Volume 10, Issue 46, December 4, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 46, December 4, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      • Outbreak of tattoo-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infectionsExternal
        Griffin I, Schmitz A, Oliver C, Pritchard S, Zhang G, Rico E, Davenport E, Llau A, Moore E, Fernandez D, Mejia-Echeverry A, Suarez J, Noya-Chaveco P, Elmir S, Jean R, Pettengill JB, Hollinger KA, Chou K, Williams-Hill D, Zaki S, Muehlenbachs A, Keating MK, Bhatnagar J, Rowlinson MC, Chiribau C, Rivera L.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 17.

        BACKGROUND: On April 29, 2015, the Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (DOH-Miami-Dade) was notified by a local dermatologist of three patients with suspect nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection after receiving tattoos at a local tattoo studio. METHODS: DOH-Miami-Dade conducted interviews and offered testing, described below, to tattoo studio clients reporting rashes. Culture of clinical isolates and identification were performed at the Florida Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL). Characterization of NTM was performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses were used to construct a phylogeny among 21 Mycobacterium isolates at FDA. RESULTS: Thirty-eight of 226 interviewed clients were identified as outbreak-associated cases. Multivariate logistic regression revealed individuals who reported grey tattoo ink in their tattoos were 8.2 times as likely to report a rash [95% CI: 3.07-22.13]. Multiple NTM species were identified in clinical and environmental specimens. Phylogenetic results from environmental samples and skin biopsies indicated that two M. fortuitum isolates (greywash ink and a skin biopsy) and 11 M. abscessus isolates (five from the implicated bottle of greywash tattoo ink, two from tap water, and four from skin biopsies) were indistinguishable. In addition, M. chelonae was isolated from five unopened bottles of greywash ink provided by two other tattoo studios in Miami-Dade County. CONCLUSIONS: WGS and SNP analyses identified the tap water and the bottle of greywash tattoo ink as the sources of the NTM infections.

      • Short communication: Reduced nevirapine concentrations among HIV-positive women receiving mefloquine for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria control during pregnancyExternal
        Haaland RE, Otieno K, Martin A, Katana A, Dinh C, Slutsker L, Menendez C, Gonzalez R, Williamson J, Heneine W, Desai M.
        AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018 Nov;34(11):912-915.

        Clinical trials demonstrated intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with mefloquine (MQ) reduced malaria rates among pregnant women, yet an unexpected higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among HIV-positive women receiving MQ has also been observed. To determine if interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and MQ could contribute to the increased MTCT observed in women receiving MQ, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of ARV plasma concentrations in peripheral blood (maternal plasma) and cord blood (cord plasma) collected at delivery from 186 mothers participating in a randomized clinical trial of MQ (n = 102) compared with placebo (n = 84) in Kenya. Plasma zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Although only 4% (7/186) reported not using these ARVs, AZT, 3TC, and NVP were all below the limit of detection in 44% of maternal plasma and 42% of cord plasma samples, and proportions were similar between the two study arms. Median concentrations of AZT and 3TC were not significantly lower in the MQ arm compared with the placebo arm for maternal plasma and cord plasma (p > .05). However, median NVP concentrations were significantly lower in the MQ study arm compared with the placebo study arm in both maternal plasma (1,597 ng/mL vs. 2,353 ng/mL, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum, p = .023) and cord plasma (2,038 ng/mL vs. 2,434 ng/mL, p = .048). Reduced NVP concentrations in maternal and cord plasma of women receiving MQ suggest MQ may affect NVP metabolism for both mother and infant. These results highlight the need to evaluate potential drug-drug interactions between candidate antimalarials and ARVs for use in pregnant women.

      • BACKGROUND: Since January 2013, the New York City (NYC) Health Department Tuberculosis (TB) Program has offered persons diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) the 3-month, once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) treatment regimen. Patients on this treatment are monitored in-person under directly observed therapy (DOT). To address patient and provider barriers to in-person DOT, we piloted the use of a videoconferencing software app to remotely conduct synchronous DOT (video directly observed therapy; VDOT) for patients on 3HP. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the implementation of VDOT for patients on 3HP and to assess whether treatment completion for these patients increased when they were monitored using VDOT compared with that using the standard in-person DOT. METHODS: Between February and October 2015, patients diagnosed with LTBI at any of the four NYC Health Department TB clinics who met eligibility criteria for treatment with 3HP under VDOT (V3HP) were followed until 16 weeks after treatment initiation, with treatment completion defined as ingestion of 11 doses within 16 weeks. Treatment completion of patients on V3HP was compared with that of patients on 3HP under clinic-based, in-person DOT who were part of a prior study in 2013. Furthermore, outcomes of video sessions with V3HP patients were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 70% (50/71) of eligible patients were placed on V3HP. Treatment completion among V3HP patients was 88% (44/50) compared with 64.9% (196/302) among 3HP patients on clinic DOT (P<.001). A total of 360 video sessions were conducted for V3HP patients with a median of 8 (range: 1-11) sessions per patient and a median time of 4 (range: 1-59) minutes per session. Adherence issues (eg, >15 minutes late) during video sessions occurred 104 times. No major side effects were reported by V3HP patients. CONCLUSIONS: The NYC TB program observed higher treatment completion with VDOT than that previously seen with clinic DOT among patients on 3HP. Expanding the use of VDOT may improve treatment completion and corresponding outcomes for patients with LTBI.

      • Cross-site monitoring and evaluation of the care and prevention in the United States Demonstration Project, 2012-2016: Selected process and short-term outcomesExternal
        Mulatu MS, Hoyte T, Williams KM, Taylor RD, Painter T, Spikes P, Prather C, Jeffries WL, Henny K, Shabu T.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):87s-100s.

        OBJECTIVE:: The Care and Prevention in the United States (CAPUS) Demonstration Project was a 4-year (2012-2016) cross-agency demonstration project that aimed to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality among racial/ethnic minority groups in 8 states (Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia). Its goals were to increase the identification of undiagnosed HIV infections and optimize the linkage to, reengagement with, and retention in care and prevention services for people with HIV (PWH). We present descriptive findings to answer selected cross-site process and short-term outcome monitoring and evaluation questions. METHODS:: We answered a set of monitoring and evaluation questions by using data submitted by grantees. We used a descriptive qualitative method to identify key themes of activities implemented and summarized quantitative data to describe program outputs and outcomes. RESULTS:: Of 155 343 total HIV tests conducted by all grantees, 558 (0.36%) tests identified people with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Of 4952 PWH who were presumptively not in care, 1811 (36.6%) were confirmed as not in care through Data to Care programs. Navigation and other linkage, retention, and reengagement programs reached 10 382 people and linked to or reengaged with care 5425 of 7017 (77.3%) PWH who were never in care or who had dropped out of care. Programs offered capacity-building trainings to providers to improve cultural competency, developed social marketing and social media campaigns to destigmatize HIV testing and care, and expanded access to support services, such as transitional housing and vocational training. CONCLUSIONS:: CAPUS grantees substantially expanded their capacity to deliver HIV-related services and reach racial/ethnic minority groups at risk for or living with HIV infection. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing novel and integrated programs that address social and structural barriers to HIV care and prevention.

      • Results of a pilot study of a mail-based HPV self-testing program for underscreened women from Appalachian OhioExternal
        Reiter PL, Shoben AB, McDonough D, Ruffin MT, Steinau M, Unger ER, Paskett ED, Katz ML.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Nov 19.

        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing is an emerging cervical cancer screening strategy, yet few mail-based HPV self-testing programs have been implemented in the United States. We report the results of a pilot study of a mail-based program, the Health Outcomes through Motivation and Education (HOME) Project. METHODS: In 2015-2016, we recruited 103 women from Appalachian Ohio who were ages 30-65 and had not received a Pap test in at least three years. Women were mailed an HPV self-test and randomized to receive either: a) self-test instructions developed by the device manufacturer and a standard information brochure about cervical cancer (control group); or b) self-test instructions developed by the HOME Project and a photo story information brochure about cervical cancer (intervention group). Logistic regression compared study arms on HPV self-test return and receipt of a Pap test. RESULTS: Overall, 80 (78%) women returned their HPV self-test. Return was similar among the intervention and control groups (78% vs. 77%; OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.43-2.76). Among returners, 26% had an oncogenic HPV type detected in their sample. Women who returned their self-test reported high levels of satisfaction and positive experiences with the self-testing process. Few women overall received a Pap test (11%), and Pap testing was similar among the intervention and control groups (14% vs. 8%; OR=1.91, 95% CI: 0.52-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: Mail-based HPV self-testing programs are a potentially promising strategy for reaching underscreened women in Appalachia. Efforts are needed to better understand how to optimize the success of such programs.

    • Drug Safety
      • Antimicrobial resistance: A round table discussion on the “One Health” concept from the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries. Part Two: A focus on Human HealthExternal
        Balkhy HH, Zowawi HM, Alshamrani MM, Allegranzi B, Srinivasan A, Al-Abdely HM, Somily AM, Al-Quwaizani MA.
        J Infect Public Health. 2018 Nov – Dec;11(6):778-783.

        The Gulf Cooperation Council Center for Infection Control (GCC-IC) has moved forward over the past several years on the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) agenda. Many of the GCC countries have now developed a national plan to combat AMR and have engaged the leadership of the involved sectors in the discussion on how to mitigate this threat. During the first meeting for the GCC-IC center on AMR, which took place early 2015, the roadmap for combating AMR was developed [1] and since then much more has been done. We present here the discussion that took place during the second GCC-IC center meeting on AMR where not only have the countries presented their progress, but we conducted 2 round table discussions inviting international and regional experts in the field to share their thoughts, progress and knowledge on this topic [2]. Within is the 2nd round table discussion at the 2017 GCC AMR meeting which took place in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, April 2017. Where the 1st round table discussion during this meeting addressed the role of leadership in managing AMR [2].

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Association between patient reminders and influenza vaccination status among childrenExternal
        Kahn KE, Santibanez TA, Zhai Y, Bridges CB.
        Vaccine. 2018 Nov 14.

