, total score range: 0-24). SPD was defined as K6 ≥ 13. Prevalence ratios (PR) from fitted logistic regression models were used to assess relationships between injury and SPD after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of SPD was 4.74%, 3.58%, and 1.56% in workers reporting occupational injury (OI), non-occupational injury (NOI), and no injury, respectively. Workers with head and neck injury had the highest prevalence of SPD (Prevalence: OI = 7.71%, NOI = 6.17%), followed by workers with scrape/bruise/burn/bite (6.32% for those with OI). Workers reporting OI were two times more likely to have SPD compared to those without injury (PR = 2.19, 95%CI: 1.62-2.96). However, there was no significant difference in SPD between workers with OI and workers with NOI (PR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.65-1.48). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SPD varied by injury status with the highest being among workers reporting OI. We found that the workers reporting OI were significantly more likely to have SPD than those without injury, but not more than those with NOI. Practical Applications: Mental health management programs by employers are necessary for workers who are injured in the workplace.

      2. Exposures and emissions in coffee roasting facilities and cafes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and other volatile organic compoundsexternal icon
        LeBouf RF, Blackley BH, Fortner AR, Stanton M, Martin SB, Groth CP, McClelland TL, Duling MG, Burns DA, Ranpara A, Edwards N, Fedan KB, Bailey RL, Cummings KJ, Nett RJ, Cox-Ganser JM, Virji MA.
        Front Public Health. 2020 Sep;8:561740.
        Roasted coffee and many coffee flavorings emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Exposures to VOCs during roasting, packaging, grinding, and flavoring coffee can negatively impact the respiratory health of workers. Inhalational exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione can cause obliterative bronchiolitis. This study summarizes exposures to and emissions of VOCs in 17 coffee roasting and packaging facilities that included 10 caf&#233;s. We collected 415 personal and 760 area full-shift, and 606 personal task-based air samples for diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and acetoin using silica gel tubes. We also collected 296 instantaneous activity and 312 instantaneous source air measurements for 18 VOCs using evacuated canisters. The highest personal full-shift exposure in part per billion (ppb) to diacetyl [geometric mean (GM) 21 ppb; 95th percentile (P95) 79 ppb] and 2,3-pentanedione (GM 15 ppb; P95 52 ppb) were measured for production workers in flavored coffee production areas. These workers also had the highest percentage of measurements above the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for diacetyl (95%) and 2,3-pentanedione (77%). Personal exposures to diacetyl (GM 0.9 ppb; P95 6.0 ppb) and 2,3-pentanedione (GM 0.7 ppb; P95 4.4 ppb) were the lowest for non-production workers of facilities that did not flavor coffee. Job groups with the highest personal full-shift exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were flavoring workers (GM 34 and 38 ppb), packaging workers (GM 27 and 19 ppb) and grinder operator (GM 26 and 22 ppb), respectively, in flavored coffee facilities, and packaging workers (GM 8.0 and 4.4 ppb) and production workers (GM 6.3 and 4.6 ppb) in non-flavored coffee facilities. Baristas in caf&#233;s had mean full-shift exposures below the RELs (GM 4.1 ppb diacetyl; GM 4.6 ppb 2,3-pentanedione). The tasks, activities, and sources associated with flavoring in flavored coffee facilities and grinding in non-flavored coffee facilities, had some of the highest GM and P95 estimates for both diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Controlling emissions at grinding machines and flavoring areas and isolating higher exposure areas (e.g., flavoring, grinding, and packaging areas) from the main production space and from administrative or non-production spaces is essential for maintaining exposure control.

