Volume 12, Issue 13, April 28, 2020

CDC Science Clips: Volume 12, Issue 13, April 28, 2020

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week
    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      • The burden of norovirus in the United States, as estimated based on administrative data: Updates for medically attended illness and mortality, 2001 - 2015external icon
        Burke RM, Mattison C, Pindyck T, Dahl RM, Rudd J, Bi D, Curns AT, Parashar U, Hall AJ.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 14.
        BACKGROUND: Up-to-date estimates of the burden of norovirus, a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States, are needed to assess the potential value of norovirus vaccines in development. We aimed to estimate the rates, annual counts, and healthcare charges of norovirus-associated ambulatory clinic encounters, Emergency Department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed administrative data on AGE outcomes from July 1, 2001 through June 30, 2015. Data were sourced from IBM(R) MarketScan(R) Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases (ambulatory clinic and ED visits), the Healthcare Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS; hospitalizations), and the National Center for Health Statistics multiple-cause-of-mortality (MCM) data (deaths). Outcome data (ambulatory clinic and ED visits, hospitalizations, or deaths) were summarized by month, age group, and setting. Healthcare charges were estimated based on insurance claims. Monthly counts of cause-unspecified gastroenteritis-associated outcomes were modeled as functions of cause-specified outcomes, and model residuals were analyzed to estimate norovirus-associated outcomes. Healthcare charges were estimated by applying average charges per cause-unspecified gastroenteritis encounter to the estimated number of norovirus encounters. RESULTS: We estimate 900 deaths (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 650 - 1100), 110,000 hospitalizations (95%CI: 80,000 - 145,000), 470,000 ED visits (95% CI: 348,000 - 610,000), and 2.3 million ambulatory clinic encounters (95% CI: 1.7 - 2.9 million) annually due to norovirus, with an associated $430 - 740 million in healthcare charges. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus causes a substantial health burden in the United States each year, and an effective vaccine could have important public health impact.

      • Use, acceptability, performance, and health impact of hollow fiber ultrafilters for water treatment in rural Kenyan households, 2009-2011external icon
        Fagerli K, Gieraltowski L, Nygren B, Foote E, Gaines J, Oremo J, Odhiambo A, Kim S, Quick R.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 6.
        Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years in developing countries, and contaminated water contributes to diarrhea risk. To address this problem, a novel hollow fiber ultrafilter (HFU) was developed for household water treatment. To test its impact on water quality and infant health, we conducted a cluster-randomized longitudinal evaluation in 10 intervention and 10 comparison villages in Kenya, attempting to enroll all households with infants (< 12 months old). We conducted a baseline survey, distributed HFUs to intervention households, made biweekly home visits for 1 year to assess water treatment practices and diarrhea in infants, and tested water samples from both groups every 2 months for Escherichia coli. We enrolled 92 infants from intervention households and 74 from comparison households. During the 1-year study period, 45.7% of intervention households and 97.3% of comparison households had at least one stored water sample test positive for E. coli. Compared with comparison households, the odds of E. coli contamination in stored water was lower for intervention households (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.74), but there was no difference in the odds of reported diarrhea in infants, adjusting for covariates (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.90). Although nearly all water samples obtained from unprotected sources and filtered by the HFU were free of E. coli contamination, HFUs alone were not effective at reducing diarrhea in infants.

      • Shigella sonnei outbreak investigation during a municipal water crisis-Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016external icon
        McClung RP, Karwowski M, Castillo C, McFadden J, Collier S, Collins J, Soehnlen M, Dietrich S, Trees E, Wilt G, Harrington C, Miller A, Adam E, Reses H, Cope J, Fullerton K, Hill V, Yoder J.
        Am J Public Health. 2020 Apr 16:e1-e8.
        Objectives. To investigate a shigellosis outbreak in Genesee County, Michigan (including the City of Flint), and Saginaw County, Michigan, in 2016 and address community concerns about the role of the Flint water system.Methods. We met frequently with community members to understand concerns and develop the investigation. We surveyed households affected by the outbreak, analyzed Shigella isolate data, examined the geospatial distribution of cases, and reviewed available water quality data.Results. We surveyed 83 households containing 158 cases; median age was 10 years. Index case-patients from 55 of 83 households (66%) reported contact with a person outside their household who wore diapers or who had diarrhea in the week before becoming ill; results were similar regardless of household drinking water source. Genomic diversity was not consistent with a point source. In Flint, no space-time clustering was identified, and average free chlorine residual values remained above recommended levels throughout the outbreak period.Conclusions. The outbreak was most likely caused by person-to-person contact and not by the Flint water system. Consistent community engagement was essential to the design and implementation of the investigation. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2020: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577).

      • Association between the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections detected by passive surveillance and the magnitude of the asymptomatic reservoir in the community: a pooled analysis of paired health facility and community dataexternal icon
        Stresman G, Sepulveda N, Fornace K, Grignard L, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Miller J, Bridges DJ, Eisele TP, Mosha J, Lorenzo PJ, Macalinao ML, Espino FE, Tadesse F, Stevenson JC, Quispe AM, Siqueira A, Lacerda M, Yeung S, Sovannaroth S, Pothin E, Gallay J, Hamre KE, Young A, Lemoine JF, Chang MA, Phommasone K, Mayxay M, Landier J, Parker DM, Von Seidlein L, Nosten F, Delmas G, Dondorp A, Cameron E, Battle K, Bousema T, Gething P, D'Alessandro U, Drakeley C.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 8.
        BACKGROUND: Passively collected malaria case data are the foundation for public health decision making. However, because of population-level immunity, infections might not always be sufficiently symptomatic to prompt individuals to seek care. Understanding the proportion of all Plasmodium spp infections expected to be detected by the health system becomes particularly paramount in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the proportion of infections detected and transmission intensity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in several global endemic settings. METHODS: The proportion of infections detected in routine malaria data, P(Detect), was derived from paired household cross-sectional survey and routinely collected malaria data within health facilities. P(Detect) was estimated using a Bayesian model in 431 clusters spanning the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The association between P(Detect) and malaria prevalence was assessed using log-linear regression models. Changes in P(Detect) over time were evaluated using data from 13 timepoints over 2 years from The Gambia. FINDINGS: The median estimated P(Detect) across all clusters was 12.5% (IQR 5.3-25.0) for P falciparum and 10.1% (5.0-18.3) for P vivax and decreased as the estimated log-PCR community prevalence increased (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for P falciparum 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69; adjusted OR for P vivax 0.52, 0.47-0.57). Factors associated with increasing P(Detect) included smaller catchment population size, high transmission season, improved care-seeking behaviour by infected individuals, and recent increases (within the previous year) in transmission intensity. INTERPRETATION: The proportion of all infections detected within health systems increases once transmission intensity is sufficiently low. The likely explanation for P falciparum is that reduced exposure to infection leads to lower levels of protective immunity in the population, increasing the likelihood that infected individuals will become symptomatic and seek care. These factors might also be true for P vivax but a better understanding of the transmission biology is needed to attribute likely reasons for the observed trend. In low transmission and pre-elimination settings, enhancing access to care and improvements in care-seeking behaviour of infected individuals will lead to an increased proportion of infections detected in the community and might contribute to accelerating the interruption of transmission. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      • Availability, access, analysis and dissemination of small-area dataexternal icon
        Hodgson S, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Iyathooray Daby H, Piel FB, Yip F, Strosnider H, Hansell A, Elliott P.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Apr 1;49(Supplement_1):i4-i14.
        In this era of 'big data', there is growing recognition of the value of environmental, health, social and demographic data for research. Open government data initiatives are growing in number and in terms of content. Remote sensing data are finding widespread use in environmental research, including in low- and middle-income settings. While our ability to study environment and health associations across countries and continents grows, data protection rules and greater patient control over the use of their data present new challenges to using health data in research. Innovative tools that circumvent the need for the physical sharing of data by supporting non-disclosive sharing of information, or that permit spatial analysis without researchers needing access to underlying patient data can be used to support analyses while protecting data confidentiality. User-friendly visualizations, allowing small-area data to be seen and understood by non-expert audiences, are revolutionizing public and researcher interactions with data. The UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit's Environment and Health Atlas for England and Wales, and the US National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network offer good examples. Open data facilitates user-generated outputs, and 'mash-ups', and user-generated inputs from social media, mobile devices and wearable tech are new data streams that will find utility in future studies, and bring novel dimensions with respect to ethical use of small-area data.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Influenza vaccine effectiveness among outpatients in the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network by study site 2011-2016external icon
        Balasubramani GK, Nowalk MP, Sax TM, Suyama J, Bobyock E, Rinaldo CR, Martin ET, Monto AS, Jackson ML, Gaglani MJ, Flannery B, Chung JR, Zimmerman RK.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020 Apr 16.
        BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is recommended for all US residents aged >/=6 months. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies by age, circulating influenza strains, and the presence of high-risk medical conditions. We examined site-specific VE in the US Influenza VE Network, which evaluates annual influenza VE at ambulatory clinics in geographically diverse sites. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on 27 180 outpatients >/=6 months old presenting with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) with cough of </=7-day duration during the 2011-2016 influenza seasons. A test-negative design was used with vaccination status defined as receipt of >/=1 dose of any influenza vaccine according to medical records, registries, and/or self-report. Influenza infection was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. VE estimates were calculated using odds ratios from multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, time from illness onset to enrollment, high-risk conditions, calendar time, and vaccination status-site interaction. RESULTS: For all sites combined, VE was statistically significant every season against all influenza and against the predominant circulating strains (VE = 19%-50%) Few differences among four sites in the US Flu VE Network were evident in five seasons. However, in 2015-16, overall VE in one site was 24% (95% CI = -4%-44%), while VE in two other sites was significantly higher (61%, 95% CI = 49%-71%; P = .002, and 53%, 95% CI = 33,67; P = .034). CONCLUSION: With few exceptions, site-specific VE estimates aligned with each other and overall VE estimates. Observed VE may reflect inherent differences in community characteristics of the sites and highlights the importance of diverse settings for studying influenza vaccine effectiveness.

      • Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2020external icon
        Freedman M, Kroger A, Hunter P, Ault KA.
        Ann Intern Med. 2020 Feb 4.

      • Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction on pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns among children aged <5 years and adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: Kenya, 2009-2013external icon
        Kobayashi M, Bigogo G, Kim L, Mogeni OD, Conklin LM, Odoyo A, Odiembo H, Pimenta F, Ouma D, Harris AM, Odero K, Milucky JL, Ouma A, Aol G, Audi A, Onyango C, Cosmas L, Jagero G, Farrar JL, da Gloria Carvalho M, Whitney CG, Breiman RF, Lessa FC.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 14;70(5):814-826.
        BACKGROUND: Kenya introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) among children <1 year in 2011 with catch-up vaccination among children 1-4 years in some areas. We assessed changes in pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children <5 years and adults. METHODS: During 2009-2013, we performed annual cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys in 2 sites: Kibera (children <5 years) and Lwak (children <5 years, adults). Only Lwak had catch-up vaccination. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (adults only) swabs underwent culture for pneumococci; isolates were serotyped. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on isolates from 2009 and 2013; penicillin nonsusceptible pneumococci (PNSP) was defined as penicillin-intermediate or -resistant. Changes in pneumococcal carriage by age (<1 year, 1-4 years, adults), site, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status (adults only) were calculated using modified Poisson regression, with 2009-2010 as baseline. RESULTS: We enrolled 2962 children (2073 in Kibera, 889 in Lwak) and 2590 adults (2028 HIV+, 562 HIV-). In 2013, PCV10-type carriage was 10.3% (Lwak) to 14.6% (Kibera) in children <1 year and 13.8% (Lwak) to 18.7% (Kibera) in children 1-4 years. This represents reductions of 60% and 63% among children <1 year and 52% and 60% among children 1-4 years in Kibera and Lwak, respectively. In adults, PCV10-type carriage decreased from 12.9% to 2.8% (HIV+) and from 11.8% to 0.7% (HIV-). Approximately 80% of isolates were PNSP, both in 2009 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: PCV10-type carriage declined in children <5 years and adults post-PCV10 introduction. However, PCV10-type and PNSP carriage persisted in children regardless of catch-up vaccination.

      • Primary care physician support for harmonizing HPV vaccination recommendations across genders - United States, 2018external icon
        Meites E, Markowitz LE, Kempe A, O'Leary ST, Crane LA, Hurley LP, Brtnikova M, Beaty BL, Stokley S, Lindley MC.
        Vaccine. 2020 Apr 7.
        In the United States, human papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination has been nationally recommended for women and men of different ages. We surveyed national networks of primary care physicians specializing in family medicine, pediatrics, and internal medicine to assess attitudes about HPV vaccination. Of 785 physicians, 730 (93.0%), were in favor of a change to harmonize the recommended catch-up vaccination age across genders; the most commonly cited reason was to simplify the immunization schedule (97.9%). After considering these and other data, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updated national policy to recommend catch-up vaccination for all persons through age 26 years.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      • Malaria knowledge and experiences with community health workers among recently pregnant women in Malawiexternal icon
        Malpass A, Chinkhumba J, Davlantes E, Munthali J, Wright K, Ramsey K, Troell P, Kayange M, Kachale F, Mathanga DP, Chatata D, Gutman JR.
        Malar J. 2020 Apr 15;19(1):154.
        BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends three or more doses of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) to mitigate the negative effects of malaria in pregnancy (MIP). Many pregnant women in Malawi are not receiving the recommended number of doses. Community delivery of IPTp (cIPTp) is being piloted as a new approach to increase coverage. This survey assessed recently pregnant women's knowledge of MIP and their experiences with community health workers (CHWs) prior to implementing cIPTp. METHODS: Data were collected via a household survey in Ntcheu and Nkhata Bay Districts, Malawi, from women aged 16-49 years who had a pregnancy resulting in a live birth in the previous 12 months. Survey questions were primarily open response and utilized review of the woman's health passport whenever possible. Analyses accounted for selection weighting and clustering at the health facility level and explored heterogeneity between districts. RESULTS: A total of 370 women were interviewed. Women in both districts found their community health workers (CHWs) to be helpful (77.9%), but only 35.7% spoke with a CHW about antenatal care and 25.8% received assistance for malaria during their most recent pregnancy. A greater proportion of women in Nkhata Bay than Ntcheu reported receiving assistance with malaria from a CHW (42.7% vs 21.9%, p = 0.01); women in Nkhata Bay were more likely to cite IPTp-SP as a way to prevent MIP (41.0% vs 24.8%, p = 0.02) and were more likely to cite mosquito bites as the only way to spread malaria (70.6% vs 62.0% p = 0.03). Women in Nkhata Bay were more likely to receive 3 + doses of IPTp-SP (IPTp3) (59.2% vs 41.8%, p = 0.0002). Adequate knowledge was associated with increased odds of receiving IPTp3, although not statistically significantly so (adjusted odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.97-2.32, p-value 0.066). CONCLUSIONS: Women reported positive experiences with CHWs, but there was not a focus on MIP. Women in Nkhata Bay were more likely to be assisted by a CHW, had better knowledge, and were more likely to receive IPTp3+ . Increasing CHW focus on the dangers of MIP and implementing cIPTp has the potential to increase IPTp coverage.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      • Ebola vaccine? Family first! Evidence from using a brief measure on Ebola vaccine demand in a national household survey during the outbreak in Sierra Leoneexternal icon
        Jalloh MF, Wallace AS, Bunnell RE, Carter RJ, Redd JT, Nur SA, Zeebari Z, Ekstrom AM, Nordenstedt H.
        Vaccine. 2020 Apr 11.
        BACKGROUND: Vaccination against Ebolavirus is an emerging public health tool during Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks. We examined demand issues related to deployment of Ebolavirus vaccine during the 2014-2015 outbreak in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cluster survey was administered to a population-based sample in December 2014 (N = 3540), before any Ebola vaccine was available to the general public in Sierra Leone. Ebola vaccine demand was captured in this survey by three Likert-scale items that were used to develop a composite score and dichotomized into a binary outcome to define high demand. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations between perceptions of who should be first to receive an Ebola vaccine and the expression of high demand for an Ebola vaccine. RESULTS: The largest proportion of respondents reported that health workers (35.1%) or their own families (29.5%) should receive the vaccine first if it became available, rather than politicians (13.8%), vaccination teams (9.8%), or people in high risk areas (8.2%). High demand for an Ebola vaccine was expressed by 74.2% of respondents nationally. The odds of expressing high demand were 13 times greater among those who said they or their families should be the first to take the vaccine compared to those who said politicians should be the first recipients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 13.0 [95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8-21.6]). The ultra-brief measure of the Ebola vaccine demand demonstrated acceptable scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and construct validity (single-factor loadings > 0.50). CONCLUSION: Perceptions of who should be the first to get the vaccine was associated with high demand for Ebola vaccine around the peak of the outbreak in Sierra Leone. Using an ultra-brief measure of Ebola vaccine demand is a feasible solution in outbreak settings and can help inform development of future rapid assessment tools.

      • Role of prenatal ultrasonography and amniocentesis in the diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome: A systematic reviewexternal icon
        Viens LJ, Fleck-Derderian S, Baez-Santiago MA, Oduyebo T, Broussard CS, Khan S, Jones AM, Meaney-Delman D.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Apr 9.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prenatal diagnostics (ultrasound examination and amniotic fluid Zika virus testing) and postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were performed in 27 databases, including, from inception to July 1, 2019, for articles with the keywords "Zika," "prenatal," "ultrasound," and "amniocentesis." METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A total of 3,049 unique records were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, and full texts for relevance; 84 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles describe 402 mother-fetus or mother-neonate dyads; 385 were included in the review of prenatal ultrasound examination, and 56 in the review of amniocentesis (39 in both). TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Among 195 fetuses with congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were reported for 153 (78%; 95% CI 7-84%). High proportions of microcephaly (76%; 95% CI 69-82%) and brain abnormalities (78%; 95% CI 69-86%) were confirmed postnatally. Among 190 fetuses without congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, 17% (95% CI 12-24%) had congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities identified postnatally. Structural congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were identified postnatally in approximately equal proportions among dyads with and without Zika virus RNA detected in an amniotic fluid specimen (68% and 67%; 95% CI 52-82% and 95% CI 38-88%). In six pregnancies, Zika virus RNA was detected in amniotic fluid but not in a subsequent amniocentesis specimen. CONCLUSION: Prenatal ultrasound examination frequently detects structural findings associated with Zika virus infection; however, not all abnormalities are detected, and some may represent transient findings. As with other congenital infections, prenatal detection may vary with timing of infection, timing of ultrasound examination, technical expertise, and severity of abnormalities. The detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid in the included studies did not predict the risk for congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities in these cases, and clearance of Zika virus RNA from amniotic fluid appears possible after maternal infection. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection remains a shared decision between patients and clinicians, and more data are needed to define clinical predictors that will inform these decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018080959.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Trends in incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx - United States 2007-2016external icon
        Ellington TD, Henley SJ, Senkomago V, O'Neil ME, Wilson RJ, Singh S, Thomas CC, Wu M, Richardson LC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):433-438.
        Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx account for 3% of cancers diagnosed in the United States* each year. Cancers at these sites can differ anatomically and histologically and might have different causal factors, such as tobacco use, alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) (1). Incidence of combined oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers declined during the 1980s but began to increase around 1999 (2,3). Because tobacco use has declined in the United States, accompanied by a decrease in incidence of many tobacco-related cancers, researchers have suggested that the increase in oral cavity and pharynx cancers might be attributed to anatomic sites with specific cell types in which HPV DNA is often found (4,5). U.S. Cancer Statistics(dagger) data were analyzed to examine trends in incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx by anatomic site, sex, race/ethnicity, and age group. During 2007-2016, incidence rates increased for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx combined, base of tongue, anterior tongue, gum, tonsil, oropharynx, and other oral cavity and pharynx. Incidence rates declined for cancers of the lip, floor of mouth, soft palate and uvula, hard palate, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx, and were stable for cancers of the cheek and other mouth and salivary gland. Ongoing implementation of proven population-based strategies to prevent tobacco use initiation, promote smoking cessation, reduce excessive alcohol use, and increase HPV vaccination rates might help prevent cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx.

      2. Progression to hypertension in youth and young adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Studyexternal icon
        Koebnick C, Imperatore G, Jensen ET, Stafford JM, Shah AS, Mottl AK, Bell RA, Dabelea D, Liese AD, Marcovina SM, D'Agostino RB, Urbina EM, Lawrence JM.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2020 Apr 15.
        Central obesity may contribute to the development of hypertension in youths with diabetes. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study followed 1518 youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 177 with type 2 diabetes (T2D) diagnosed when <20 years of age for incident hypertension. Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure >/=95th percentile (or >/=130/80 mm Hg) or reporting antihypertensive therapy among those without hypertension at baseline. Poisson regression models were stratified by diabetes type and included demographic and clinical factors, clinical site, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Youths with T2D were more likely to develop hypertension than those with T1D (35.6% vs 14.8%, P < .0001). For each 0.01 unit of annual increase in WHtR, adjusted relative risk for hypertension was 1.53 (95% CI 1.36-1.73) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.00-1.43) for youths with T1D and T2D, respectively. Effective strategies targeted toward reducing central obesity may reduce hypertension among youths with diabetes.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Molecular epidemiology of the HIV-1 subtype B sub-epidemic in Bulgariaexternal icon
        Alexiev I, Campbell EM, Knyazev S, Pan Y, Grigorova L, Dimitrova R, Partsuneva A, Gancheva A, Kostadinova A, Seguin-Devaux C, Switzer WM.
        Viruses. 2020 Apr 14;12(4).
        HIV-1 subtype B is the predominant strain in Bulgaria, yet little is known about the molecular epidemiology of these infections, including its origin and transmissibility. We used a phylodynamics approach by combining and analyzing 663 HIV-1 polymerase (pol) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1988-2018 and associated epidemiologic data to better understand this sub-epidemic in Bulgaria. Using network analyses at a 1.5% genetic distance threshold (d) we found several large phylogenetic clusters composed mostly of men who have sex with men (MSM) and male heterosexuals (HET). However, at d = 0.5%, used to identify more recent transmission, the largest clusters dissociated to become smaller in size. The majority of female HET and persons with other transmission risks were singletons or pairs in the network. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bulgarian pol sequences with publicly available global sequences showed that subtype B was likely introduced into Bulgaria from multiple countries, including Israel and several European countries. Our findings indicate that subtype B was introduced into Bulgaria multiple times since 1988 and then infections rapidly spread among MSM and non-disclosed MSM. These high-risk behaviors continue to spread subtype B infection in Bulgaria as evidenced by the large clusters at d = 0.5%. Relatively low levels of antiretroviral drug resistance were observed in our study. Prevention strategies should continue to include increased testing and linkage to care and treatment, as well as expanded outreach to the MSM communities.