        BACKGROUND: Patient reminders are recommended to increase vaccination rates. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of children 6months-17years for whom a patient reminder for influenza vaccination was received by a child’s parent or guardian, estimate influenza vaccination coverage by receipt of a patient reminder, and identify factors associated with receipt of a patient reminder. METHODS: National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) data for the 2013-14 influenza season were analyzed. Tests of association between patient reminders and demographic characteristics were conducted using Wald chi-square tests and pairwise comparison t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine variables independently associated with receiving a patient reminder. RESULTS: Approximately 22% of children had a parent or guardian report receiving a patient reminder for influenza vaccination for their child, ranging from 12.9% in Idaho to 41.2% in Mississippi. Children with a patient reminder were more likely to be vaccinated compared with children without a patient reminder (73.7% versus 55.5%). In the multivariable model, reminder receipt was higher for children 6-23months compared with children 13-17years, black children compared with white children, and children whose parent completed the survey in English compared with children whose parent completed the survey in a language other than English or Spanish. CONCLUSIONS: Although patient reminders are associated with a higher likelihood of influenza vaccination, nationally, less than one-fourth of children had a parent report receiving one. Despite being based on parental report, with its limitations, this study suggests that increasing the number of parents who receive patient reminders for their children may improve vaccination coverage among children.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Determination of fentanyl analog exposure using dried blood spots with LC-MS-MSExternal
        Seymour C, Shaner RL, Feyereisen MC, Wharton RE, Kaplan P, Hamelin EI, Johnson RC.
        J Anal Toxicol. 2018 Nov 20.

        Fentanyl, and the numerous drugs derived from it, are contributing to the opioid overdose epidemic currently underway in the USA. To identify human exposure to these growing public health threats, an LC-MS-MS method for 5 muL dried blood spots (DBS) was developed. This method was developed to detect exposure to 3-methylfentanyl, alfentanil, alpha-methylfentanyl, carfentanil, fentanyl, lofentanil, sufentanil, norcarfentanil, norfentanyl, norlofentanil, norsufentanil, and using a separate LC-MS-MS injection, cyclopropylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl, 2-furanylfentanyl, isobutyrylfentanyl, ocfentanil and methoxyacetylfentanyl. Preparation of materials into groups of compounds was used to accommodate an ever increasing need to incorporate newly identified fentanyls. This protocol was validated within a linear range of 1.00-100 ng/mL, with precision </=12% CV and accuracy >/=93%, as reported for the pooled blood QC samples, and limits of detection as low as 0.10 ng/mL. The use of DBS to assess fentanyl analog exposures can facilitate rapid sample collection, transport, and preparation for analysis that could enhance surveillance and response efforts in the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic.

      • Epitope resurfacing on dengue virus-like particle vaccine preparation to induce broad neutralizing antibodyExternal
        Shen WF, Galula JU, Liu JH, Liao MY, Huang CH, Wang YC, Wu HC, Liang JJ, Lin YL, Whitney MT, Chang GJ, Chen SR, Wu SR, Chao DY.
        Elife. 2018 Oct 18;7.

        Dengue fever is caused by four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) which is the leading cause of worldwide arboviral diseases in humans. Virus-like particles (VLPs) containing flavivirus prM/E proteins have been demonstrated to be a potential vaccine candidate; however, the structure of dengue VLP is poorly understood. Herein VLP derived from DENV serotype-2 were engineered becoming highly matured (mD2VLP) and showed variable size distribution with diameter of ~31 nm forming the major population under cryo-electron microscopy examination. Furthermore, mD2VLP particles of 31 nm diameter possess a T = 1 icosahedral symmetry with a groove located within the E-protein dimers near the 2-fold vertices that exposed highly overlapping, cryptic neutralizing epitopes. Mice vaccinated with mD2VLP generated higher cross-reactive (CR) neutralization antibodies (NtAbs) and were fully protected against all 4 serotypes of DENV. Our results highlight the potential of ‘epitope-resurfaced’ mature-form D2VLPs in inducing quaternary structure-recognizing broad CR NtAbs to guide future dengue vaccine design.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      • In 2012, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the revised Hazard Communication Standard to bring the US in closer alignment with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, and make the exchange of health and safety information more effective. To evaluate the impact of this change on the reliability and accuracy of safety data sheets, a sample of safety data sheets specific to engineered nanomaterials was obtained by using an internet search engine and subsequently evaluated. These safety data sheets were evaluated using a modified Kimlisch et al. (1997) criteria for ranking the quality of data into categories of reliability and the Eastlake et al. (2012) ranking scheme for scoring four categories. While 86 safety data sheets for nanomaterials were obtained during 2016?2017, 19 of these had no date of completion or revision and could not be evaluated since it was impossible to determine if they were pre or post 2012, when the revised OSHA Hazard Communication Standard was issued. The remaining 67 safety data sheets were ranked by the Kimlisch et al. criteria, and 28.4% (19) were found to be reliable without restrictions (excellent), 35.8% (24) were reliable with restrictions (good), and 35.8% (24) were determined to be unreliable. Evaluating the SDSs using the Eastlake et al. ranking scheme resulted in 3% (2) as satisfactory, 17.9% (12) as being in need of improvement, and 79% (53) in need of significant improvement. It is noteworthy that out of the 79% in need of significant improvement, 25.4% (17) did not have enough data to be evaluated. This evaluation of nanomaterial safety data sheets revealed that the quality of information on many still cannot be relied upon to offer adequate information on the inherent health and safety hazards, including handling and storage of engineered nanomaterials.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • Marijuana and tobacco coexposure in hospitalized childrenExternal
        Wilson KM, Torok MR, Wei B, Wang L, Lowary M, Blount BC.
        Pediatrics. 2018 Nov 19.

        BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow for the detection of marijuana smoke exposure in children. METHODS: We studied children who were hospitalized in Colorado and had a parent participating in a smoking cessation study; all children had urine samples remaining from the original study as well as consent for future research. Parents completed a survey and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine and marijuana metabolites, including 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (COOH-THC), by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The median age of the children was 6.0 years (range 0-17 years); 57% were boys. Half (55%) were white, 12% were African American, and 33% were of another race; 39% identified as Hispanic. Approximately 46% had detectable COOH-THC, and 11% had detectable THC. Of those with detectable THC, 3 were teenagers, and 6 were <8 years of age. There were no significant differences in urinary COOH-THC concentrations by age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Children with positive results for COOH-THC were more likely to have parents who use marijuana daily, smoke marijuana versus other forms of use, use daily in the home, and smoke marijuana in another room if the children are around compared with smoking outside. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the children who qualified for our study had biological evidence of exposure to marijuana. Researchers in studies such as this provide valuable data on secondhand exposure to children from parents using tobacco and marijuana and can inform public health policies to reduce harm.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Advancing health policy and program research in diabetes: Findings from the Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) NetworkExternal
        Ali MK, Wharam F, Kenrik Duru O, Schmittdiel J, Ackermann RT, Albu J, Ross-Degnan D, Hunter CM, Mangione C, Gregg EW.
        Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Nov 20;18(12):146.

        PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To advance our understanding of the impacts of policies and programs aimed at improving detection, engagement, prevention, and clinical diabetes management in the USA, we synthesized findings from a network of studies that used natural experiments to evaluate diabetes health policies and programs. FINDINGS: Studies from the Natural EXperiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) network used rigorous longitudinal quasi-experimental study designs (e.g., interrupted time series) and analytical methods (e.g., difference-in-differences) to augment causal inference. Investigators partnered with health system stakeholders to evaluate whether glucose testing rates changed from before-to-after clinic interventions (e.g., integrating electronic screening decision prompts in New York City) or employer programs (e.g., targeted messaging and waiving copayments for at-risk employees). Other studies examined participation and behavior change in low- (e.g., wellness coaching) or high-intensity lifestyle modification programs (e.g., diabetes prevention program-like interventions) offered by payers or employers. Lastly, studies assessed how employer health insurance benefits impacted healthcare utilization, adherence, and outcomes among people with diabetes. NEXT-D demonstrated that low-intensity interventions to facilitate glucose testing and enhance engagement in lifestyle modification were associated with small improvements in weight but large improvements in screening and testing when supported by electronic health record-based decision-support. Regarding high-intensity diabetes prevention program-like lifestyle programs offered by payers or employers, enrollment was modest and led to weight loss and marginally lower short-term health expenditures. Health plans that incentivize patient behaviors were associated with increases in medication adherence. Meanwhile, shifting patients to high-deductible health plans was associated with no change in medication use and preventive screenings, but patients with diabetes delayed accessing healthcare for acute complications (e.g., cellulitis). Findings were more pronounced among lower-income patients, who experienced increased rates and acuity of emergency department visits for diabetes complications and other high-severity conditions. Findings from NEXT-D studies provide informative data that can guide programs and policies to facilitate detection, prevention, and treatment of diabetes in practice.

      2. Association of monoclonal gammopathy with progression to ESKD among US veteransExternal
        Burwick N, Adams SV, Todd-Stenberg JA, Burrows NR, Pavkov ME, O’Hare AM.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Nov 15.

        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether patients with monoclonal protein are at a higher risk for progression of kidney disease is not known. The goal of this study was to measure the association of monoclonal protein with progression to ESKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 2,156,317 patients who underwent serum creatinine testing between October 1, 2000 and September 30, 2001 at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center, among whom 21,898 had paraprotein testing within 1 year before or after cohort entry. Progression to ESKD was measured using linked data from the US Renal Data System. RESULTS: Overall, 1,741,707 cohort members had an eGFR>/=60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 283,988 had an eGFR of 45-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 103,123 had an eGFR of 30-44 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and 27,499 had an eGFR of 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The crude incidence of ESKD ranged from 0.7 to 80 per 1000 person-years from the highest to lowest eGFR category. Patients with low versus preserved eGFR were more likely to be tested for monoclonal protein but no more likely to have a positive test result. In adjusted analyses, a positive versus negative test result was associated with a higher risk of ESKD among patients with an eGFR>/=60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.29) and those with an eGFR of 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.77), but not among those with an eGFR of 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) . Progression to ESKD was attributed to a monoclonal process in 21 out of 76 versus seven out of 174 patients with monoclonal protein and preserved versus severely reduced eGFR at cohort entry. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of monoclonal protein provides little information on ESKD risk for most patients with a low eGFR. Further study is required to better understand factors contributing to a positive association of monoclonal protein with ESKD risk in patients with preserved and severely reduced levels of eGFR.