      3. Evaluating imidacloprid exposure among grape field male workers using biological and environmental assessment tools: An exploratory studyexternal icon
        López-Gálvez N, Wagoner R, Canales RA, de Zapien J, Calafat AM, Ospina M, Rosales C, Beamer P.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2020 Sep 17;230:113625.
        Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide commonly injected through agricultural drip irrigation systems to reduce the population of vine mealybugs (P. ficus) in grape farms. There is a growing concern of potential human health effects of imidacloprid, however, there is limited information on the exposure to imidacloprid in farm workers. Imidacloprid exposure was evaluated in this exploratory study of 20 male migrant grape workers sampled five days after imidacloprid was injected in the irrigation system during winter and summer seasons. We administered a questionnaire on work activities, exposure characteristics, and socio-demographics and collected personal air, hand wipe, and spot urine samples. Heat exposure was also assessed. Spearman's correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were utilized to evaluate associations and differences in imidacloprid exposures with socio-demographic, occupational, and environmental characteristics. All participants had less than a high school education and about half identified an Indigenous language as their primary language. Although not detected in air samples, imidacloprid was detected in 85% of the hand wipes (median: 0.26: 0.41 μg/wipe, range: 0.05-7.10 μg/wipe). The majority of participants (75%) had detectable urinary concentrations of imidacloprid (median: 0.11 μg/g creatinine, range: 0.05-3.90 μg/g of creatinine), and nearly all (95%) had detectable urinary concentrations of 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid (5-OH-IMI), a metabolite of imidacloprid (median: 1.28 μg/g creatinine, range: 0.20-27.89 μg/g creatinine). There was a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between imidacloprid in hand wipes and urinary imidacloprid and 5-OH-IMI (r(s): 0.67 for imidacloprid and 0.80 for 5-OH-IMI). Hand temperature was significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.05) with imidacloprid concentration on hand wipes (r(s): 0.70), and urinary biomarkers (r(s): 0.68 for imidacloprid, and 0.60 for 5-OH-IMI) suggesting that working in high temperatures may influence the exposure and absorption of imidacloprid. Thus, research on farm workers would benefit in the future by evaluating imidacloprid exposure in relation to heat stress and other occupational factors.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. Lagging or leading? Exploring the temporal relationship among lagging indicators in mining establishments 2006-2017external icon
        Yorio PL, Haas EJ, Bell JL, Moore SM, Greenawald LA.
        J Safety Res. 2020 Sep;74:179-185.
        PROBLEM: Safety management literature generally categorizes key performance indicators (KPIs) as either leading or lagging. Traditional lagging indicators are measures related to negative safety incidents, such as injuries, while leading indicators are used to predict (and therefore can be used to prevent) the likelihood of future negative safety incidents. Recent theory suggests that traditional lagging indicators also possess characteristics of leading indicators, and vice versa, however empirical evidence is limited. METHOD: The current research investigated the temporal relationships among establishment-level injuries, near misses, and fatal events using injury and employment data from a sample of 24,910 mining establishments over a 12-year period. RESULTS: While controlling for employee hours worked, establishment-level reported injuries and near misses were associated with of future fatal events across the sample of mines and over the time period studied. Fatal events were also associated with increases in future reported near misses, providing evidence of a cyclic relationship between them. DISCUSSION: These findings challenge the strict categorization of injuries, near misses, and fatal events as lagging indicators. Practical applications: Understanding the KPIs that should be used to manage organizational safety, and how they can be used, is of critical practical importance. The results of the current study suggest that, depending on several considerations, metrics tied to negative safety incidents may be used to anticipate, and possibly prevent, future negative safety events.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Geographic access to critical care obstetrics for women of reproductive age by race and ethnicityexternal icon
        Kroelinger CD, Brantley MD, Fuller TR, Okoroh EM, Monsour MJ, Cox S, Barfield WD.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Aug 21.
        BACKGROUND: The goal of risk-appropriate maternal care is for high-risk pregnant women to receive specialized obstetrical services in facilities equipped with capabilities and staffing to provide care or transfer to facilities with resources available to provide care. In the United States, geographic access to critical care obstetrics varies. It is unknown whether this variation in proximity to critical care obstetrics differs by race, ethnicity, and region. OBJECTIVE: We examined the geographic access, defined as residence within 50 miles of a facility capable of providing risk-appropriate critical care obstetrics services for women of reproductive age, by distribution of race and ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive spatial analysis was used to assess geographic distance to critical care obstetrics for women of reproductive age by race and ethnicity. Data were analyzed geographically: nationally, by the Department of Health and Human Services regions, and by all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Dot density analysis was used to visualize geographic distributions of women by residence and critical care obstetrics facilities across the United States. Proximity analysis defined the proportion of women living within an approximate 50-mile radius of facilities. Source data included the 2015 American Community Survey from the United States Census Bureau and the 2015 American Hospital Association Annual Survey. RESULTS: Geographic access to critical care obstetrics was the greatest for Asian and Pacific Islander women of reproductive age (95.8%), followed by black (93.5%), Hispanic (91.4%), and white women of reproductive age (89.1%). American Indian and Alaska Native women had more limited geographic access (66%) in all regions. Visualization of proximity to critical care obstetrics indicated that facilities were predominantly located in urban areas, which may limit access to women in frontier or rural areas of states including nationally recognized reservations where larger proportions of white women and American Indian and Alaska Native women reside, respectively. CONCLUSION: Disparities in proximity to critical care obstetrics exist in rural and frontier areas of the United States, which affect white women and American Indian and Alaska Native women, primarily. Examining insurance coverage, interstate hospital referral networks, and transportation barriers may provide further insight into critical care obstetrics accessibility. Further exploring the role of other equity-based measures of access on disparities beyond geography is warranted.