      2. Weight gain among treatment-naive persons with HIV starting integrase inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors in a large observational cohort in the United States and Canadaexternal icon
        Bourgi K, Jenkins CA, Rebeiro PF, Palella F, Moore RD, Altoff KN, Gill J, Rabkin CS, Gange SJ, Horberg MA, Margolick J, Li J, Wong C, Willig A, Lima VD, Crane H, Thorne J, Silverberg M, Kirk G, Mathews WC, Sterling TR, Lake J, Koethe JR.
        J Int AIDS Soc. 2020 Apr;23(4):e25484.
        INTRODUCTION: Weight gain following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is common, potentially predisposing some persons with HIV (PWH) to cardio-metabolic disease. We assessed relationships between ART drug class and weight change among treatment-naive PWH initiating ART in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). METHODS: Adult, treatment-naive PWH in NA-ACCORD initiating integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART on/after 1 January 2007 were followed through 31 December 2016. Multivariate linear mixed effects models estimated weight up to five years after ART initiation, adjusting for age, sex, race, cohort site, HIV acquisition mode, treatment year, and baseline weight, plasma HIV-1 RNA level and CD4(+) cell count. Due to shorter follow-up for PWH receiving newer INSTI drugs, weights for specific INSTIs were estimated at two years. Secondary analyses using logistic regression and all covariates from primary analyses assessed factors associated with >10% weight gain at two and five years. RESULTS: Among 22,972 participants, 87% were male, and 41% were white. 49% started NNRTI-, 31% started PI- and 20% started INSTI-based regimens (1624 raltegravir (RAL), 2085 elvitegravir (EVG) and 929 dolutegravir (DTG)). PWH starting INSTI-based regimens had mean estimated five-year weight change of +5.9kg, compared to +3.7kg for NNRTI and +5.5kg for PI. Among PWH starting INSTI drugs, mean estimated two-year weight change was +7.2kg for DTG, +5.8kg for RAL and +4.1kg for EVG. Women, persons with lower baseline CD4(+) cell counts, and those initiating INSTI-based regimens had higher odds of >10% body weight increase at two years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 1.56 vs. NNRTI). CONCLUSIONS: PWH initiating INSTI-based regimens gained, on average, more weight compared to NNRTI-based regimens. This phenomenon may reflect heterogeneous effects of ART agents on body weight regulation that require further exploration.

      3. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for preventing acquisition of HIV: A cross-sectional study of patients, prescribers, uptake, and spending in the United States, 2015-2016external icon
        Chan SS, Chappel AR, Maddox KE, Hoover KW, Huang YA, Zhu W, Cohen SM, Klein PW, De Lew N.
        PLoS Med. 2020 Apr;17(4):e1003072.
        BACKGROUND: In 2015, there were approximately 40,000 new HIV diagnoses in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy that reduces the risk of HIV acquisition; however, uptake among those who can benefit from it has lagged. In this study, we 1) compared the characteristics of patients who were prescribed PrEP with individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection, 2) identified the specialties of practitioners prescribing PrEP, 3) identified metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) within the US where there is relatively low uptake of PrEP, and 4) reported median amounts paid by patients and third-party payors for PrEP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed prescription drug claims for individuals prescribed PrEP in the Integrated Dataverse (IDV) from Symphony Health for the period of September 2015 to August 2016 to describe PrEP patients, prescribers, relative uptake, and payment methods in the US. Data were available for 75,839 individuals prescribed PrEP, and findings were extrapolated to approximately 101,000 individuals, which is less than 10% of the 1.1 million adults for whom PrEP was indicated. Compared to individuals with newly diagnosed HIV infection, PrEP patients were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (45% versus 26.2%), older (25% versus 19% at ages 35-44), male (94% versus 81%), and not reside in the South (30% versus 52% reside in the South).Using a ratio of the number of PrEP patients within an MSA to the number of newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection, we found MSAs with relatively low uptake of PrEP were concentrated in the South. Of the approximately 24,000 providers who prescribed PrEP, two-thirds reported primary care as their specialty. Compared to the types of payment methods that people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWH) used to pay for their antiretroviral treatment in 2015 to 2016 reported in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV Surveillance Special Report, PrEP patients were more likely to have used commercial health insurance (80% versus 35%) and less likely to have used public healthcare coverage or a publicly sponsored assistance program to pay for PrEP (12% versus 45% for Medicaid). Third-party payors covered 95% of the costs of PrEP. Overall, we estimated the median annual per patient out-of-pocket spending on PrEP was approximately US$72. Limitations of this study include missing information on prescription claims of patients not included in the database, and for those included, some patients were missing information on patient diagnosis, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and income (34%-36%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in 2015-2016, many individuals in the US who could benefit from being on PrEP were not receiving this HIV prevention medication, and those prescribed PrEP had a significantly different distribution of characteristics from the broader population that is at risk for acquiring HIV. PrEP patients were more likely to pay for PrEP using commercial or private insurance, whereas PLWH were more likely to pay for their antiretroviral treatment using publicly sponsored programs. Addressing the affordability of PrEP and otherwise promoting its use among those with indications for PrEP represents an important opportunity to help end the HIV epidemic.

      4. Progress toward measles elimination - Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2013-2019external icon
        Goodson JL, Teleb N, Ashmony H, Musa N, Ghoniem A, Hassan Q, Waciqi AS, Mere MO, Farid M, Mukhtar HE, Iqbal J, Alexander JP.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):439-445.
        In 1997, during the 41st session of the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, the 21 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region* (EMR) passed a resolution to eliminate(dagger) measles (1). In 2015, this goal was included as a priority in the Eastern Mediterranean Vaccine Action Plan 2016-2020 (EMVAP) (2), endorsed at the 62nd session of the Regional Committee (3). To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve >/=95% vaccination coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children in every district of each country through routine immunization services; 2) achieve >/=95% vaccination coverage with a second MCV dose (MCV2) in every district of each country either through implementation of a routine 2-dose vaccination schedule or through supplementary immunization activities( section sign) (SIAs); 3) conduct high-quality, case-based surveillance in all countries; and 4) provide optimal measles clinical case management, including dietary supplementation with vitamin A (4). This report describes progress toward measles elimination in EMR during 2013-2019 and updates a previous report (5). Estimated MCV1 coverage increased from 79% in 2013 to 82% in 2018. MCV2 coverage increased from 59% in 2013 to 74% in 2018. In addition, during 2013-2019, approximately 326.4 million children received MCV during SIAs. Reported confirmed measles incidence increased from 33.5 per 1 million persons in 2013 to 91.2 in 2018, with large outbreaks occurring in Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen; incidence decreased to 23.3 in 2019. In 2019, the rate of discarded nonmeasles cases( paragraph sign) was 5.4 per 100,000 population. To achieve measles elimination in the EMR, increased visibility of efforts to achieve the measles elimination goal is critically needed, as are sustained and predictable investments to increase MCV1 and MCV2 coverage, conduct high-quality SIAs, and reach populations at risk for not accessing immunization services or living in areas with civil strife.

      5. CONTEXT: Correctional facilities provide unique opportunities to diagnose and treat persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Studies have shown that 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine (INH-RPT) to treat LTBI resulted in high completion rates with good tolerability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate completion rates and clinical signs or reported symptoms associated with discontinuation of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: During July 2012 to February 2015, 7 Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities participated in an assessment of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment among 463 inmates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fisher exact test was used to assess the associations between patient sociodemographic characteristics and clinical signs or symptoms with discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS: Of 463 inmates treated with INH-RPT, 424 (92%) completed treatment. Reasons for discontinuation of treatment for 39 (8%) inmates included the following: 17 (44%) signs/symptoms, 9 (23%) transfer or release, 8 (21%) treatment refusal, and 5 (13%) provider error. A total of 229 (49.5%) inmates reported experiencing at least 1 sign or symptom during treatment; most frequently reported were fatigue (16%), nausea (13%), and abdominal pain (7%). Among these 229 inmates, signs/symptoms significantly associated with discontinuation of treatment included abdominal pain (P < .001), appetite loss (P = .02), fever/chills (P = .01), nausea (P = .03), sore muscles (P = .002), and elevation of liver transaminases 5x upper limits of normal or greater (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The LTBI completion rates were high for the INH-RPT regimen, with few inmates discontinuing because of signs or symptoms related to treatment. This regimen also has practical advantages to aid in treatment completion in the correctional setting and can be considered a viable alternative to standard LTBI regimens.

      6. Background: Countdown to 2030 (CD2030) tracks progress in the 81 countries that account for more than 90% of under-five child deaths and 95% of maternal deaths in the world. In 2017, CD2030 identified syphilis screening and treatment during antenatal care (ANC) as priority indicators for monitoring. Methods: Country-reported data in the UNAIDS Global AIDS Monitoring System (GAM) system were used to evaluate four key syphilis indicators from CD2030 countries: (1) maternal syphilis screening and (2) treatment coverage during ANC, (3) syphilis seroprevalence among ANC attendees, and (4) national congenital syphilis (CS) case rates. A cascade analysis for CD2030 countries with coverage data for the number of women attending at least 4 antenatal care visits (ANC4), syphilis testing, seroprevalence and treatment was performed to estimate the number of CS cases that were attributable to missed opportunities for syphilis screening and treatment during antenatal care. Results: Of 81 countries, 52 (64%) reported one or more values for CS indicators into the GAM system during 2016-2017; only 53 (65%) had maternal syphilis testing coverage, 41 (51%) had screening positivity, and 40 (49%) had treatment coverage. CS case rates were reported by 13 (16%) countries. During 2016-2017, four countries reported syphilis screening and treatment coverage of >/=95% consistent with World Health Organization (WHO) targets. Sufficient data were available for 40 (49%) of countries to construct a cascade for data years 2016 and 2017. Syphilis screening and treatment service gaps within ANC4 resulted in an estimated total of 103 648 adverse birth outcomes with 41 858 of these occurring as stillbirths among women attending ANC4 (n = 31 914 408). Women not in ANC4 (n = 25 619 784) contributed an additional 67 348 estimated adverse birth outcomes with 27 198 of these occurring as stillbirths for a total of 69 056 preventable stillbirths attributable to syphilis in these 40 countries. Conclusion: These data and findings can serve as an initial baseline evaluation of antenatal syphilis surveillance and service coverage and can be used to guide improvement of delivery and monitoring of syphilis screening and treatment in ANC for these priority countries.