      3. Characteristics of self-reported sleep and the risk of falls and fractures: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)External
        Cauley JA, Hovey KM, Stone KL, Andrews CA, Barbour KE, Hale L, Jackson RD, Johnson KC, LeBlanc ES, Li W, Zaslavsky O, Ochs-Balcom H, Wactawski-Wende J, Crandall CJ.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2018 Nov 21.

        Sleep disturbances are common and may influence falls and fracture directly by influencing bone turnover and muscle strength or indirectly through high comorbidity or poor physical function. To investigate the association between self-reported sleep and falls and fractures, we prospectively studied 157,306 women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) using information on sleep quality, sleep duration, and insomnia from questionnaires. Annual self-report of falling two or more times (ie, “recurrent falling”) during each year of follow-up was modeled with repeated measures logistic regression models fit by generalized estimating equations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate sleep disturbance and time to first fracture. We examined the risks of recurrent falls and fracture by sleep duration with 7 hours as referent. We examined the risks across categories of sleep disturbance, insomnia status, and sleep quality. The average follow-up time was 7.6 years for falls and 12.0 years for fractures. In multivariable adjusted models, including adjustment for comorbidity, medications, and physical function, women who were short (</=5 hours) and long (>/=10 hours) sleepers had increased odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio [OR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 1.34 and OR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.43, respectively). Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and more sleep disturbances were also associated with an increased odds of recurrent falls. Short sleep was associated with an increased risk of all fractures, and upper limb, lower limb, and central body fractures, but not hip fractures, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.10 to 1.13 (p < 0.05). There was little association between other sleep characteristics and fracture. In conclusion, short and long sleep duration and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased odds of recurrent falls. Short sleep was associated with modest increase in fractures. Future long-term trials of sleep interventions should include falls and fractures as endpoints. (c) 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

      4. Meeting fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity recommendations among adolescents intending to lose weightExternal
        Kakinami L, Houle-Johnson SA, Demissie Z, Santosa S, Fulton JE.
        Prev Med Rep. 2019 Mar;13:11-15.

        Two-thirds of adolescents who are overweight or have obesity report weight loss intentions. Most report using weight loss strategies consistent with expert recommendations for obesity prevention; however whether they meet recommended fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and physical activity (PA) recommendations is unknown. We investigated whether weight loss attempts, and weight loss strategies were associated with meeting F&V and PA recommendations. Data were from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, which surveyed a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Analyses were restricted to overweight/obese students (n=2841). Adjusted logistic regression models assessed the odds of meeting daily F&V and weekly PA recommendations after adjusting for grade, sex, race/ethnicity and perceived weight status. Compared to students who were overweight and were not currently intending to lose weight, students who were overweight and intending to lose weight were not more likely to meet F&V or PA. Among students with obesity, those who intended to lose weight were more likely than students who were not currently intending to lose weight to meet F&V recommendations (OR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.70-7.73). Students who were overweight/obese and used F&V or PA for weight loss were significantly more likely to meet the corresponding recommendation than students intending to lose weight without specific strategies. Weight loss attempts alone do not affect the likelihood of meeting most expert recommendations. Public health efforts emphasizing recommended strategies for healthy eating and active living still need to be encouraged for overweight/obese youth.

      5. Prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – United States, 2015External
        Mehta P, Kaye W, Raymond J, Punjani R, Larson T, Cohen J, Muravov O, Horton K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Nov 23;67(46):1285-1289.

        Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease; the majority of ALS patients die within 2-5 years of receiving a diagnosis (1). Familial ALS, a hereditary form of the disease, accounts for 5%-10% of cases, whereas the remaining cases have no clearly defined etiology (1). ALS affects persons of all races and ethnicities; however, whites, males, non-Hispanics, persons aged >/=60 years, and those with a family history of ALS are more likely to develop the disease (2). No cure for ALS has yet been identified, and the lack of proven and effective therapeutic interventions is an ongoing challenge. Treatments currently available, Edaravone and Riluzole, do not cure ALS, but slow disease progression in certain patients (3,4). This report presents National ALS Registry findings regarding ALS prevalence in the United States for the period January 1-December 31, 2015. In 2015, the estimated prevalence of ALS cases was 5.2 per 100,000 population with a total of 16,583 cases identified. Overall, these findings are similar to the 2014 ALS prevalence and case count (5.0 per 100,000; 15,927 cases) (2). Prevalence rates by patient characteristics (most common in whites, males, and persons aged >/=60 years) and U.S. Census regions are consistent with ALS demographics and have not changed from 2014 to 2015 calendar years. The algorithm used to identify cases from national administrative databases was updated from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) to the ICD-10 codes for claims starting on October 1, 2015, with no apparent effect on case ascertainment. Data collected by the National ALS Registry are being used to better describe the epidemiology of ALS in the United States and to facilitate research on the genetics, potential biomarkers, environmental pollutants, and etiology for ALS.

      6. Factors contributing to increases in diabetes-related preventable hospitalization costs among U.S. adults during 2001-2014External
        Shrestha SS, Zhang P, Hora I, Geiss LS, Luman ET, Gregg EW.
        Diabetes Care. 2018 Nov 19.

        OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in diabetes-related preventable hospitalization costs and to determine the contribution of each underlying factor to these changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the 2001-2014 U.S. National Inpatient Sample for adults (>/=18 years old) to estimate the trends in hospitalization costs (2014 USD) in total and by condition (short-term complications, long-term complications, uncontrolled diabetes, and lower-extremity amputation). Using regression and growth models, we estimated the relative contribution of following underlying factors: total number of hospitalizations, rate of hospitalization, the number of people with diabetes, mean cost per admission, length of stay, and cost per day. RESULTS: During 2001-2014, the estimated total cost of diabetes-related preventable hospitalizations increased annually by 1.6% (92.9 million USD; P < 0.001). Of this 1.6% increase, 75% (1.2%) was due to the increase in the number of hospitalizations, which is a result of a 3.8% increase in diabetes population and a 2.6% decrease in the hospitalization rate, and 25% (0.4%) was due to the increase in cost per admission, for a net result of a 1.6% increase in cost per day and a 1.3% decline in mean length of stay. By component, the cost of short-term complications, lower-extremity amputations, and long-term complications increased annually by 4.2, 1.9, and 1.5%, respectively, while the cost of uncontrolled diabetes declined annually by 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The total cost of diabetes-related preventable hospitalizations had been increasing during 2001-2014, mainly resulting from increases in number of people with diabetes and cost per hospitalization day. The underlying factors identified in our study could lead to efforts that may lower future hospitalization costs.

      7. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the excess medical expenditures for adults newly diagnosed with diabetes, for up to 10 years before and after diabetes diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the 2001-2013 MarketScan data, we identified people with newly diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 25-64 years (diabetes cohort) and matched them with people who did not have diagnosed diabetes (control cohort) using 1:1 propensity score matching. We followed these two cohorts up to +/-10 years from the index date, with annual matched cohort sizes ranging from 3,922 to 39,726 individuals. We estimated the yearly and cumulative excess medical expenditures of the diabetes cohorts before and after the diagnosis of diabetes. RESULTS: The per-capita annual total excess medical expenditures for the diabetes cohort was higher for the entire 10 years prior to their index date, ranging between $1,043 in year -10 and $4,492 in year -1. Excess expenditure spiked in the index year, year 1 ($8,109), declined in year 2, and then increased steadily, ranging from $4,261 to $6,162 in years 2-10. The cumulative excess expenditure for the diabetes cohort during the entire 20 years of follow-up was $69,177 ($18,732 before and $50,445 after diagnosis). CONCLUSIONS: People diagnosed with diabetes had higher medical expenditures compared with their counterparts, not only after diagnosis, but also up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Managing risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease before diagnosis, and for diabetes-related complications after diagnosis, could alleviate medical expenditure in people with diabetes.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Increasing syphilis diagnoses among females giving birth in US hospitals, 2010-2014External
        Aslam MV, Owusu-Edusei K, Kidd SE, Torrone EA, Dietz PM.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Nov 19.

        BACKGROUND: National trends in syphilis rates among females delivering newborns are not well characterized. We assessed 2010-2014 trends in syphilis diagnoses documented on discharge records and associated factors among females who have given birth in US hospitals. METHODS: We calculated quarterly trends in syphilis rates (per 100,000 deliveries) by using ICD-9 codes on delivery discharge records from the National Inpatient Sample. Changes in trends were determined by using Joinpoint software. We estimated relative risks (RR) to assess the association of syphilis diagnoses with race/ethnicity, age, insurance status, household income, and census region. RESULTS: Overall, estimated syphilis rates decreased during 2010-2012 at 1.0% per quarter (P < .001) and increased afterwards at 1.8% (P < .001). The syphilis rate increase was statistically significant across all sociodemographic groups and all US regions, with substantial increases identified among whites (35.2% per quarter; P < .001) and Medicaid recipients (15.1%; P < .001). In 2014, the risk of syphilis diagnosis was greater among blacks (RR, 13.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.46-17.92) or Hispanics (RR, 4.53; 95% CI, 3.19-6.42), compared with whites; Medicaid recipients (RR, 4.63; 95% CI, 3.38-6.33) or uninsured persons (RR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.74-4.63), compared with privately insured patients; females with the lowest household income (RR, 5.32; 95% CI, 3.55-7.97), compared with the highest income; and females in the South (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.66-3.53), compared with the West. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing syphilis rates among pregnant females of all backgrounds reinforce the importance of prenatal screening and treatment.

      2. The norovirus epidemiologic triad: Predictors of severe outcomes in US norovirus outbreaks, 2009-2016External
        Burke RM, Shah MP, Wikswo ME, Barclay L, Kambhampati A, Marsh Z, Cannon JL, Parashar UD, Vinje J, Hall AJ.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 15.