    • Statistics as Topic
      1. Modern statistical analyses often involve testing large numbers of hypotheses. In many situations, these hypotheses may have an underlying tree structure that both helps determine the order that tests should be conducted but also imposes a dependency between tests that must be accounted for. Our motivating example comes from testing the association between a trait of interest and groups of microbes that have been organized into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) or amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). Given p-values from association tests for each individual OTU or ASV, we would like to know if we can declare a certain species, genus, or higher taxonomic group to be associated with the trait. For this problem, a bottom-up testing algorithm that starts at the lowest level of the tree (OTUs or ASVs) and proceeds upward through successively higher taxonomic groupings (species, genus, family, etc.) is required. We develop such a bottom-up testing algorithm that controls a novel error rate that we call the false selection rate. By simulation, we also show that our approach is better at finding driver taxa, the highest level taxa below which there are dense association signals. We illustrate our approach using data from a study of the microbiome among patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2020 American Statistical Association.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. BACKGROUND: Stimulant medications are commonly prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; however, they also have high potential for diversion and misuse. We estimated national stimulant dispensing trends from 2014 to 2019 and differences in dispensing by age, sex, state, prescriber specialty, payor type, patient copay, and stimulant type. METHODS: We calculated rates of stimulant dispensing using IQVIA National Prescription Audit (NPA) New to Brand, NPA Regional, and NPA Extended Insights data, which provide dispensing estimates from approximately 49,900 pharmacies representing 92 % of prescriptions dispensed in the United States. Average annual percent change (AAPC) from 2014 to 2019 was analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2019, the national annual rate of stimulant dispensing increased significantly from 5.6 to 6.1 prescriptions per 100 persons. Rates differed by prescription stimulant type, with increases occurring among both amphetamine-type stimulants and long-acting stimulants. Rates among females (AAPC = 3.6 %; P = 0.001) and adults aged 20-39 years (AAPC=6.7 %; P = 0.002), 40-59 years (AAPC=9.7 %; P < 0.001), and ≥60 years (AAPC = 6.9 %; P = 0.001) increased significantly during the study period. Stimulant dispensing rates varied substantially across states, ranging from 1.0 per 100 in Hawaii to 13.6 per 100 in Alabama. CONCLUSIONS: National stimulant dispensing rates increased from 2014 to 2019, driven by notable increases among females and adults aged ≥20 years. These trends should be considered when prescribing stimulants given growing concerns over prescription stimulant diversion, misuse, and related health harms.

      2. Knowledge, preparedness, and compassion fatigue among law enforcement officers who respond to opioid overdoseexternal icon
        Carroll JJ, Mital S, Wolff J, Noonan RK, Martinez P, Podolsky MC, Killorin JC, Green TC.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Sep 7;217:108257.
        BACKGROUND: Rates of fatal overdose (OD) from synthetic opioids rose nearly 60 % from 2016 to 2018. 911 Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) are an evidenced-based strategy for preventing OD fatality. This study describes patrol officers' knowledge of their state's GSL, experience with OD response, and their perspectives on strategies to prevent and respond to opioid OD. METHODS: An electronic survey assessed officers' knowledge of state GSLs and experiences responding to OD. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear modeling were generated to examine differences in knowledge, preparedness, and endorsement of OD response efforts by experience with OD response. RESULTS: 2,829 officers responded to the survey. Among those who had responded to an OD call in the past six months (n = 1,946), 37 % reported administering naloxone on scene and 36 % reported making an arrest. Most (91 %) correctly reported whether their state had a GSL in effect. Only 26 % correctly reported whether that law provides limited immunity from arrest. Fifteen percent of officers who had responded to an OD work in departments that do not carry naloxone. Compared with officers who had not responded to any OD calls, those who reported responding OD calls at least monthly and at least weekly, were significantly less likely to endorse OD response efforts. CONCLUSION: Officers who respond to OD calls are generally receiving training and naloxone supplies to respond, but knowledge gaps and additional training needs persist. Additional training and strategies to relieve compassion fatigue among those who have more experience with OD response efforts may be indicated.