      7. Incident infection in high-priority HIV molecular transmission clusters in the United Statesexternal icon
        Wertheim JO, Panneer N, France AM, Saduvala N, Oster AM.
        Aids. 2020 Apr 13.
        OBJECTIVE: To identify correlates of incident HIV infection in rapidly growing HIV molecular clusters. DESIGN: Phylogenetic analysis of HIV public health surveillance data. METHODS: High-priority HIV genetic transmission clusters with evidence of rapid growth in 2012 (i.e., clusters with a pairwise genetic distance </=0.005 substitutions/site and at least 3 cases diagnosed in 2012) were identified using HIV-TRACE. Then, we investigated cluster growth, defined as HIV cases diagnosed in the following 5 years that were genetically linked to these clusters. For clusters that grew during the follow-up period, Bayesian molecular clock phylogenetic inference was performed to identify clusters with evidence of incident HIV infection (as opposed to diagnosis of previously infected cases) during this follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the 116 rapidly growing clusters identified, 73 (63%) had phylogenetic evidence for an incident HIV case during the 5-year follow-up period. Correlates of an incident HIV case arising in clusters included a greater number of diagnosed but virally unsuppressed cases in 2012, a greater number of inferred undiagnosed cases in the cluster in 2012, and a younger time of most recent common ancestor for the cluster. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that incident infections in rapidly growing clusters originate equally from diagnosed but unsuppressed cases and undiagnosed infections. These results highlight the importance of promoting retention in care and viral suppression as well as partner notification and other case-finding activities when investigating and intervening on high-priority molecular transmission clusters.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Rickettsia and Anaplasma species in Dermacentor andersoni ticks from Washingtonexternal icon
        Francis L, Paddock CD, Dykstra EA, Karpathy SE.
        Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020 Apr 6:101422.
        Dermacentor andersoni, the Rocky Mountain wood tick, occurs predominantly in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. There are relatively few contemporary data to evaluate the occurrence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species in D. andersoni in western North America, and even less information about these associations in the state of Washington, where this tick species is widely distributed and often bites humans. We used PCR assays to detect DNA of Rickettsia and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in 203 adult D. andersoni ticks collected from 17 sites in 9 counties of Washington between May 2012 and May 2015. Of these, 56 (27.6 %) were infected with a Rickettsia species and 3 (5.4 %) with a member of the Anaplasmataceae family. Rickettsia peacockii, R. bellii and R. rhipicephali were found in 17.7 %, 4.9 %, and 4.4 % of the Rickettsia positive ticks, respectively. Coinfections of R. bellii with R. peacockii or R. rhipicephali were identified in 6 ticks. Of the Anaplasmataceae-positive ticks, one was identified as being infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum AP-Variant 1. No ticks were infected with a recognized human or animal pathogen, including R. rickettsii, A. phagocytophilum-ha, A. bovis, or A. marginale.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Use of personal care products during pregnancy in relation to urinary concentrations of select phenols: A longitudinal analysis from the SEPAGES feasibility studyexternal icon
        Nakiwala D, Vernet C, Lyon-Caen S, Lavorel A, Rolland M, Cracowski C, Pin I, Calafat AM, Slama R, Philippat C.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2020 Apr 9;227:113518.
        BACKGROUND: Exposure to certain synthetic phenols is of growing concern, in particular among pregnant women, because of their endocrine disrupting nature. Many phenols are still authorized in personal care products (PCP). We aimed to assess if use of PCPs, by pregnant women could influence their urinary concentrations of synthetic phenols. METHODS: We used a panel design with intense urine sample collection. Eight women completed a diary with exact time and use of PCPs in three weeks. We measured the concentrations of phenols (four parabens, bisphenol A and S, two dichlorophenols, triclosan, and benzophenone-3) in 178 urine samples, collected during 7 consecutive days at 3 time points during pregnancy. We characterized PCP use as the total number of PCP applications or as a single PCP use (yes/no) in three time windows (0-6, 6 to 12 and 12 to 24h before each urine sample collection). We used adjusted linear and Tobit regressions to assess associations between PCP use and phenol urinary concentrations. RESULTS: The total number of PCP applications was positively associated with ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben concentrations. We observed a peak in urinary concentration of ethylparaben, butylparaben and propylparaben at 2.86, 2.55 and 2.67h since last PCP use, respectively and twelve different types of PCPs were positively associated with at least one of these parabens. The bisphenol S concentration increased by 12.4% (95%CI: confidence interval: 5.9; 19.3) for each additional PCP application in the 12 to 24 time window and use of specific PCPs such as anti-stretchmarks cream, facial cleanser and shower gel. Associations varied by time window. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that PCP use was associated with a short-term increase in the urinary concentration of ethylparaben, butylparaben and propylparaben, but not methylparaben. This study also reported a positive association between the use of PCPs and the bisphenol S concentration, a finding that warrants further investigation in cohorts with repeated collection of urine samples and detailed information on PCP use.

      2. Software application profile: the Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0: an open access tool for environmental public health trackingexternal icon
        Piel FB, Parkes B, Hambly P, Roca-Barcelo A, McCallion M, Leonardi G, Strosnider H, Yip F, Elliott P, Hansell AL.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Apr 1;49(Supplement_1):i38-i48.
        The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters and potential environmental hazards, whether localized (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear power plants.

    • Food Safety
      1. Notes from the Field: Brucella abortus RB51 infections associated with consumption of raw milk from Pennsylvania - 2017 and 2018external icon
        Gruber JF, Newman A, Egan C, Campbell C, Garafalo K, Wolfgang DR, Weltman A, Kline KE, Watkins SM, Robbe-Austerman S, Quance C, Thacker T, Kharod G, Negron ME, Schroeder B.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):482-483.

      2. Emergence of a novel Salmonella enterica serotype reading clonal group is linked to its expansion in commercial turkey production, resulting in unanticipated human illness in North Americaexternal icon
        Miller EA, Elnekave E, Flores-Figueroa C, Johnson A, Kearney A, Munoz-Aguayo J, Tagg KA, Tschetter L, Weber BP, Nadon CA, Boxrud D, Singer RS, Folster JP, Johnson TJ.
        mSphere. 2020 Apr 15;5(2).
        Two separate human outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Reading occurred between 2017 and 2019 in the United States and Canada, and both outbreaks were linked to the consumption of raw turkey products. In this study, a comprehensive genomic investigation was conducted to reconstruct the evolutionary history of S. Reading from turkeys and to determine the genomic context of outbreaks involving this infrequently isolated Salmonella serotype. A total of 988 isolates of U.S. origin were examined using whole-genome-based approaches, including current and historical isolates from humans, meat, and live food animals. Broadly, isolates clustered into three major clades, with one apparently highly adapted turkey clade. Within the turkey clade, isolates clustered into three subclades, including an "emergent" clade that contained only isolates dated 2016 or later, with many of the isolates from these outbreaks. Genomic differences were identified between emergent and other turkey subclades, suggesting that the apparent success of currently circulating subclades is, in part, attributable to plasmid acquisitions conferring antimicrobial resistance, gain of phage-like sequences with cargo virulence factors, and mutations in systems that may be involved in beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance towards colicins. U.S. and Canadian outbreak isolates were found interspersed throughout the emergent subclade and the other circulating subclade. The emergence of a novel S Reading turkey subclade, coinciding temporally with expansion in commercial turkey production and with U.S. and Canadian human outbreaks, indicates that emergent strains with higher potential for niche success were likely vertically transferred and rapidly disseminated from a common source.IMPORTANCE Increasingly, outbreak investigations involving foodborne pathogens are difficult due to the interconnectedness of food animal production and distribution, and homogeneous nature of industry integration, necessitating high-resolution genomic investigations to determine their basis. Fortunately, surveillance and whole-genome sequencing, combined with the public availability of these data, enable comprehensive queries to determine underlying causes of such outbreaks. Utilizing this pipeline, it was determined that a novel clone of Salmonella Reading has emerged that coincided with increased abundance in raw turkey products and two outbreaks of human illness in North America. The rapid dissemination of this highly adapted and conserved clone indicates that it was likely obtained from a common source and rapidly disseminated across turkey production. Key genomic changes may have contributed to its apparent continued success in commercial turkeys and ability to cause illness in humans.

      3. INTRODUCTION: A leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, norovirus can be transmitted by infected food handlers but norovirus outbreaks are not routinely investigated in Kenya. We estimated norovirus prevalence and associated factors among food handlers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among food handlers using pretested questionnaires and collected stool specimens from food handlers which were analyzed for norovirus by conventional PCR. We observed practices that allow norovirus transmission and surveyed respondents on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in food safety. We calculated odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to identify factors associated with norovirus infection. Variables with p < 0.05 were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI. RESULTS: Of samples from 283 respondents, 43 (15.2%) tested positive for norovirus. Factors associated with norovirus detection were: reporting diarrhea and vomiting within the previous month (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.2-27.4), not knowing aerosols from infected persons can contaminate food (AOR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.1-37.5), not knowing that a dirty chopping board can contaminate food (AOR = 26.1, 95% CI = 1.6-416.7), observing respondents touching food bare-handed (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.5-11.1), and working in premises without hand washing services (AOR = 20, 95% CI = 3.4-100.0). CONCLUSION: The norovirus infection was prevalent amongst food handlers and factors associated with infection were based on knowledge and practices of food hygiene. We recommend increased hygiene training and introduce more routine inclusion of norovirus testing in outbreaks in Kenya.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Investigation of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections at eight high burden acute care facilities in the United States, 2016external icon
        Ham DC, See I, Novosad S, Crist M, Mahon G, Fike L, Spicer K, Talley P, Flinchum A, Kainer M, Kallen AJ, Walters MS.
        J Hosp Infect. 2020 Apr 10.
        BACKGROUND: Despite large reductions from 2005-2012, hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (HO MRSA BSIs) continue be a major source of morbidity and mortality. AIM: To describe risk factors for and underlying sources of HO MRSA BSIs. METHODS: We investigated HO MRSA BSIs at eight high-burden short-stay acute care hospitals. A case was defined as first isolation of MRSA from a blood specimen collected in 2016 on hospital day >/=4 from a patient without an MRSA-positive blood culture in the 14 days prior. We reviewed case-patient demographics and risk factors by medical record abstraction. The potential clinical source(s) of infection were determined by consensus by a clinician panel. FINDINGS: Of the 195 eligible cases, 186 were investigated. Case-patients were predominantly male (63%); median age was 57 years (range 0-92). In the two weeks prior to the BSI, 88% of case-patients had indwelling devices, 31% underwent a surgical procedure, and 18% underwent dialysis. The most common locations of attribution were intensive care units (ICUs) (46%) and step-down units (19%). The most commonly identified non-mutually exclusive clinical sources were CVCs (46%), non-surgical wounds (17%), surgical site infections (16%), non-ventilator healthcare-associated pneumonia (13%), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (11%). CONCLUSIONS: Device-and procedure-related infections were common sources of HO MRSA BSIs. Prevention strategies focused on improving adherence to existing prevention bundles for device-and procedure-associated infections and on source control for ICU patients, patients with certain indwelling devices, and patients undergoing certain high-risk surgeries are being pursued to decrease HO MRSA BSI burden at these facilities.