        Background: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Clarifying the viral, host, and environmental factors (epidemiologic triad) associated with severe outcomes can help target public health interventions. Methods: Acute norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) in 2009-2016 were linked to laboratory-confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported to CaliciNet. Outbreaks were analyzed for differences in genotype (GII.4 vs non-GII.4), hospitalization, and mortality rates by timing, setting, transmission mode, demographics, clinical symptoms, and health outcomes. Results: A total of 3747 norovirus outbreaks were matched from NORS and CaliciNet. Multivariable models showed that GII.4 outbreaks (n = 2353) were associated with healthcare settings (odds ratio [OR], 3.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.99-5.23]), winter months (November-April; 1.55 [95% CI, 1.24-1.93]), and older age of cases (>/=50% aged >/=75 years; 1.37 [95% CI, 1.04-1.79]). Severe outcomes were more likely among GII.4 outbreaks (hospitalization rate ratio [RR], 1.54 [95% CI, 1.23-1.96]; mortality RR, 2.77 [95% CI, 1.04-5.78]). Outbreaks in healthcare settings were also associated with higher hospitalization (RR, 3.22 [95% CI, 2.34-4.44]) and mortality rates (RR, 5.65 [95% CI, 1.92-18.70]). Conclusions: Severe outcomes more frequently occurred in norovirus outbreaks caused by GII.4 and those in healthcare settings. These results should help guide preventive interventions for targeted populations, including vaccine development.

      3. Evaluation of Senegal’s prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) program data for HIV surveillanceExternal
        Diouf O, Gueye-Gaye A, Sarr M, Mbengue AS, Murrill CS, Dee J, Diaw PO, Ngom-Faye NF, Diallo PA, Suarez C, Gueye M, Mboup A, Toure-Kane C, Mboup S.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 20;18(1):588.

        BACKGROUND: With the expansion of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in Senegal, there is growing interest in using PMTCT program data in lieu of conducting unlinked anonymous testing (UAT)-based ANC Sentinel Surveillance. For this reason, an evaluation was conducted in 2011-2012 to identify the gaps that need to be addressed while transitioning to using PMTCT program data for surveillance. METHODS: We conducted analyses to assess HIV prevalence rates and agreements between Sentinel Surveillance and PMTCT HIV test results. Also, a data quality assessment of the PMTCT program registers and data was conducted during the Sentinel Surveillance period (December 2011 to March 2012) and 3 months prior. Finally, we also assessed selection bias, which was the percentage difference from the HIV prevalence among all women enrolled in the antenatal clinic and the HIV prevalence among women who accepted PMTCT HIV testing. RESULTS: The median site HIV prevalence using routine PMTCT HIV testing data was 1.1% (IQR: 1.0) while the median site prevalence from the UAT HIV Sentinel Surveillance data was at 1.0% (IQR: 1.6). The Positive per cent agreement (PPA) of the PMTCT HIV test results compared to those of the Sentinel Surveillance was 85.1% (95% CI 77.2-90.7%), and the percent-negative agreement (PNA) was 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-99.9%). The overall HIV prevalence according to UAT was the same as that found for women accepting a PMTCT HIV test and those who refused, with percent bias at 0.00%. For several key PMTCT variables, including “HIV test offered” (85.2%), “HIV test acceptance” (78.0%), or “HIV test done” (58.8%), the proportion of records in registers with combined complete and valid data was below the WHO benchmark of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The PPA of 85.1 was below the WHO benchmarks of 96.6%, while the combined data validity and completeness rates was below the WHO benchmark of 90% for many key PMTCT variables. These results suggested that Senegal will need to reinforce the quality of onsite HIV testing and improve program data collection practices in preparation for using PMTCT data for surveillance purposes.

      4. Understanding and measuring uptake and coverage of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan AfricaExternal
        Dunbar MS, Kripke K, Haberer J, Castor D, Dalal S, Mukoma W, Mullick S, Patel P, Reed J, Subedar H, Were D, Warren M, Torjesen K.
        Sex Health. 2018 Nov 9.

        In response to World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommending oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for all individuals at substantial risk for HIV infection, significant investments are being made to expand access to oral PrEP globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Some have interpreted early monitoring reports from new programs delivering oral PrEP to adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) as suggestive of low uptake. However, a lack of common definitions complicates interpretation of oral PrEP uptake and coverage measures, because various indicators with different meanings and uses are used interchangeably. Furthermore, operationalising these measures in real-world settings is challenged by the difficulties in defining the denominator for measuring uptake and coverage among AGYW, due to the lack of data and experience required to identify the subset of AGYW at substantial risk of HIV infection. This paper proposes an intervention-centric cascade as a framework for developing a common lexicon of metrics for uptake and coverage of oral PrEP among AGYW. In codifying these indicators, approaches to clearly define metrics for uptake and coverage are outlined, and the discussion on ‘low’ uptake is reframed to focus on achieving the highest possible proportion of AGYW using oral PrEP when they need and want it Recommendations are also provided for making increased investments in implementation research to better quantify the sub-group of AGYW in potential need of oral PrEP.and for improving monitoring systems to more efficiently address bottlenecks in the service delivery of oral PrEP to AGYW so that implementation can be taken to scale.

      5. Integrating federal collaboration in HIV programming: The CAPUS Demonstration Project, 2012-2016External
        Harrison TP, Williams KM, Mulatu MS, Edwards A, Somerville GG, Cobb-Souza S, Dunbar E, Barskey A.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):10s-17s.

        [No abstract]

      6. Historical and clinical aspects of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic in the United StatesExternal
        Jester B, Uyeki TM, Jernigan DB, Tumpey TM.
        Virology. 2018 Nov 16;527:32-37.

        One hundred years have passed since the 1918 influenza pandemic caused substantial illness globally, with an estimated 50 million deaths. A number of factors, including World War I, contributed to the spread of the pandemic virus, which often caused high symptomatic attack rates and severe illness. Major achievements over the last 100 years have been made in influenza prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; however, the potential for a severe pandemic to emerge remains unchanged. We provide a review of the historical context and clinical aspects of illness due to the influenza A(H1N1) virus as it emerged and spread in 1918, with a focus on the experience in the United States. Understanding the significant social disruption and burden of illness from the 1918 pandemic can help us imagine the possible impacts of a high severity pandemic if it were to emerge now.

      7. Predictors of loss to follow up among HIV-exposed children within the prevention of mother to child transmission cascade, Kericho County, Kenya, 2016External
        Kigen HT, Galgalo T, Githuku J, Odhiambo J, Lowther S, Langat B, Wamicwe J, Too R, Gura Z.
        Pan Afr Med J. 2018 ;30:178.

        Introduction: HIV-exposed infants (HEI) lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) remains a problem in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). In 2015, SSA accounted >90% of the 150,000 new infant HIV infections, with an estimated 13,000 reported in Kenya. Despite proven and effective HIV interventions, many HEI fail to benefit because of LTFU. LTFU leads to delays or no initiation of interventions, thereby contributing to significant child morbidity and mortality. Kenya did not achieve the <5% mother-to-child HIV transmission target by 2015 because of problems such as LTFU. We sought to investigate factors associated with LTFU of HEI in Kericho County, Kenya. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in June 2016 employing 1:2 frequency matching by age and hospital of birth. We recruited HEI from HEI birth cohort registers from hospitals for the months of September 2014 through February 2016. Cases were infant-mother pairs that missed their 3-month clinic appointments while controls were those that adhered to their 3-month follow-up visits. Consent was obtained from caregivers and a structured questionnaire was administered. We used chi-square and Fisher’s Exact tests to compare groups, calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and performed logistic regression to identify independent risk factors. Results: We enrolled 44 cases and 88 controls aged >/=3 to 18 months: Cases ranged from 7.3-17.8 months old and controls from 6.8-17.2 months old. LTFU cases’ caregivers were more likely than controls’ caregivers to fear knowing HEI status (aOR= 12.71 [CI 3.21-50.23]), lack knowledge that HEI are followed for 18 months (aOR= 12.01 [CI 2.92-48.83]), avoid partners knowing their HEI status(OR= 11.32 [CI 2.92-44.04]), and use traditional medicine (aOR= 6.42 [CI 1.81-22.91]).Factors that were protective of LTFU included mothers knowing their pre-pregnancy HIV status (aOR= 0.23 [CI 0.05-0.71]) and having household health insurance (aOR= 0.11 [CI 0.01-0.76]). Conclusion: Caregivers’ intrinsic, interpersonal, community and health system factors remain crucial towards reducing HEI LTFU. Early HIV testing among mothers, disclosure support, health education, and partner involvement is advocated. Encouraging households to enroll in health insurance could be beneficial. Further studies on the magnitude and the reasons for use of home treatments among caregiver are recommended.

      8. Characteristics of intracranial group a streptococcal infections in US children, 1997-2014External
        Link-Gelles R, Toews KA, Schaffner W, Edwards KM, Wright C, Beall B, Barnes B, Jewell B, Harrison LH, Kirley PD, Lorentzson L, Aragon D, Petit S, Bareta J, Spina NL, Cieslak PR, Van Beneden C.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Nov 21.

        Background: Few data on intracranial group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in children are available. Here, we describe the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic characteristics of 91 children with intracranial GAS infection. Methods: Cases of intracranial GAS infection in persons </=18 years of age reported between 1997 and 2014 were identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s population- and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system. Medical charts were abstracted using a active, standardized case report form. All available isolates were emm typed. US census data were used to calculate rates. Results: ABCs identified 2596 children with invasive GAS infection over an 18-year period; 91 (3.5%) had an intracranial infection. Intracranial infections were most frequent during the winter months and among children aged <1 year. The average annual incidence was 0.07 cases per 100000 children. For 83 patients for whom information for further classification was available, the principal clinical presentations included meningitis (35 [42%]), intracranial infection after otitis media, mastoiditis, or sinusitis (34 [41%]), and ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection (14 [17%]). Seven (8%) of these infections progressed to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The overall case fatality rate was 15%. GAS emm types 1 (31% of available isolates) and 12 (13% of available isolates) were most common. Conclusions: Pediatric intracranial (GAS) infections are uncommon but often severe. Risk factors for intracranial GAS infection include the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and contiguous infections in the middle ear or sinuses.

      9. Pre-exposure prophylaxis rollout in a national public sector program: the Kenyan case studyExternal
        Masyuko S, Mukui I, Njathi O, Kimani M, Oluoch P, Wamicwe J, Mutegi J, Njogo S, Anyona M, Muchiri P, Maikweki L, Musyoki H, Bahati P, Kyongo J, Marwa T, Irungu E, Kiragu M, Kioko U, Ogando J, Were D, Bartilol K, Sirengo M, Mugo N, Baeten JM, Cherutich P.
        Sex Health. 2018 Nov 9.