      3. Deaths and years of potential life lost from excessive alcohol use - United States, 2011-2015external icon
        Esser MB, Sherk A, Liu Y, Naimi TS, Stockwell T, Stahre M, Kanny D, Landen M, Saitz R, Brewer RD.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1428-1433.
        Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States (1) and costs associated with it, such as those from losses in workplace productivity, health care expenditures, and criminal justice, were $249 billion in 2010 (2). CDC used the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application* to estimate national and state average annual alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) during 2011-2015, including deaths from one's own excessive drinking (e.g., liver disease) and from others' drinking (e.g., passengers killed in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes). This study found an average of 95,158 alcohol-attributable deaths (261 deaths per day) and 2.8 million YPLL (29 years of life lost per death, on average) in the United States each year. Of all alcohol-attributable deaths, 51,078 (53.7%) were caused by chronic conditions, and 52,921 (55.6%) involved adults aged 35-64 years. Age-adjusted alcohol-attributable deaths per 100,000 population ranged from 20.8 in New York to 53.1 in New Mexico. YPLL per 100,000 population ranged from 631.9 in New York to 1,683.5 in New Mexico. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing excessive drinking, including those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes and regulating the number and concentration of alcohol outlets), could reduce alcohol-attributable deaths and YPLL.(†).

      4. Much of the progress in reducing cigarette smoking and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality among youth and adults is attributable to population-level strategies previously described in the context of the Tobacco Control Vaccine. The retail environment is used heavily by the tobacco industry to promote and advertise its products, and variations in exposure to and characteristics of the retail environment exist across demographic groups. It is therefore also an essential environment for further reducing smoking, as well as ameliorating racial, ethnic and socioeconomic tobacco-related disparities. This commentary provides an overview of the importance of incorporating strategies focused on the tobacco retailer environment (availability; pricing and promotion; advertising and display; age of sale; and retail licensure) as part of a comprehensive approach to tobacco prevention and control. To reach tobacco endgame targets, such innovative strategies are a complement to, but not a replacement for, long-standing evidence-based components of the Tobacco Control Vaccine.

      5. Notes from the field: Botulism type B after intravenous methamphetamine use - New Jersey, 2020external icon
        Waltenburg MA, Larson VA, Naor EH, Webster TG, Dykes J, Foltz V, Edmunds S, Thomas D, Kim J, Edwards L.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 2;69(39):1425-1426.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Ebola response priorities in the time of Covid-19external icon
        Christie A, Neatherlin JC, Nichol ST, Beach M, Redfield RR.
        N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 24;383(13):1202-1204.

      2. Epidemiologic and spatiotemporal trends of Zika Virus disease during the 2016 epidemic in Puerto Ricoexternal icon
        Sharp TM, Quandelacy TM, Adams LE, Aponte JT, Lozier MJ, Ryff K, Flores M, Rivera A, Santiago GA, Muñoz-Jordán JL, Alvarado LI, Rivera-Amill V, Garcia-Negrón M, Waterman SH, Paz-Bailey G, Johansson MA, Rivera-Garcia B.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Sep 21;14(9):e0008532.
        BACKGROUND: After Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas, laboratory-based surveillance for arboviral diseases in Puerto Rico was adapted to include ZIKV disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Suspected cases of arboviral disease reported to Puerto Rico Department of Health were tested for evidence of infection with Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses by RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. To describe spatiotemporal trends among confirmed ZIKV disease cases, we analyzed the relationship between municipality-level socio-demographic, climatic, and spatial factors, and both time to detection of the first ZIKV disease case and the midpoint of the outbreak. During November 2015-December 2016, a total of 71,618 suspected arboviral disease cases were reported, of which 39,717 (55.5%; 1.1 cases per 100 residents) tested positive for ZIKV infection. The epidemic peaked in August 2016, when 71.5% of arboviral disease cases reported weekly tested positive for ZIKV infection. Incidence of ZIKV disease was highest among 20-29-year-olds (1.6 cases per 100 residents), and most (62.3%) cases were female. The most frequently reported symptoms were rash (83.0%), headache (64.6%), and myalgia (63.3%). Few patients were hospitalized (1.2%), and 13 (<0.1%) died. Early detection of ZIKV disease cases was associated with increased population size (log hazard ratio [HR]: -0.22 [95% confidence interval -0.29, -0.14]), eastern longitude (log HR: -1.04 [-1.17, -0.91]), and proximity to a city (spline estimated degrees of freedom [edf] = 2.0). Earlier midpoints of the outbreak were associated with northern latitude (log HR: -0.30 [-0.32, -0.29]), eastern longitude (spline edf = 6.5), and higher mean monthly temperature (log HR: -0.04 [-0.05, -0.03]). Higher incidence of ZIKV disease was associated with lower mean precipitation, but not socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: During the ZIKV epidemic in Puerto Rico, 1% of residents were reported to public health authorities and had laboratory evidence of ZIKV disease. Transmission was first detected in urban areas of eastern Puerto Rico, where transmission also peaked earlier. These trends suggest that ZIKV was first introduced to Puerto Rico in the east before disseminating throughout the island.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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