      2. Rationale for a Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptible-only interpretive breakpoint for azithromycinexternal icon
        Kersh EN, Allen V, Ransom E, Schmerer M, Cyr S, Workowski K, Weinstock H, Patel J, Ferraro MJ.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 14;70(5):798-804.
        BACKGROUND: Azithromycin (AZI) is recommended with ceftriaxone (CRO) for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis in the United States, and an AZI-susceptibility breakpoint is needed. Neither the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nor the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has set interpretive breakpoints for AZI susceptibility. As a result, AZI antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) cannot be interpreted using recognized standards. This has contributed to increasingly unavailable clinical laboratory AST, although gonorrhea is on the rise with >550 000 US gonorrhea cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017, the highest number of cases since 1991. METHODS: This article summarizes the rationale data reviewed by the CLSI in June 2018. RESULTS: The CLSI decided to set a susceptible-only interpretive breakpoint at the minimum inhibitory concentration of </=1 microg/mL. This is also the epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) (ie, the end of the wild-type susceptibility distribution). This breakpoint presumes that AZI (1-g single dose) is used in an approved regimen that includes an additional antimicrobial agent (ie, CRO 250 mg, intramuscular single dose). CONCLUSIONS: Having a breakpoint can improve patient care and surveillance and allow future development and FDA regulatory approval of modernized AST to guide treatment. The breakpoint coincides with a European Committee on AST decision to remove previously established, differing AZI breakpoints and use the ECV as guidance for testing. The CLSI breakpoint is now the recognized standard that defines AZI susceptibility for gonococcal infections.

      3. Inactivation of the multi-drug resistant pathogen Candida auris using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI)external icon
        Lemons AR, McClelland TL, Martin SB, Lindsley WG, Green BJ.
        J Hosp Infect. 2020 Apr 10.
        BACKGROUND: Candida auris, often a multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen, has become an emerging threat in healthcare settings around the world. Reliable disinfection protocols specifically designed to inactivate C. auris are essential, as many chemical disinfectants commonly used in healthcare settings have been shown to have variable efficacy at inactivating C. auris. AIM: Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) was investigated as a method to inactivate clinically relevant strains of C. auris. METHODS: Ten C. auris and two C. albicans isolates were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) energy to determine the UV dose required to inactivate each isolate. Using a UV reactor, each isolate (10(6) cells/mL) was exposed to 11 UV doses ranging from 10-150 mJ/cm(2) and then cultured to assess cell viability. FINDINGS: An exponential decay model was applied to each dose-response curve to determine inactivation rate constants for each isolate, which ranged from 0.108-0.176 cm(2)/mJ for C. auris and 0.239-0.292 cm(2)/mJ for C. albicans. As the model of exponential decay did not accurately estimate the dose beyond 99.9% inactivation, a logistic regression model was applied to better estimate the doses required for 99.999% inactivation. Using this model, significantly greater UV energy was required to inactivate C. auris (103 to 192 mJ/cm(2)) when compared to C. albicans (78 to 80 mJ/cm(2)). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated UVGI as a feasible approach for inactivating C. auris, although variable susceptibility among isolates must be taken into account. This dose-response data is critical for recommending UVGI dosing strategies to be tested in healthcare settings.

      4. Regional emergence of Candida auris in Chicago and lessons learned from intensive follow-up at one ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilityexternal icon
        Pacilli M, Kerins JL, Clegg WJ, Walblay KA, Adil H, Kemble SK, Xydis S, McPherson TD, Lin MY, Hayden MK, Froilan MC, Soda E, Tang AS, Valley A, Forsberg K, Gable P, Moulton-Meissner H, Sexton DJ, Jacobs Slifka KM, Vallabhaneni S, Walters MS, Black SR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 14.
        BACKGROUND: Since the identification of the first two Candida auris cases in Chicago, Illinois, in 2016, ongoing spread has been documented in the Chicago area. We describe C. auris emergence in high-acuity long-term healthcare facilities and present a case-study of public health response to C. auris and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) at one ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility (vSNF A). METHODS: We performed point prevalence surveys (PPSs) to identify patients colonized with C. auris, infection control (IC) assessments, and provided ongoing support for IC improvements in Illinois acute and long-term care facilities during August 2016-December 2018. During 2018, we initiated a focused effort at vSNF A, and conducted seven C. auris PPSs; during four PPSs, we also performed CPO screening and environmental sampling. RESULTS: During August 2016-December 2018 in Illinois, 490 individuals were found to be colonized or infected with C. auris. PPSs identified highest prevalence of C. auris colonization in vSNF settings (prevalence 23-71%). IC assessments in multiple vSNFs identified common challenges in core IC practices. Repeat PPSs at vSNF A in 2018 identified increasing C. auris prevalence from 43% to 71%. Most residents screened during multiple PPSs remained persistently colonized with C. auris. Among 191 environmental samples collected, 39% were positive for C. auris, including samples from bedrails, windowsills, and shared patient-care items. CONCLUSIONS: High burden in vSNFs along with persistent colonization of residents and environmental contamination point to the need for prioritizing IC interventions to control spread of C. auris and CPOs.

      5. We compared methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) captured by culture-based surveillance and MRSA septicemia hospitalizations captured by administrative coding using statewide hospital discharge data in Connecticut from 2010 to 2018. Observed discrepancies between identification methods suggest administrative coding is inappropriate for assessing trends in MRSA BSIs.

      6. Outbreaks and infection control breaches in health care settings: Considerations for patient notificationexternal icon
        Schaefer MK, Perkins KM, Link-Gelles R, Kallen AJ, Patel PR, Perz JF.
        Am J Infect Control. 2020 Apr 10.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Cluster analysis: Vaccination attitudes and beliefs of healthcare personnelexternal icon
        Bardenheier BH, Lindley MC, Ball SW, de Perio MA, Laney S, Gravenstein S.
        Am J Health Behav. 2020 May 1;44(3):302-312.
        Objectives: We sought to identify patterns of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs) about influenza and influenza vaccination among healthcare personnel (HCP) and define characteristics associated with these patterns. Methods: We used an Internet panel survey of HCP (N = 2265) during March 27-April 17, 2018; clustered HCP by their vaccination-related KABs. Results: Four clusters were identified: Immunization Champions (61.1% of the sample) received influenza vaccine to prevent disease; Unworried Vaccinators (15.4%) received the influenza vaccine but did not believe influenza is a serious threat to themselves; Fence Sitters (8.1%) believed the vaccine is safe and worth the time and expense but is not effective; Skeptics (15.4%) did not believe the vaccine is safe or effective. Influenza vaccination coverage was 78.4% overall and higher among Immunization Champions (90.2%) and Unworried Vaccinators (87.0%) than Fence Sitters (61.6%) or Skeptics (32.2%). Conclusions: Findings suggest that based on KABs, the 3 clusters comprising 85% of HCP might be vaccinated in the future. Using messages specific to each group may improve vaccination coverage among HCP.

      2. BACKGROUND: Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons 6 months or older and vaccination in infants less than 6 months old is a vaccine administration error. There are limited safety studies in this population, particularly among infants less than 6 weeks old. METHODS: We searched the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database for reports of adverse events (AEs) following influenza vaccination in infants less than 6 months old for the 2010-2018 influenza seasons. We conducted a descriptive and qualitative analysis of reports to describe AEs and identify possible risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 114 reports were identified; only 21 reported a specific AE. Pyrexia, irritability, crying and diarrhea were the most common symptoms. There were 12 reports involving newborns; the most common circumstance cited was confusion with the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. The following risk factors were identified: (1) individuals getting vaccinated together resulting in patient mix-ups; (2) healthcare provider not verifying the patient's information; (3) individual provider confusion due to similarities in vaccines' packaging and names of vaccines that sound alike. CONCLUSIONS: Reports identified of influenza vaccination in infants less than 6 months old indicate that vaccination errors in this age group are occurring and healthcare providers who vaccinate infants should be aware of how to prevent such events. Our study adds to the existing literature by providing valuable information regarding the general absence of serious adverse events in the case of vaccination errors associated with inadvertent influenza vaccine within this population.

      3. INTRODUCTION: The Delta Regional Authority (DRA) consists of 252 counties and parishes in 8 states in the US Mississippi Delta region. DRA areas have high rates of disease, including cancers related to the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV vaccination coverage in the DRA region has not been documented. METHODS: We analyzed data for 63,299 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2015-2017. We compared HPV vaccination initiation coverage estimates (>/=1 dose) in the DRA region with coverage estimates in areas in the 8 Delta states outside the DRA region and non-Delta states. We examined correlates of HPV vaccination coverage initiation and reasons parents did not intend to vaccinate adolescents. RESULTS: Vaccination rates in the DRA region (n = 2,317; 54.3%) and in Delta areas outside the DRA region (n = 6,028; 56.2%) were similar, but these rates were significantly lower than rates in non-Delta states (n = 54,954; 61.4%). Inside the DRA region, reasons for parents' vaccine hesitancy or refusal were similar to those expressed by parents in the Delta areas outside the DRA region. Some parents believed that the vaccine was not necessary or had concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccination coverage in the DRA region is similar to coverage in other Delta counties and parishes, but it is significantly lower than in non-Delta states. Activities to address parental concerns and improve provider recommendations for the vaccine in the DRA region are needed to increase HPV vaccination rates.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Violence victimization and negative health correlates of youth in post-earthquake Haiti: Findings from the cross-sectional violence against children surveyexternal icon
        Lai BS, Osborne MC, De Veauuse-Brown N, Swedo EA, Self-Brown S, Massetti GM.
        J Affect Disord. 2020 Mar 23;270:59-64.
        BACKGROUND: We examined the prevalence of and relationships between violence victimization and negative health correlates of Haitian youth exposed to the 2010 earthquake. METHODS: Participants were randomly selected 13-24 year-old youth (1457 females; 1459 males) living in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake. Data collected via Haiti's 2012 Violence against Children Survey (VACS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Participants reported violence victimization in the past 12 months (females: 49.93%; males: 41.68%), moderate-to-severe mental distress (females: 76.56%; males: 66.41%), and suicidal ideation (females: 26.79%; males: 8.05%). Compared to participants without experiences of violence, victims of violence had significantly higher mean number of sexual partners (females: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.81-2.16, p = .02; males: 4.33, 95% CI: 3.50-5.16, p = .03), mental distress (females: 80.39%, p = .01; males: 72.95%, p = .002), and suicidal ideation (females: 36.09%, p < .0001; males: 12.02%, p < .0001). Male victims of violence were more likely to have sex without a condom (26.02%, p = .01) and female victims of violence were more likely to report histories of STIs (28.04%, p = .01), when compared to participants without history of violence. LIMITATIONS: Data were collected via self-report. Disaster exposure experiences were not assessed. Analysis was correlational and did not control for potential confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: Disaster-exposed youth endorsed high levels of violence victimization and negative health correlates. Earthquake survivors who experienced violence were more likely to report negative health correlates. Greater attention to downstream sequelae of natural disasters is needed.