        Background: While advances have been made in HIV prevention and treatment, new HIV infections continue to occur. The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an additional HIV prevention option for those at high risk of HIV may change the landscape of the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the greatest HIV burden. Methods: This paper details Kenya’s experience of PrEP rollout as a national public sector program. The process of a national rollout of PrEP guidance, partnerships, challenges, lessons learnt and progress related to national scale up of PrEP in Kenya, as of 2018, is described. National rollout of PrEP was strongly lead by the government, and work was executed through a multidisciplinary, multi-organisation dedicated team. This required reviewing available evidence, providing guidance to health providers, integration into existing logistic and health information systems, robust communication and community engagement. Mapping of the response showed that subnational levels had existing infrastructure but required targeted resources to catalyse PrEP provision. Rollout scenarios were developed and adopted, with prioritisation of 19 counties focusing on high incidence area and high potential PrEP users to maximise impact and minimise costs. Results: PrEP is now offered in over 900 facilities countrywide. There are currently over 14000 PrEP users 1 year after launching PrEP.Conclusions: Kenya becomes the first African country to rollout PrEP as a national program, in the public sector. This case study will provide guidance for low- and middle-income countries planning the rollout of PrEP in response to both generalised and concentrated epidemics.

      10. Detection of central nervous system viral infections in adults in Manado, North Sulawesi, IndonesiaExternal
        Mawuntu AH, Bernadus JB, Dhenni R, Wiyatno A, Anggreani R, Feliana , Yudhaputri FA, Jaya UA, Ma’roef CN, Dewantari AK, Fadhilah A, Ledermann JP, Powers AM, Safari D, Myint KS.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(11):e0207440.

        Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide but the systematic survey of patients admitted to hospitals with CNS infections in many countries, including Indonesia, is limited. To obtain more information regarding the causes of CNS infections in Indonesia, this study was performed to detect and identify viral agents associated with CNS infections amongst in-patients at a referral hospital in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Adult patients admitted to R.D. Kandou General Hospital with presumed CNS infection were enrolled. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and throat swab samples were collected and tested using molecular, serological, and virus isolation assays. A confirmed viral etiology was established in three and a probable/possible in 11 out of 74 patients. The most common was herpes simplex virus 1 (7/74, 9.5%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus (2/74, 2.7%), cytomegalovirus (1/74, 1.4%), enterovirus D68 (1/74, 1.4%), rhinovirus A (1/74, 1.4%), dengue virus (1/64, 1.6%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (1/64, 1.6%). There were 20 fatal cases (27.0%) during hospitalization in which eight were associated with viral causes. We identified herpes simplex virus 1 as the most common cause of CNS infection among adults in North Sulawesi with most of the cases remaining undiagnosed. Our study highlights the challenges in establishing the etiology of viral CNS infections and the importance of using a wide range of molecular and serological detection methods to identify CNS viruses.

      11. Spatial patterns of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaExternal
        Nelson KN, Shah NS, Mathema B, Ismail N, Brust JC, Brown TS, Auld SC, Omar SV, Morris N, Campbell A, Allana S, Moodley P, Mlisana K, Gandhi NR.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 5;218(12):1964-1973.

        Background: Transmission is driving the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic; nearly three-quarters of drug-resistant TB cases are attributable to transmission. Geographic patterns of disease incidence, combined with information on probable transmission links, can define the spatial scale of transmission and generate hypotheses about factors driving transmission patterns. Methods: We combined whole-genome sequencing data with home Global Positioning System coordinates from 344 participants with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014. We aimed to determine if genomically linked (difference of </=5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) cases lived close to one another, which would suggest a role for local community settings in transmission. Results: One hundred eighty-two study participants were genomically linked, comprising 1084 case-pairs. The median distance between case-pairs’ homes was 108 km (interquartile range, 64-162 km). Between-district, as compared to within-district, links accounted for the majority (912/1084 [84%]) of genomic links. Half (526 [49%]) of genomic links involved a case from Durban, the urban center of KwaZulu-Natal. Conclusions: The high proportions of between-district links with Durban provide insight into possible drivers of province-wide XDR-TB transmission, including urban-rural migration. Further research should focus on characterizing the contribution of these drivers to overall XDR-TB transmission in KwaZulu-Natal to inform design of targeted strategies to curb the drug-resistant TB epidemic.

      12. Enhancing HIV prevention and care through CAPUS and other demonstration projects aimed at achieving National HIV/AIDS Strategy Goals, 2010-2018External
        Purcell DW, Flores SA, Koenig LJ, Cleveland JC, Mermin J.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):6s-9s.

        [No abstract]

      13. A large HCV transmission network enabled a fast-growing HIV outbreak in rural Indiana, 2015External
        Ramachandran S, Thai H, Forbi JC, Galang RR, Dimitrova Z, Xia GL, Lin Y, Punkova LT, Pontones PR, Gentry J, Blosser SJ, Lovchik J, Switzer WM, Teshale E, Peters P, Ward J, Khudyakov Y.
        EBioMedicine. 2018 Nov 9.

        BACKGROUND: A high prevalence (92.3%) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection among HIV patients identified during a large HIV outbreak associated with injection of oxymorphone in Indiana prompted genetic analysis of HCV strains. METHODS: Molecular epidemiological analysis of HCV-positive samples included genotyping, sampling intra-host HVR1 variants by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and constructing transmission networks using Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology (GHOST). FINDINGS: Results from the 492 samples indicate predominance of HCV genotypes 1a (72.2%) and 3a (20.4%), and existence of 2 major endemic NS5B clusters involving 49.8% of the sequenced strains. Among 76 HIV co-infected patients, 60.5% segregated into 2 endemic clusters. NGS analyses of 281 cases identified 826,917 unique HVR1 sequences and 51 cases of mixed subtype/genotype infections. GHOST mapped 23 transmission clusters. One large cluster (n=130) included 50 cases infected with >/=2 subtypes/genotypes and 43 cases co-infected with HIV. Rapid strain replacement and superinfection with different strains were found among 7 of 12 cases who were followed up. INTERPRETATION: GHOST enabled mapping of HCV transmission networks among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Findings of numerous transmission clusters, mixed-genotype infections and rapid succession of infections with different HCV strains indicate a high rate of HCV spread. Co-localization of HIV co-infected patients in the major HCV clusters suggests that HIV dissemination was enabled by existing HCV transmission networks that likely perpetuated HCV in the community for years. Identification of transmission networks is an important step to guiding efficient public health interventions for preventing and interrupting HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. FUND: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and US state and local public health departments.

      14. Routine HIV screening as a standard of care: Implementing HIV screening in general medical settings, 2013-2015External
        Roche L, Zepeda S, Harvey B, Reitan KA, Taylor RD.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):52s-59s.

        OBJECTIVE:: We implemented routine HIV screening as part of the 4-year Care and Prevention in the United States Demonstration Project, whose aim was to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. We describe the capacity-building efforts to implement routine HIV screening and provide lessons learned and implications for practice. METHODS:: From January 2013 through September 2015, the Public Health Institute of Metropolitan Chicago (PHIMC) implemented routine HIV screening in 7 health care systems in Illinois by providing capacity-building assistance focused on systems and operational infrastructure, staff member skills and organizational structure, and clinic culture. Each site received funding to integrate routine HIV screening into the existing clinic flow, engage the entire health care team in the process, and transform the system and shift clinic culture to sustain HIV screening. RESULTS:: All 7 systems established policies and procedures to implement routine screening, 5 systems integrated HIV test ordering and documentation into their electronic health records, and 4 systems established a third-party billing and reimbursement process for testing. The 7 systems conducted a total of 49 285 tests and identified 160 people living with HIV. The number of tests increased by more than 40% each year. CONCLUSIONS:: PHIMC identified the following practices for consideration when implementing routine HIV screening in general medical settings: create a culture that supports HIV screening, use champions in clinics, integrate HIV screening into clinic flow and electronic health records, and train clinic staff members on HIV messaging. Incorporating these practices can help other clinical settings build capacity to make routine HIV screening a standard of care.

      15. Disclosure of same-sex behavior to health care providers (HCPs) by men who have sex with men (MSM) has been argued to be an important aspect of HIV prevention. However, Black MSM are less likely to disclose compared to white MSM. This analysis of data collected in the United States from 2006-2009 identified individual and social network characteristics of Black MSM (n = 226) that are associated with disclosure that may be leveraged to increase disclosure. Over two-thirds (68.1%) of the sample had ever disclosed to HCPs. Part-time employment (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.11-0.95), bisexual identity (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.12-0.70), and meeting criteria for alcohol use disorders (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.14-0.75) were negatively associated with disclosure. Disclosers were more likely to self-report being HIV-positive (AOR = 4.47, 95% CI = 1.54-12.98), having more frequent network socialization (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.24-3.73), and having a social network where all members knew the participant had sex with men (AOR = 4.94, 95% CI = 2.06-11.86). These associations were not moderated by self-reported HIV status. Future interventions to help MSM identify social network members to safely disclose their same-sex behavior may also help disclosure of same-sex behavior to HCPs among Black MSM.

      16. Implementing a data to care strategy to improve health outcomes for people with HIV: A report from the Care and Prevention in the United States Demonstration ProjectExternal
        Sweeney P, Hoyte T, Mulatu MS, Bickham J, Brantley AD, Hicks C, McGoy SL, Morrison M, Rhodes A, Yerkes L, Burgess S, Fridge J, Wendell D.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):60s-74s.

        OBJECTIVES:: The Care and Prevention in the United States Demonstration Project included implementation of a Data to Care strategy using surveillance and other data to (1) identify people with HIV infection in need of HIV medical care or other services and (2) facilitate linkages to those services to improve health outcomes. We present the experiences of 4 state health departments: Illinois, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. METHODS:: The 4 state health departments used multiple databases to generate listings of people with diagnosed HIV infection (PWH) who were presumed not to be in HIV medical care or who had difficulty maintaining viral suppression from October 1, 2013, through September 29, 2016. Each health department prioritized the listings (eg, by length of time not in care, by viral load), reviewed them for accuracy, and then disseminated the listings to staff members to link PWH to HIV care and services. RESULTS:: Of 16 391 PWH presumed not to be in HIV medical care, 9852 (60.1%) were selected for follow-up; of those, 4164 (42.3%) were contacted, and of those, 1479 (35.5%) were confirmed to be not in care. Of 794 (53.7%) PWH who accepted services, 694 (87.4%) were linked to HIV medical care. The Louisiana Department of Health also identified 1559 PWH as not virally suppressed, 764 (49.0%) of whom were eligible for follow-up. Of the 764 PWH who were eligible for follow-up, 434 (56.8%) were contacted, of whom 269 (62.0%) had treatment adherence issues. Of 153 PWH who received treatment adherence services, 104 (68.0%) showed substantial improvement in viral suppression. CONCLUSIONS:: The 4 health departments established procedures for using surveillance and other data to improve linkage to HIV medical care and health outcomes for PWH. To be effective, health departments had to enhance coordination among surveillance, care programs, and providers; develop mechanisms to share data; and address limitations in data systems and data quality.

      17. Sexual risk behaviors in adolescent sexual minority males: A systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
        Valencia R, Wang LY, Dunville R, Sharma A, Sanchez T, Rosenberg E.
        J Prim Prev. 2018 Nov 17.

        Although adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM) are at increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States (US), studies that estimate sexual risk behaviors that contribute to HIV risk in ASMM are limited. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compile available data and estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors in this population. We searched four databases for key terms related to ASMM, defined as males aged 14 through 19 who identified as gay or bisexual, reported sex with a male in their lifetime, and/or were considered sexual minority by the study. Articles eligible for inclusion were in English, from US studies, and reported quantitative data on sexual risk behaviors among ASMM. We extracted data from eligible articles and meta-analyzed outcomes reported in three or more articles using random effects. Of 3864 articles identified, 21 were eligible for data extraction. We meta-analyzed nine outcomes. Sixty-two percent of adolescent males self-identifying as gay or bisexual ever had sex with a male, and 67% of participants from ASMM studies recently had sex. Among ASMM who had sex in the last 6 months or were described as sexually active, 44% had condomless anal intercourse in the past 6 months, 50% did not use a condom at last sex, and 32% used alcohol or drugs at their last sexual experience. Available data indicate that sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among ASMM. We need more data to obtain estimates with better precision and generalizability. Understanding HIV risk in ASMM will assist in intervention development and evaluation, and inform behavioral mathematical models.

      18. Learning by doing: Lessons from the Care and Prevention in the United States Demonstration ProjectExternal
        Williams KM, Taylor RD, Painter T, Jeffries WL, Prather C, Spikes P, Mulatu MS, Henny K, Hoyte T, Flores SA.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Nov/Dec;133(2_suppl):18s-27s.

        [No abstract]

    • Drug Safety
      1. Adherence of newborn-specific antibiotic stewardship programs to CDC recommendationsExternal
        Ho T, Buus-Frank ME, Edwards EM, Morrow KA, Ferrelli K, Srinivasan A, Pollock DA, Dukhovny D, Zupancic JA, Pursley DM, Soll RF, Horbar JD.
        Pediatrics. 2018 Nov 20.

        BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs (ASPs), while the Choosing Wisely for Newborn Medicine Top 5 list identified antibiotic therapy as an area of overuse. We identify the baseline prevalence and makeup of newborn-specific ASPs and assess the variability of NICU antibiotic use rates (AURs). METHODS: Data were collected using a cross-sectional audit of Vermont Oxford Network members in February 2016. Unit measures were derived from the 7 domains of the CDC’s Core Elements of Hospital ASPs, including leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Patient-level measures included patient demographics, indications, and reasons for therapy. An AUR, defined as the number of infants who are on antibiotic therapy divided by the census that day, was calculated for each unit. RESULTS: Overall, 143 centers completed structured self-assessments. No center addressed all 7 core elements. Of the 7, only accountability (55%) and drug expertise (62%) had compliance >50%. Centers audited 4127 infants for current antibiotic exposure. There were 725 infants who received antibiotics, for a hospital median AUR of 17% (interquartile range 10%-26%). Of the 412 patients on >48 hours of antibiotics, only 26% (107 out of 412) had positive culture results. CONCLUSIONS: Significant gaps exist between CDC recommendations to improve antibiotic use and antibiotic practices during the newborn period. There is wide variation in point prevalence AURs. Three-quarters of infants who received antibiotics for >48 hours did not have infections proven by using cultures.

      2. [No abstract]

      3. Potentially serious drug interactions resulting from the pretravel health encounterExternal
        Sbaih N, Buss B, Goyal D, Rao SR, Benefield R, Walker AT, Esposito DH, Ryan ET, LaRocque RC, Leung DT.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Nov;5(11):ofy266.

        Travelers seen for pretravel health encounters are frequently prescribed new travel-related medications, which may interact with their previously prescribed medications. In a cohort of 76 324 travelers seen at 23 US clinics, we found that 2650 (3.5%) travelers were prescribed travel-related medications with potential for serious drug interactions.

      4. Combating antibiotic resistance: a survey on the antibiotic-prescribing habits of dentistsExternal
        Tomczyk S, Whitten T, Holzbauer SM, Lynfield R.
        Gen Dent. 2018 Sep-Oct;66(5):61-68.

        Adherence to clinical guidelines is recommended to promote appropriate antibiotic use in dentistry and address concerns about increasing antibiotic resistance. Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis before invasive dental procedures were updated in 2007 and 2015. In an effort to inform antibiotic stewardship efforts, a study was undertaken to assess the knowledge of antibiotic usage guidelines and antibiotic-prescribing practices among Minnesota dentists. During September 2015, a 22-question online survey was sent to the state dental association membership. Among 437 respondents, dentists reported a median of 4 antibiotic prophylaxis and 5 treatment prescriptions per month. Dentists reported prescribing antibiotics for prophylaxis before invasive dental procedures for patients with “high-risk conditions” (84%) and localized swelling (70%) as well as for a number of reasons that are not recommended by current guidelines, such as an upcoming vacation for the patient (38%), gingival pain (38%), legal concerns (24%), patient demand (22%), and failed local anesthesia (21%). Dentists defined high-risk conditions as a history of infective endocarditis (75%), prosthetic cardiac valve (70%), selected congenital heart disease (68%), cardiac transplantation with cardiac valvulopathy (4%), and primary care physician recommendation (59%). In addition, some dentists assigned a high-risk category to conditions that do not fall within current guideline recommendations, including prosthetic joints (39%), poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (27%), human immunodeficiency virus (18%), chronic kidney disease (13%), mitral valve prolapse (11%), all congenital heart disease (4%), and well-controlled type 2 diabetes (1%). Respondents indicated that common challenges to stewardship of antibiotic use included perceived conflicting provider guidelines (44%), conflicting scientific evidence (44%), or lack of information on antibiotic selection (19%) or risks (23%). Dentists reported greater antibiotic use than currently recommended by existing guidelines. Antibiotic stewardship efforts in dentistry should address challenges to guideline adherence.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Estimation of global recoverable human and animal faecal biomassExternal
        Berendes DM, Yang PJ, Lai A, Hu D, Brown J.
        Nature Sustainability. 2018 ;1(11):679-685.

        Human and animal faeces present persistent threats to global public health and also opportunities for recovery of resources. We present the first global-scale accounting of recoverable faeces (livestock animal and human) from 2003 to 2030 using country-specific human and animal population estimates and estimated species-specific faeces production by human or animal body mass. We also examine global coverage of domestic livestock animals and sanitation facilities to describe the distribution of onsite versus offsite hazards from animal and human faeces. In 2014, the total mass of faeces was 3.9 ? 1012 kg per year, increasing by &gt;52 ? 109 kg per year since 2003 and anticipated to reach at least 4.6 ? 1012 kg in 2030. Annual global production of faeces from animals (primarily cattle, chickens and sheep) was about four times that from humans. Ratios of animal faeces to human faeces continue to increase (geometric mean of 4.2:1 for 2003 versus 5.0:1 for 2014 versus a projected 6.0:1 for 2030). Low-income populations bear the greatest burden of onsite faeces, mostly from animals in or near the domestic environment. This analysis highlights the challenges of resource recovery from concentrated and dispersed sources of faeces, and the global public health policy needed for safe management of animal faeces.

      2. Predictors of urinary phthalate biomarker concentrations in postmenopausal womenExternal
        Reeves KW, Santana MD, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Zoeller RT, Bigelow C, Hou L, Wactawski-Wende J, Liu S, Tinker L, Calafat AM.
        Environ Res. 2018 Oct 30;169:122-130.

        BACKGROUND: Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals present in a wide variety of consumer products. However, the personal characteristics associated with phthalate exposure are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe personal, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics associated with phthalate metabolite concentrations in an ongoing study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured thirteen phthalate metabolites in two or three archived urine samples collected in 1993-2001 from each of 1257 WHI participants (2991 observations). We fit multivariable generalized estimating equation models to predict urinary biomarker concentrations from personal, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. RESULTS: Older age was predictive of lower concentrations of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-carboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), and the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate metabolites (SigmaDBP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations varied by race/region, with generally higher concentrations observed among non-Whites and women from the West region. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status predicted lower MBzP concentrations, and higher education predicted lower monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and higher concentrations of the sum of metabolites of di-isobutyl phthalate (SigmaDiBP). Overweight/obesity predicted higher MBzP, MCOP, monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP), MCPP, and the sum of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (SigmaDEHP) and lower MEP concentrations. Alcohol consumption predicted higher concentrations of MEP and SigmaDBP, while current smokers had higher SigmaDBP concentrations. Better diet quality as assessed by Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores predicted lower concentrations of MBzP, SigmaDiBP, and SigmaDEHP. CONCLUSION: Factors predictive of lower biomarker concentrations included increased age and healthy behaviors (e.g. lower alcohol intake, lower body mass index, not smoking, higher quality diet, and moderate physical activity). Racial group (generally higher among non-Whites) and geographic regions (generally higher in Northeast and West compared to South regions) also were predictive of phthalate biomarker concentrations.

      3. [No abstract]

      4. Phthalates exposure and uterine fibroid burden among women undergoing surgical treatment for fibroids: a preliminary studyExternal
        Zota AR, Geller RJ, Calafat AM, Marfori CQ, Baccarelli AA, Moawad GN.
        Fertil Steril. 2018 Nov 12.

        OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between phthalate exposure and two measures of uterine fibroid burden: diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. DESIGN: Pilot, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Fifty-seven premenopausal women undergoing either hysterectomy or myomectomy for fibroids. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The diameter of the largest fibroid and uterine dimensions were abstracted from medical records. Spot urine samples were analyzed for 14 phthalate biomarkers using mass spectrometry. We estimated associations between fibroid outcomes and individual phthalate metabolites, sum of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites ( summation operatorDEHP), and a weighted sum of anti-androgenic phthalate metabolites ( summation operatorAA Phthalates) using linear regression, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Fibroid outcomes were also examined dichotomously (divided at the median) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Most women were of black ethnicity, overweight or obese, and college educated. In multivariable models, higher levels of mono-hydroxyisobutyl phthalate, monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, monocarboxynonyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate) (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), summation operatorDEHP, and summation operatorAA Phthalates were positively associated with uterine volume. Associations were most pronounced for individual DEHP metabolites (MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP), summation operatorDEHP, and summation operatorAA Phthalates. For example, a doubling in summation operatorDEHP and summation operatorAA Phthalates was associated with 33.2% (95% confidence interval 6.6-66.5) and 26.8% (95% confidence interval 2.2-57.4) increase in uterine volume, respectively. There were few associations between phthalate biomarkers and fibroid size. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to some phthalate biomarkers was positively associated with uterine volume, which further supports the hypothesis that phthalate exposures may be associated with fibroid outcomes. Additional studies are needed to confirm these relationships.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Complete genome sequences of Monongahela hantavirus from Pennsylvania, USAExternal
        Albarino CG, Guerrero LW, Chakrabarti AK, Rollin PE, Nichol ST.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2018 20 Sep;7 (11) (e00928-18).

        Monongahela hantavirus was first identified in deer mice and was later found responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in Pennsylvania and West Virginia in the United States. Here, we report the complete sequences of Monongahela virus S, M, and L genomic segments obtained from a fatal clinical case reported in 1997.

      2. Current social media conversations about genetics and genomics in health: A twitter-based analysisExternal
        Allen CG, Andersen B, Khoury MJ, Roberts MC.
        Public Health Genomics. 2018 Nov 22:1-7.

        BACKGROUND: The growing availability of genomic information to the public may spur discussion about genetics and genomics on social media. Sites, including Twitter, provide a unique space for the public to access and discuss health information. The objective of this study was to better understand how social media users are sharing information about genetics and genomics in health and healthcare and what information is most commonly discussed among Twitter users. METHODS: We obtained tweets with specific genetics- and genomics-related keywords from Crimson Hexagon. We used Boolean logic to collect tweets containing chosen keywords within the timeframe of October 1, 2016, to October 1, 2017. Features of the software were used to identify salient themes in conversation, conduct an emergent content analysis, and gather key demographic information. RESULTS: We obtained 347,196 tweets from our search. There was a monthly average volume of 28,432 tweets. The five categories of tweets included: genetic disorders/disease (45.3%), health (15.6%), genomics (8%), and genetic testing (7.3%). Top influencers in the conversation included news outlets and universities. CONCLUSIONS: This content analysis provides insight about the types of conversation related to genomics and health. Conversations about genomics are occurring on Twitter, and they frequently emphasize rare genetic diseases and genetic disorders. These discussions tend to be driven by key influencers who primarily include news media outlets. Further understanding of the discussions related to genomics and health in social media may offer insight about topics of importance to the public.

      3. Characterization of the genome sequences of enterovirus C109 from two respiratory disease cases in Florida, 2016External
        Ng TF, Yglesias JA, Stevenson-Yuen TA, Wolfe CM, Cone MR, Heberlein-Larson LA, Maher K, Rogers S, Chern SW, Montmayeur A, Castro C, Nix WA.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2018 26 Jul;7 (3) (e00803-18).

        The genomic sequences of two enterovirus C109 isolates (EV-C109 USA/FL/2016-21003 and EV-C109 USA/FL/2016-21002) were obtained during two separate case investigations of respiratory disease in two children. This marks the first description of EV-C109 genomes in the United States.

      4. Draft genome sequences for a diverse set of seven Haemophilus and Aggregatibacter speciesExternal
        Nichols M, Topaz N, Wang X, Wang X, Boxrud D.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2018 25 Oct;7 (16)(e0088018).

        Haemophilus is a complex genus that includes commensal and pathogenic species that pose a public health threat to humans. While the pathogenic species have been studied extensively, many commensals have limited genomic information available. Here, we present 24 draft genomes for a diverse set of 7 Haemophilus and Aggregatibacter species.

    • Health Disparities
      1. Effectively addressing human immunodeficiency virus disparities affecting US black womenExternal
        Bradley EL, Geter A, Lima AC, Sutton MY, Hubbard McCree D.
        Health Equity. 2018 ;2(1):329-333.

        Black women have disproportionately higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and low percentages being linked to care and becoming virally suppressed, compared with women of other races/ethnicities. To date, few evidence-based HIV prevention and care interventions tailored for black women exist. We highlight three essential factors to consider in designing culturally and gender-appropriate studies to address HIV-related disparities affecting black women: (1) social determinants of HIV risk, (2) determinants of equity, and (3) perceptions of black women’s sexuality. Synergy between a strong evidence base and developing strong partnerships could accelerate progress toward HIV-related health equity for black women.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. [No abstract]

      2. Association of provider recommendation and human papillomavirus vaccination initiation among male adolescents aged 13-17 years – United StatesExternal
        Lu PJ, Yankey D, Fredua B, O’Halloran AC, Williams C, Markowitz LE, Elam-Evans LD.
        J Pediatr. 2018 Nov 15.

        OBJECTIVE: To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescents by provider recommendation status. STUDY DESIGN: The 2011-2016 National Immunization Survey-Teen data were used to assess HPV vaccination coverage among male adolescents by provider recommendation status. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between HPV vaccination and provider recommendation status. RESULTS: HPV vaccination coverage among male adolescents increased from 8.3% in 2011 to 57.3% in 2016. Likewise, the prevalence of provider recommendation increased from 14.2% in 2011 to 65.5% in 2016. In 2016, HPV coverage was higher in male adolescents with a provider recommendation than in those without a provider recommendation (68.8% vs 35.4%). In multivariable logistic regression, characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HPV vaccination included receipt of a provider recommendation, age 16-17 years, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, any Medicaid insurance, >/=2 physician contacts in the previous 12 months, and urban or suburban residence. Participants with a mother with some college or a college degree, those with a mother aged 35-44 years, and those who did not have a well-child visit at age 11-12 years had a lower likelihood of HPV vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Receiving a provider recommendation for vaccination was significantly associated with receipt of HPV vaccine among male adolescents, indicating that a provider recommendation for vaccination is an important approach to increase vaccination coverage. Evidence-based strategies, such as standing orders and provider reminders, alone or in combination with health system interventions, are useful for increasing provider recommendations and HPV vaccination coverage among male adolescents.

      3. Vaccination and risk of lone atrial fibrillation in the active component United States militaryExternal
        McNeil MM, Duderstadt SK, Sabatier JF, Ma GG, Duffy J.
        Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 Nov 16.

        PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that receipt of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in the absence of identifiable underlying risk factors or structural heart disease (lone atrial fibrillation). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among U.S. military personnel who were on active duty during the period from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2006. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify individuals diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in the Defense Medical Surveillance System, and electronic records were screened to include only individuals without evidence of predisposing medical conditions. We used multivariable Poisson regression to estimate the risk of lone atrial fibrillation after exposure to AVA. We also evaluated possible associations with influenza and smallpox vaccines. RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 2,957,091individuals followed for 11,329,746 person-years of service. Of these, 2,435 met our case definition for lone atrial fibrillation, contributing approximately 8,383 person-years of service. 1,062,176 (36%) individuals received at least one dose of AVA; the median person time observed post-exposure was 3.6 years. We found no elevated risk of diagnosed lone atrial fibrillation associated with AVA (adjusted risk ratio = 0.99; 95% confidence interval = 0.90, 1.09; p = 0.84). No elevated risk was observed for lone atrial fibrillation associated with influenza or smallpox vaccines given during military service. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find an increased risk of lone atrial fibrillation after AVA, influenza or smallpox vaccine. These findings may be helpful in planning future vaccine safety research.

      4. Vaccinating against monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the CongoExternal
        Petersen BW, Kabamba J, McCollum AM, Lushima RS, Wemakoy EO, Muyembe Tamfum JJ, Nguete B, Reynolds MG.
        Antiviral Res. 2018 Nov 13.

        Healthcare-associated transmission of monkeypox has been observed on multiple occasions in areas where the disease is endemic. Data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from an ongoing CDC-supported program of enhanced surveillance in the Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the annual incidence of human monkeypox is estimated to be 3.5-5/10,000, suggests that there is approximately one healthcare worker infection for every 100 confirmed monkeypox cases. Herein, we describe a study that commenced in February 2017, the intent of which is to evaluate the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of a third-generation smallpox vaccine, IMVAMUNE((R)), in healthcare personnel at risk of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. We describe procedures for documenting exposures to monkeypox virus infection in study participants, and outline lessons learned that may be of relevance for studies of other investigational countermeasures in hard to reach, under-resourced populations.

      5. Influenza vaccination among adults living with persons at high-risk for complications from influenza during early 2016-17 influenza seasonExternal
        Yue X, Black CL, Williams WW, Lu PJ, Srivastav A, Amaya A, Dever JA, Stanley MV, Roycroft JL.
        Vaccine. 2018 Nov 14.

        BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends all persons aged >/=6months get vaccinated for influenza annually, placing particular emphasis on persons who are at increased risk for influenza-related complications and persons living with or caring for them. METHODS: Data from the 2016 National Internet Flu Survey (NIFS), a nationally representative, probability-based Internet panel survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged >/=18years, was used to compare influenza vaccination coverage among adults who live with household members at high-risk for complications from influenza with those who do not. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the difference in the adjusted vaccination coverage prevalence between persons living with and without high-risk household members. RESULTS: From the 2016 NIFS (n=4,113), we estimated that 29.2% of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults had at least one household member at increased risk for influenza-related complications. Unadjusted influenza vaccination coverage was significantly higher for adults with a high-risk household member compared with those without (46.7% vs 38.6%, respectively). After adjustment for demographic and access-to-care factors, adults with high-risk household members were more likely to be vaccinated than those without (adjusted prevalence difference=5.3 [0.3, 10.3]). Among vaccinated respondents with high-risk household members, 88.7% reported that protection of their family and close contacts was one of the reasons they were vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Approximately half of adults living with someone at increased risk of complications from influenza did not report receiving an influenza vaccination. Vaccination reminder/recall for persons at increased risk should include reminders for their household contacts.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Violence against women, including female sex workers, is a public health concern worldwide. This is the first study in Mozambique to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with physical and sexual violence against female sex workers. We used data collected from 1,250 women recruited using respondent-driven sampling in the cities of Maputo, Beira and Nampula in 2011-12. Participants were 15 years of age and reported having had sex for money in the preceding six months. Prevalence of physical or sexual violence (defined as being hit or battered or raped or forced to have sex within the last 6 months) ranged from 10.0% to 25.6%. Strangers (37.0%) and acquaintances (31.2%) were reported to be the most frequent perpetrators of sexual violence. Among participants who experienced sexual violence, 65.9% and 87.0% did not seek medical care and police assistance, respectively. Physical or sexual violence was associated with city (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6 and 2.0 Nampula and Beira vs Maputo), age (AOR 1.9, aged 15-24 years vs aged 25 and older), unprotected sex with last client (AOR 1.6) and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (AOR 2.1). The high prevalence of violence found confirms the need for interventions to mitigate this problem.