      2. Traumatic brain injury-related deaths from firearm suicide: United States, 2008-2017external icon
        Miller GF, Kegler SR, Stone DM.
        Am J Public Health. 2020 Apr 16:e1-e3.
        Objectives. To document the increasing influence of firearm suicide on the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related death in the United States.Methods. We used national vital statistics data from 2008 to 2017 to identify TBI-related deaths, overall and by cause, among US residents. National counts stratified by year, sex, and age group (to facilitate age adjustment) were merged with corresponding population estimates to calculate incidence rates.Results. During the 10-year period beginning in 2008, when it became the leading cause of TBI-related death in the United States, firearm suicide accounted for nearly half (48.3%) of the increase in the absolute incidence of TBI-related death when combining all injury categories showing absolute increases. Rates of TBI-related firearm suicide increased among both males and females.Conclusions. Safe storage of firearms among people at risk and training of health care providers and community members to identify and support people who may be thinking of suicide are part of a comprehensive public health approach to suicide prevention.Public Health Implications. States, communities, and health care systems can save lives by prioritizing comprehensive suicide prevention. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2020: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305622).

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Updated emm-typing protocol for Streptococcus pyogenesexternal icon
        Frost HR, Davies MR, Velusamy S, Delforge V, Erhart A, Darboe S, Steer A, Walker MJ, Beall B, Botteaux A, Smeesters PR.
        Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Feb 28.
        OBJECTIVES: PCR-based typing of the emm gene Streptococcus pyogenes often results in the amplification of multiple bands. This has resulted in the misclassification of strains into types based on non-emm gene sequences. We aimed to improve the specificity of the emm typing PCR reaction using a primer called CDC3, the sequence for which has been previously used to identify emm genes in silico. METHODS: The proposed primer CDC3 was validated in silico from a global database of 1688 GAS genomes and in vitro with 32 isolates. PCR reactions were performed on genomic DNA from each isolate, using the published CDC1 forward primer with the CDC2 reverse primer or the new CDC3 reverse primer. The products were examined by gel electrophoresis, and representative PCR products were sequenced. RESULTS: In 1688 S. pyogenes genomes, the previous CDC2 reverse primer annealed in silico in 1671 emm genes and also in 2109 non emm genes in close proximity, whereas the new CDC3 primer annealed in 1669 emm genes only. The remaining 19 genes without a CDC3 binding site were chimeric emm genes. The PCR pair CDC1+CDC3 produced a single band at appropriate molecular weight in all 32 isolates tested, while the CDC1+CDC2 pair produced more than one band in 13 of 32 isolates (40%). CONCLUSIONS: The new CDC3 primer is more specific for emm genes than the previous CDC2 primer and represents a simple solution to reduce the potential for mistyping S. pyogenes strains.

      2. Amino acid substitutions in positions 385 and 393 of the hydrophobic region of VP4 may be associated with rotavirus attenuation and cell culture adaptationexternal icon
        Guo Y, Wentworth DE, Stucker KM, Halpin RA, Lam HC, Marthaler D, Saif LJ, Vlasova AN.
        Viruses. 2020 Apr 7;12(4).
        Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of the acute viral gastroenteritis in young children and livestock animals worldwide. Although live attenuated vaccines have been applied to control RV infection for many years, the underlying mechanisms of RV attenuation following cell culture adaption are unknown. To study these mechanisms at the genomic level, we have sequenced and conducted a comparative analysis of two virulent human (Wa, G1P[8] and M, G3P[8]) and two virulent porcine (Gottfried, G4P[6] and OSU, G5P[7]) RV strains maintained in gnotobiotic piglets for 22, 11, 12 and 9 serial passages, respectively, with their attenuated counterparts serially passaged in MA-104 cell cultures for 25, 43, 54 and 43 passages, respectively. We showed that most of the mutations were clustered in the VP4 gene, with a relatively high nonsynonymous substitution rate (81.2%). Moreover, two amino acid substitutions observed in the VP4 gene were conserved between two or more strain pairs. D385N substitution was found in M, Wa and Gottfried strains, and another one, S471H/L was present in Wa and Gottfried strains. Importantly, D385 was reported previously in another study and may be involved in regulation of virus entry. Of interest, although no 385 substitution was found in OSU strains, the attenuated OSU strain contained a unique D393H substitution within the same VP4 hydrophobic domain. Collectively, our data suggest that the VP4 hydrophobic region may play an important role in RV attenuation and aa385 and aa393 may represent potential targets for RV vaccine development using reverse genetics and site-specific mutagenesis.

      3. Biotin taken orally can interfere with some diagnostic immunoassays, including those for thyroid hormones, ferritin, and markers of infectious disease. Assays affected are ones that use streptavidin-biotin in their design. The goal of our study was to examine the effect of biotin concentrations of up to 1200 ng/ml on three serological assays performed on VITROS 3600 system, IgM anti-HAV, total anti-HAV, and IgM anti-HBc, by spiking serum samples with variable amounts of biotin. No false negative results were generated with either concentration of biotin for total anti-HAV (65/65). Likewise, biotin caused no false positive IgM anti-HAV results (59/59) with either concentration of biotin; however, 6.7% false negativity was found for IgM anti-HAV when samples were spiked with 1200 ng/mL of biotin. Conversely, 100% false positivity (30/30) was produced by biotin interference in total anti-HAV negative specimens with both concentrations of biotin. False negativity rate was 87.5% in IgM anti-Hbc positive samples when biotin levels were at 1200 ng/mL. These data show that individuals taking biotin-containing supplements may test false-positive in some serologic assays using streptavidin-biotin chemistries. Further studies are warranted to determine the extent of biotin interference resulting in false positive and negative results and their impact, if any, on surveillance and diagnostic settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      4. Aerodynamic size separation of glass fiber aerosolsexternal icon
        Lee T, Ku BK, Walker R, Kulkarni P, Barone T, Mischler S.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2020 Apr 15:1-11.
        The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an aerodynamic separation scheme for obtaining aerosols with nearly monodisperse fiber lengths as test samples for mechanistic toxicological evaluations. The approach involved the separation of aerosolized glass fibers using an Aerodynamic Aerosol Classifier (AAC) or a multi-cyclone sampling array, followed by the collection of separated samples on filter substrates, and the measurement of each sample fiber length distribution. A glass fiber aerosol with a narrow range of aerodynamic sizes was selected and sampled with the AAC or multi-cyclone sampling array in two separate setups. The fiber length and diameter were measured using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The glass fiber aerosol was separated in distinct groups of eight with the AAC and of four with the multi-cyclone sampling array. The geometric standard deviations of the fiber length distributions of the separated aerosols ranged from 1.49 to 1.69 for the AAC and from 1.6 to 1.8 for multi-cyclone sampling array. While the separation of glass fiber aerosols with an AAC is likely to produce two different length fiber groups and the length resolution may be acceptable, the overall mass throughput of these separation schemes is limited.

      5. Virus-host interactions between non-secretors and human norovirusexternal icon
        Lindesmith LC, Brewer-Jensen PD, Mallory ML, Jensen K, Yount BL, Costantini V, Collins MH, Edwards CE, Sheahan TP, Vinje J, Baric RS.
        Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Apr 11.
        BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human norovirus infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Genetic polymorphisms, mediated by the FUT2 gene (secretor enzyme), define strain susceptibility. Secretors express a diverse set of fucosylated histoblood group antigen carbohydrates (HBGA) on mucosal cells; non-secretors (FUT2(-/-)) express a limited array of HBGAs. Thus, non-secretors have less diverse norovirus strain infections, including resistance to the epidemiologically dominant GII.4 strains. As future human norovirus vaccines will be comprised of GII.4 antigen and since secretor phenotype impacts GII.4 infection and immunity, non-secretors may immunologically mimic young children in response to GII.4 vaccination, providing a needed model to study cross-protection in the context of limited pre-exposure. METHODS: Utilizing specimens collected from the first characterized non- secretor cohort naturally infected with GII.2 human norovirus, we evaluated the breadth of serological immunity by surrogate neutralization assays, and cellular activation and cytokine production by flow cytometry. RESULTS: GII.2 infection resulted in broad antibody and cellular immunity activation that persisted for at least 30 days for T cells, monocytes and dendritic cells and for 180 days for blocking antibody. Multiple cellular lineages expressing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha dominated the response. Both T cell and B cell responses were cross-reactive with other GII strains, but not GI strains. To promote entry mechanisms, inclusion of bile acids was essential for GII.2 binding to non-secretor HBGAs. CONCLUSION: These data support development of within-genogroup cross-reactive antibody and T cell immunity, key outcomes that may provide the foundation for eliciting broad immune responses following GII.4 vaccination in individuals with limited GII.4 immunity, including young children.

      6. Systems genetics and systems biology analysis of paraquat neurotoxicity in BXD recombinant inbred miceexternal icon
        Torres-Rojas C, Zhuang D, Jimenez-Carrion P, Silva I, O'Callaghan JP, Lu L, Zhao W, Mulligan MK, Williams RW, Jones BC.
        Toxicol Sci. 2020 Apr 15.
        Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide used in many countries, including the USA. It is also implicated as a risk factor for sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD), especially in those living in agricultural areas and drinking well water. Studies linking PQ to sPD are not consistent however and there appears to be inter-individual differential susceptibility. One likely reason is genetically based differential susceptibility to paraquat neurotoxicity in sub-populations. To address this issue, we tested the effects of paraquat in a genetic reference population of mice (the BXD recombinant inbred strain family). In our earlier work, we showed that in genetically susceptible mice, paraquat increases iron in the ventral midbrain, the area containing the substantia nigra. Our hypothesis is that genetic variability contributes to diverse PQ-related susceptibility and iron concentration. To test this hypothesis, we treated male mice from 28-39 BXD strains plus the parental strains with one of 3 doses of paraquat, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg three times on a weekly basis. At the end of the treatment period, we analyzed the ventral midbrain for concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc, also we measured the concentration of paraquat in cerebellum, and proinflammatory cytokines in serum and cerebellum. The effect on paraquat treated mice with 5 mg/kg and principal component analysis of iron showed suggestive QTL on chromosome 5. Overall, our results suggest that gene Prkag2 and related networks may serve as potential targets against paraquat toxicity and demonstrate the utility of genetically diverse mouse models for the study of complex human toxicity.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Parent engagement in an original and culturally adapted evidence-based parenting program, Legacy for Childrenexternal icon
        So M, Almeida Rojo AL, Robinson LR, Hartwig SA, Heggs Lee AR, Beasley LO, Silovsky JF, Morris AS, Stiller Titchener K, Zapata MI.
        Infant Ment Health J. 2020 Apr 10.
        Legacy for Children (Legacy) is an evidence-based program focused on promoting sensitive, responsive parenting for socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Legacy has recently been culturally and linguistically adapted for Spanish-monolingual Latino families and is being piloted in partnership with an early childhood education program. We conducted a mixed methods study to identify barriers and facilitators to engagement, using program monitoring data sources from both participant and group leader perspectives. We conducted qualitative analyses of open-ended data to identify distinct barriers (e.g., employment challenges, health-related challenges and appointments) and facilitators (e.g., other mothers in group, interest in program topics) to engagement that emerged across English and Spanish language curriculum versions; curriculum-specific barriers and facilitators were also documented. We interpret these findings in light of quantitative data on measures of engagement, showing that participants in the Spanish curriculum evidenced comparable levels of parent-group leader relationship quality relative to the English group, and higher levels of parent's group support/connectedness and overall satisfaction. These results offer promising considerations for optimizing families' engagement in parenting programs in the context of early care and education settings.

    • Military Medicine and Health
      1. Serum microRNA profiles among dioxin exposed veterans with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significanceexternal icon
        Wang W, Shim YK, Michalek JE, Barber E, Saleh LM, Choi BY, Wang CP, Ketchum N, Costello R, Marti GE, Vogt RF, Landgren O, Calvo KR.
        J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2020 Apr 14:1-10.
        Previously an increased risk for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor of multiple myeloma (MM), was reported among Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Dysregulated expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) was demonstrated in MGUS and MM. Given the important role of miRNAs in cellular homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if there was an association between serum levels of selected miRNAs and TCDD in 47 MGUS cases identified in our previous investigation using serum specimens and exposure data archived by the Air Force Health Study (AFHS). A total of 13 miRNA levels (let-7a, let-7i, miR-16, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-205, miR-335, and miR-361) was measured in serum stored during the 2002 AFHS follow-up and the relationship to lipid-adjusted serum TCDD levels in 1987 was determined. miR-34a showed the strongest relationship with TCDD; after age-adjustment, this positive association was more pronounced. In contrast, the other 12 miRNAs displayed absolute values of age adjusted coefficient estimates below 1.16 and non-significant p-values. The observed strong positive association between high body burdens of TCDD and miR-34a, a tumor suppressor regulated by p53, in this MGUS population warrants clarification of the TCDD-miR-34a relationship and its role in the pathogenesis of MGUS and risk for MM.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Kneeling trunk kinematics during simulated sloped roof shingle installationexternal icon
        Breloff SP, Carey RE, Dutta A, Sinsel EW, Warren CM, Dai F, Wu JZ.
        Int J Ind Ergon. 2020 ;77.
        Trunk musculoskeletal disorders are common among residential roofers. Addressing this problem requires a better understanding of the movements required to complete working tasks, such as affixing shingles on a sloped residential roof. We analyzed the extent to which the trunk kinematics during a shingling process are altered due to different angles of roof slope. Eight male subjects completed a kneeling shingle installation process on three differently sloped roof surfaces. The magnitude of the trunk kinematics was significantly influenced by both slope and task phase of the shingling process, depending on the metric. The results unequivocally point to roof slope and task phase as significant factors altering trunk kinematics. However, extension of the results to roofing workers should be done carefully, depending on the degree to which the study protocol represents the natural setting. Future studies on shingle installation in residential roofing should absolutely consider capturing a wider array of shingling procedures in order to encapsulate all the possible methods that are used due to the lack of a standardized procedure.

      2. Fungi are ubiquitous in environments and produce secondary metabolites that are usually low-molecular-weight organic compounds during growth processes. Dust samples containing these fungal secondary metabolites collected from study sites are often stored in certain temperature conditions for an extended period until laboratory analysis resources are available. However, there is little information on how stable fungal secondary metabolites are over time at different storage temperatures. We examined the stability of 27 fungal secondary metabolites spiked into floor dust samples collected from a moisture-damaged office building. Ninety-five dust aliquots were made from the spiked dust; five replicates were randomly assigned to a baseline (time = 0) and each of the 18 combinations of three temperatures (room temperature, 4 degrees C, or -80 degrees C) and six time points (2, 12, 25, 56, 79, and 105 weeks). At the baseline and each subsequent time point, we extracted and analyzed the fungal secondary metabolites from the spiked dust using ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. To estimate change in concentration over storage time at each temperature condition, we applied multiple linear regression models with interaction effect between storage temperature and duration. For 10 of the 27 fungal secondary metabolites, the effect of time was significantly (p-values <0.05) or marginally (p-values <0.1) modified by temperature, but not for the remaining 17 metabolites. Generally, for most fungal secondary metabolites, storage at room temperature was significantly (p-values <0.05) associated with a larger decline in concentration (up to 83% for 3-nitropropionic acid at about 11 months) than storing at 4 degrees C (up to 55% for emodin) or -80 degrees C (55% for asperglaucide). We did not observe significant differences between storage at 4 degrees C, or -80 degrees C. Storage temperature influenced degradation of fungal secondary metabolites more than storage time. Our study indicates that fungal secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins in floor dust, quickly degrade at room temperature. However, storing dust samples at 4 degrees C might be adequate given that storing them at -80 degrees C did not further reduce degradation of fungal secondary metabolites.

      3. Choosing the right hearing protectorexternal icon
        Themann C.
        Hear J. 2020 Apr;73(4):18-19.
        Noise can be bothersome and sometimes fun, but in all cases, a sound that is too loud for too long can damage one's hearing. Repeated exposure to hazardous sound can cause permanent hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and trouble understanding speech in background noise. The best way to prevent noise-induced hearing damage is to reduce exposure by turning down the volume, moving away from the sound, or limiting exposure time. If you cannot take any of those steps, then you should use hearing protection. Follow these guidelines to choose the right hearing protector.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. Near misses recorded and reported by workers can provide awareness to the potential causes of injury and prompt safety management initiatives. Although most companies require near-miss reporting, it is unclear what the value of these reports are, if any, and how they influence subsequent actions or controls to reduce on-the-job risks. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a case study with an aggregates company in which near-miss reports were analyzed at each of their locations over an entire quarter during the summer of 2018. Within that quarter, workers recorded 249 near misses. Of those, 167 were valid near misses that occurred at work. Researchers coded the reports using a qualitative 5 × 5 risk matrix. Of the 167 near misses, 19% were deemed low risk, 25% moderate risk, 30% high risk, and 26% critical risk. Several patterns in the near-miss incidents were documented, including classification of incidents and common corrective actions referenced (i.e., elimination/substitution, engineering control or redesign, work process/procedures, and personal protective equipment). The analysis provides insight into ways that risk communication and management programs can be improved to reengage workers and their situational awareness on the job.

      2. Due to the global need for energy and resources, many workers are involved in underground and surface mining operations where they can be exposed to potentially hazardous crystalline dust particles. Besides commonly known alpha quartz, a variety of other materials may be inhaled when a worker is exposed to airborne dust. To date, the challenge of rapid in-field monitoring, identification, differentiation, and quantification of those particles has not been solved satisfactorily, in part because conventional analytical techniques require laboratory environments, complex method handling, and tedious sample preparation procedures and are in part limited by the effects of particle size. Using a set of the three most abundant minerals in limestone mine dust (i.e., calcite, dolomite, and quartz) and real-world dust samples, we demonstrate that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with appropriate multivariate data analysis strategies provides a versatile tool for the identification and quantification of the mineral composition in relative complex matrices. An innovative analytical method with the potential of in-field application for quantifying the relative mass of crystalline particles in mine dust has been developed using transmission and diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) within a unified multivariate model. This proof-of-principle study shows how direct on-site quantification of crystalline particles in ambient air may be accomplished based on a direct-on-filter measurement, after mine dust particles are collected directly onto PVC filters by the worker using body-mounted devices. Without any further sample preparation, these loaded filters may be analyzed via transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopy and/or DRIFTS, and the mineral content is immediately quantified via a partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm that enables the combining of the spectral data of both methods into a single robust model. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the size regime of dust particles may be classified into groups of hazardous and less hazardous size regimes. Thus, this technique may provide additional essential information for controlling air quality in surface and underground mining operations. Graphical Abstract.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Development of a workflow for identification of nuclear genotyping markers for Cyclospora cayetanensisexternal icon
        Houghton KA, Lomsadze A, Park S, Nascimento FS, Barratt J, Arrowood MJ, VanRoey E, Talundzic E, Borodovsky M, Qvarnstrom Y.
        Parasite. 2020 ;27:24.
        Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal parasite responsible for the diarrheal illness, cyclosporiasis. Molecular genotyping, using targeted amplicon sequencing, provides a complementary tool for outbreak investigations, especially when epidemiological data are insufficient for linking cases and identifying clusters. The goal of this study was to identify candidate genotyping markers using a novel workflow for detection of segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C. cayetanensis genomes. Four whole C. cayetanensis genomes were compared using this workflow and four candidate markers were selected for evaluation of their genotyping utility by PCR and Sanger sequencing. These four markers covered 13 SNPs and resolved parasites from 57 stool specimens, differentiating C. cayetanensis into 19 new unique genotypes.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Higher contraceptive uptake in HIV treatment centers offering integrated family planning services: A national survey in Kenyaexternal icon
        Chen Y, Begnel E, Muthigani W, Achwoka D, McGrath CJ, Singa B, Gondi J, Ng'ang'a L, Langat A, John-Stewart G, Kinuthia J, Drake AL.
        Contraception. 2020 Apr 13.
        OBJECTIVES: Integrating family planning (FP) into routine HIV care and treatment are recommended by WHO guidelines to improve FP access among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to assess factors that influence the delivery of integrated FP services and the impact of facility-level integration of FP on contraceptive uptake among women living with HIV (WLWH). STUDY DESIGN: A national cross-sectional study was conducted among WLWH at HIV Care and Treatment centers with >1000 antiretroviral treatment (ART) clients per year. A mobile team visited 108 HIV Care and Treatment centers and administered surveys to key informants regarding facility attributes and WLWH regarding FP at these centers between June and September 2016. We classified facilities offering FP services within the same facility as 'integrated' facilities. RESULTS: 4805 WLWH were enrolled at 108 facilities throughout Kenya. The majority (73%) of facilities offered integrated FP services. They were more likely to be offered in public than private facilities (Prevalence Ratio [PR]: 1.86, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.11-3.11; p=0.02] and were more common in the Nyanza region than the Nairobi region (77% vs 35% respectively, p=0.06). Any contraceptive use (89% vs 80%), use of modern contraception (88% vs 80%), dual method use (40% vs 30%), long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) (28% vs 20%), and non-barrier short-term methods (34% vs 27%) were all significantly higher in facilities with integrated FP services (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of high volume facilities integrated FP services into HIV care. Integrating FP services may increase modern contraceptive use among WLWH.

      2. Final program data and factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception removal: The Zika Contraception Access Networkexternal icon
        Lathrop E, Hurst S, Mendoza Z, Zapata LB, Cordero P, Powell R, Green C, Moreno N, Jamieson DJ, Romero L.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Apr 9.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of the full population of women who participated in the Zika Contraception Access Network program in Puerto Rico during the virus outbreak and to examine factors associated with removal of a long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) method by a Zika Contraception Access Network provider during the program's duration (May 2016-September 2017). METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study. The Zika Contraception Access Network program was designed to increase access to contraception services in Puerto Rico for women who chose to prevent pregnancy during the Zika virus outbreak as a primary strategy to reduce adverse Zika virus-related pregnancy and birth outcomes. Among program participants, an observational cohort of women served by the Zika Contraception Access Network Program, we describe their demographic and program-specific characteristics, including contraceptive method mix before and after the program. We also report on LARC removals by Zika Contraception Access Network providers during the program. We examined factors associated with LARC removal using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 29,221 women received an initial Zika Contraception Access Network visit during the program. Ninety-six percent (27,985) of women received same-day provision of a contraceptive method and 70% (20,381) chose a LARC method. While the program was active, 719 (4%) women who chose a LARC at the initial visit had it removed. Women with a college degree or higher were more likely to have their LARC removed (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.24); breastfeeding women (aPR 0.67) and those using a LARC method before Zika Contraception Access Network (aPR 0.55) were less likely to have their LARC removed. CONCLUSION: The Zika Contraception Access Network program was designed as a short-term response for rapid implementation of contraceptive services in a complex emergency setting in Puerto Rico and served more than 29,000 women. The Zika Contraception Access Network program had high LARC uptake and a low proportion of removals by a Zika Contraception Access Network provider during the program. A removal-inclusive design, with access to removals well beyond the program period, maximizes women's reproductive autonomy to access LARC removal when desired. This model could be replicated in other settings where the goal is to increase contraception access.

      3. Physician and clinic staff attitudes and practices during implementation of the Zika Contraception Access Networkexternal icon
        Tepper NK, Zapata LB, Hurst S, Curtis KM, Lathrop E, Romero L, Acosta-Perez E, Mendoza Z, Whiteman MK.
        Contraception. 2020 Apr 13.
        OBJECTIVE: The Zika Contraception Access Network (Z-CAN) provided women in Puerto Rico access to contraceptive counseling and the full range of reversible contraceptive methods, on the same day and at no cost, during the Zika virus outbreak. Because trained physicians and clinic staff were crucial to the program, we aimed to assess the implementation of and satisfaction with Z-CAN from their perspectives. STUDY DESIGN: Physicians and clinic staff in the Z-CAN program participated in an online survey on program implementation (e.g., on-site and same-day contraceptive provision), program satisfaction, and knowledge consistent with program training (e.g. contraceptive initiation and safety, client-centered contraceptive counseling, intrauterine device [IUD] and implant insertion and removal). RESULTS: Survey respondents included 63 physicians and 53 clinic staff members. A high proportion of physicians (>93%) reported providing IUDs, implants, pills, rings, condoms, and injections and most were very often or always able to provide same-day access to most methods. Over 90% of physicians were satisfied with the Z-CAN program, training, and ongoing support. Staff satisfaction with these program elements was similar but slightly lower. Knowledge about exams and tests needed for initiation and safety of methods varied but was generally consistent with guidelines on which physicians received training. Most physicians (>90%) reported confidence in skills on which they received training as part of the program. CONCLUSIONS: From the perspectives of participating physicians and clinic staff, the program was generally implemented as intended and providers were largely satisfied with program strategies including training and on-going support.

    • Statistics as Topic
      1. Analysis of trends in health data collected over time can be affected by instantaneous changes in coding that cause sudden increases/decreases, or "jumps," in data. Despite these sudden changes, the underlying continuous trends can present valuable information related to the changing risk profile of the population, the introduction of screening, new diagnostic technologies, or other causes. The joinpoint model is a well-established methodology for modeling trends over time using connected linear segments, usually on a logarithmic scale. Joinpoint models that ignore data jumps due to coding changes may produce biased estimates of trends. In this article, we introduce methods to incorporate a sudden discontinuous jump in an otherwise continuous joinpoint model. The size of the jump is either estimated directly (the Joinpoint-Jump model) or estimated using supplementary data (the Joinpoint-Comparability Ratio model). Examples using ICD-9/ICD-10 cause of death coding changes, and coding changes in the staging of cancer illustrate the use of these models.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1-30, 2020external icon
        Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, O'Halloran A, Cummings C, Holstein R, Prill M, Chai SJ, Kirley PD, Alden NB, Kawasaki B, Yousey-Hindes K, Niccolai L, Anderson EJ, Openo KP, Weigel A, Monroe ML, Ryan P, Henderson J, Kim S, Como-Sabetti K, Lynfield R, Sosin D, Torres S, Muse A, Bennett NM, Billing L, Sutton M, West N, Schaffner W, Talbot HK, Aquino C, George A, Budd A, Brammer L, Langley G, Hall AJ, Fry A.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):458-464.
        Since SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in December 2019 (1), approximately 1.3 million cases have been reported worldwide (2), including approximately 330,000 in the United States (3). To conduct population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in the United States, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) was created using the existing infrastructure of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) (4) and the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network (RSV-NET). This report presents age-stratified COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates for patients admitted during March 1-28, 2020, and clinical data on patients admitted during March 1-30, 2020, the first month of U.S. surveillance. Among 1,482 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 74.5% were aged >/=50 years, and 54.4% were male. The hospitalization rate among patients identified through COVID-NET during this 4-week period was 4.6 per 100,000 population. Rates were highest (13.8) among adults aged >/=65 years. Among 178 (12%) adult patients with data on underlying conditions as of March 30, 2020, 89.3% had one or more underlying conditions; the most common were hypertension (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), chronic lung disease (34.6%), diabetes mellitus (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%). These findings suggest that older adults have elevated rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization and the majority of persons hospitalized with COVID-19 have underlying medical conditions. These findings underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g., social distancing, respiratory hygiene, and wearing face coverings in public settings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain)(dagger) to protect older adults and persons with underlying medical conditions, as well as the general public. In addition, older adults and persons with serious underlying medical conditions should avoid contact with persons who are ill and immediately contact their health care provider(s) if they have symptoms consistent with COVID-19 ( (5). Ongoing monitoring of hospitalization rates, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized patients will be important to better understand the evolving epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States and the clinical spectrum of disease, and to help guide planning and prioritization of health care system resources.

      2. Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings - Chicago, Illinois, February-March 2020external icon
        Ghinai I, Woods S, Ritger KA, McPherson TD, Black SR, Sparrow L, Fricchione MJ, Kerins JL, Pacilli M, Ruestow PS, Arwady MA, Beavers SF, Payne DC, Kirking HL, Layden JE.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):446-450.
        SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.

      3. Transmission of COVID-19 to health care personnel during exposures to a hospitalized patient - Solano County, California, February 2020external icon
        Heinzerling A, Stuckey MJ, Scheuer T, Xu K, Perkins KM, Resseger H, Magill S, Verani JR, Jain S, Acosta M, Epson E.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):472-476.
        On February 26, 2020, the first U.S. case of community-acquired coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in a patient hospitalized in Solano County, California (1). The patient was initially evaluated at hospital A on February 15; at that time, COVID-19 was not suspected, as the patient denied travel or contact with symptomatic persons. During a 4-day hospitalization, the patient was managed with standard precautions and underwent multiple aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), including nebulizer treatments, bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and bronchoscopy. Several days after the patient's transfer to hospital B, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 returned positive. Among 121 hospital A health care personnel (HCP) who were exposed to the patient, 43 (35.5%) developed symptoms during the 14 days after exposure and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; three had positive test results and were among the first known cases of probable occupational transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to HCP in the United States. Little is known about specific risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care settings. To better characterize and compare exposures among HCP who did and did not develop COVID-19, standardized interviews were conducted with 37 hospital A HCP who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, including the three who had positive test results. Performing physical examinations and exposure to the patient during nebulizer treatments were more common among HCP with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 than among those without COVID-19; HCP with COVID-19 also had exposures of longer duration to the patient. Because transmission-based precautions were not in use, no HCP wore personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended for COVID-19 patient care during contact with the index patient. Health care facilities should emphasize early recognition and isolation of patients with possible COVID-19 and use of recommended PPE to minimize unprotected, high-risk HCP exposures and protect the health care workforce.

      4. Timing of community mitigation and changes in reported COVID-19 and community mobility - four U.S. metropolitan areas, February 26-April 1, 2020external icon
        Lasry A, Kidder D, Hast M, Poovey J, Sunshine G, Winglee K, Zviedrite N, Ahmed F, Ethier KA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 17;69(15):451-457.
        Community mitigation activities (also referred to as nonpharmaceutical interventions) are actions that persons and communities can take to slow the spread of infectious diseases. Mitigation strategies include personal protective measures (e.g., handwashing, cough etiquette, and face coverings) that persons can use at home or while in community settings; social distancing (e.g., maintaining physical distance between persons in community settings and staying at home); and environmental surface cleaning at home and in community settings, such as schools or workplaces. Actions such as social distancing are especially critical when medical countermeasures such as vaccines or therapeutics are not available. Although voluntary adoption of social distancing by the public and community organizations is possible, public policy can enhance implementation. The CDC Community Mitigation Framework (1) recommends a phased approach to implementation at the community level, as evidence of community spread of disease increases or begins to decrease and according to severity. This report presents initial data from the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; New Orleans, Louisiana; and New York City, New York* to describe the relationship between timing of public policy measures, community mobility (a proxy measure for social distancing), and temporal trends in reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Community mobility in all four locations declined from February 26, 2020 to April 1, 2020, decreasing with each policy issued and as case counts increased. This report suggests that public policy measures are an important tool to support social distancing and provides some very early indications that these measures might help slow the spread of COVID-19.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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