      2. Adverse childhood experiences and the presence of cancer risk factors in adulthood: A scoping review of the literature from 2005 to 2015External
        Ports KA, Holman DM, Guinn AS, Pampati S, Dyer KE, Merrick MT, Lunsford NB, Metzler M.
        J Pediatr Nurs. 2019 ;44:81-96.

        Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is associated with a host of harmful outcomes, including increased risk for cancer. A scoping review was conducted to gain a better understanding of how ACEs have been studied in association with risk factors for cancer. This review includes 155 quantitative, peer-reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2015 that examined associations between ACEs and modifiable cancer risk factors, including alcohol, environmental carcinogens, chronic inflammation, sex hormones, immunosuppression, infectious agents, obesity, radiation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and tobacco, among U.S. adults. This review highlights the growing body of research connecting ACEs to cancer risk factors, particularly alcohol, obesity, and tobacco. Fewer studies investigated the links between ACEs and chronic inflammation or infectious agents. No included publications investigated associations between ACEs and environmental carcinogens, hormones, immunosuppression, radiation, or ultraviolet radiation. Mitigating the impact of ACEs may provide innovative ways to effect comprehensive, upstream cancer prevention.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. imGLAD: accurate detection and quantification of target organisms in metagenomesExternal
        Castro JC, Rodriguez RL, Harvey WT, Weigand MR, Hatt JK, Carter MQ, Konstantinidis KT.
        PeerJ. 2018 ;6:e5882.

        Accurate detection of target microbial species in metagenomic datasets from environmental samples remains limited because the limit of detection of current methods is typically inaccessible and the frequency of false-positives, resulting from inadequate identification of regions of the genome that are either too highly conserved to be diagnostic (e.g., rRNA genes) or prone to frequent horizontal genetic exchange (e.g., mobile elements) remains unknown. To overcome these limitations, we introduce imGLAD, which aims to detect (target) genomic sequences in metagenomic datasets. imGLAD achieves high accuracy because it uses the sequence-discrete population concept for discriminating between metagenomic reads originating from the target organism compared to reads from co-occurring close relatives, masks regions of the genome that are not informative using the MyTaxa engine, and models both the sequencing breadth and depth to determine relative abundance and limit of detection. We validated imGLAD by analyzing metagenomic datasets derived from spinach leaves inoculated with the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and showed that its limit of detection can be comparable to that of PCR-based approaches for these samples ( approximately 1 cell/gram).

      2. Development and validation of a robust multiplex serological assay to quantify antibodies specific to pertussis antigensExternal
        Rajam G, Carlone G, Kim E, Choi J, Paulos S, Park S, Jeyachandran A, Gorantla Y, Wong E, Sabnis A, Browning P, Desai R, Quinn CP, Schiffer J.
        Biologicals. 2018 Nov 17.

        Despite wide spread vaccination, the public health burden of pertussis remains substantial. Current acellular pertussis vaccines comprise upto five Bordetella pertussis (Bp) antigens. Performing an ELISA to quantify antibody for each antigen is laborious and challenging to apply to pediatric samples where serum volume may be limited. We developed a microsphere based multiplex antibody capture assay (MMACA) to quantify antibodies to five pertussis antigens; pertussis toxin, pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbrial antigens 2/3, and adenylate cyclase toxin in a single reaction (5-plex) with a calibrated reference standard, QC reagents and SAS((R)) based data analysis program. The goodness of fit (R(2)) of the standard curves for five analytes was >/=0.99, LLOQ 0.04-0.15 IU or AU/mL, accuracy 1.9%-23.8% (%E), dilutional linearity slopes 0.93-1.02 and regression coefficients r(2)=0.91-0.99. MMACA had acceptable precision within a median CV of 16.0%-22.8%. Critical reagents, antigen conjugated microsphere and reporter antibody exhibited acceptable (<12.3%) lot-lot variation. MMACA can be completed in <3h, requires low serum volume (5muL/multiplex assay) and has fast data turnaround time (<1min). MMACA has been successfully developed and validated as a sensitive, specific, robust and rugged method suitable for simultaneous quantification of anti-Bp antibodies in serum, plasma and DBS.

      3. Biosafety evaluation of Janus Fe3O4-TiO2 nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous injectionExternal
        Su H, Song X, Li J, Iqbal MZ, Kenston SS, Li Z, Wu A, Ding M, Zhao J.
        Int J Nanomedicine. 2018 ;13:6987-7001.

        Introduction: Newly synthesized Janus-structured Fe3O4-TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) appear to be a promising candidate for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Although the toxicity of individual Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs has been studied extensively, the toxicity of Janus Fe3O4-TiO2 NPs is not clear. Methods: In this study, the biosafety of both Janus Fe3O4-TiO2 NPs (20-25 nm) and the maternal material TiO2 NPs (7-10 nm) were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats after one intravenous injection into the tail vein. Healthy rats were randomly divided into one control group and six experimental groups. Thirty days after treatment, rats were killed, then blood and tissue samples were collected for hematological, biochemical, element-content, histopathological, and Western blot analysis. Results: The results show that only a slight Ti element accumulation in the heart, spleen, and liver could be found in the Janus Fe3O4-TiO2 NP groups (P>0.05 compared with control). However, significant Ti element accumulation in the spleen, lungs, and liver was found in the TiO2 NP-treated rats. Both Fe3O4-TiO2 NPs and TiO2 NPs could induce certain histopathological abnormalities. Western blot analysis showed that both NPs could induce certain apoptotic or inflammatory-related molecular protein upregulation in rat livers. A certain degree of alterations in liver function and electrolyte and lipid parameters was also observed in rats treated with both materials. However, compared to Janus structure Fe3O4-TiO2 NP-treated groups, TiO2 NPs at 30 mg/kg showed more severe adverse effects. Conclusion: Our results showed that under a low dose (5 mg/kg), both NP types had no significant toxicity in rats. Janus NPs certainly seem less toxic than TiO2 NPs in rats at 30 mg/kg. To ensure safe use of these newly developed Janus NPs in cancer diagnosis and therapy, further animal studies are needed to evaluate long-term bioeffects.

      4. Heteroresistance to the model antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B in the emerging Neisseria meningitidis lineage 11.2 urethritis clade: mutations in the pilMNOPQ operonExternal
        Tzeng YL, Berman Z, Toh E, Bazan JA, Turner AN, Retchless AC, Wang X, Nelson DE, Stephens DS.
        Mol Microbiol. 2018 Oct 18.

        Clusters of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) urethritis among primarily heterosexual males in multiple US cities have been attributed to a unique non-encapsulated meningococcal clade (the US Nm urethritis clade, US_NmUC) within the hypervirulent clonal complex 11. Resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a key feature of urogenital pathogenesis of the closely related species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The US_NmUC isolates were found to be highly resistant to the model AMP, polymyxin B (PmB, MICs 64-256 microg ml(-1) ). The isolates also demonstrated stable subpopulations of heteroresistant colonies that showed near total resistant to PmB (MICs 384-1024 microg ml(-1) ) and colistin (MIC 256 microg ml(-1) ) as well as enhanced LL-37 resistance. This is the first observation of heteroresistance in N. meningitidis. Consistent with previous findings, overall PmB resistance in US_NmUC isolates was due to active Mtr efflux and LptA-mediated lipid A modification. However, whole genome sequencing, variant analyses and directed mutagenesis revealed that the heteroresistance phenotypes and very high-level AMP resistance were the result of point mutations and IS1655 element movement in the pilMNOPQ operon, encoding the type IV pilin biogenesis apparatus. Cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics was also observed in the heteroresistant colonies. High-level resistance to AMPs may contribute to the pathogenesis of US_NmUC.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Infant safe sleep practices in the United StatesExternal
        Bombard JM, Kortsmit K, Cottengim C, Johnston EO.
        Am J Nurs. 2018 Dec;118(12):20-21.

        Risk of sleep-related infant deaths can be reduced by improving safe sleep practices.

      2. Population-based birth defects data in the United States, 2011-2015: A focus on eye and ear defectsExternal
        Stallings EB, Isenburg JL, Mai CT, Liberman RF, Moore CA, Canfield MA, Salemi JL, Kirby RS, Short TD, Nembhard WN, Forestieri NE, Heinke D, Alverson CJ, Romitti PA, Huynh MP, Denson LE, Judson EM, Lupo PJ.
        Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov 16.

        BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this data brief, we examine major eye and ear anomalies (anophthalmia/microphthalmia, anotia/microtia, and congenital cataract) for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States. METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2018 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on eye/ear anomalies for birth years 2011-2015. We calculated the combined overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), for the three anomalies as well as by maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, laterality, presence/absence of other major birth defects, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive). RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimate (per 10,000 live births) was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.5) for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6) for congenital cataract, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7-1.8) for anotia/microtia. Congenital cataract prevalence varied little by maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, or case ascertainment methodology; prevalence differences were more apparent across strata for anophthalmia/microphthalmia and anotia/microtia. Prevalence among active vs. passive ascertainment programs was 50% higher for anophthalmia/microphthalmia (1.9 vs. 1.2) and two-fold higher for anotia/microtia (2.6 vs. 1.2). Anophthalmia/microphthalmia was more likely than other conditions to co-occur with other birth defects. All conditions were more frequent among older mothers (40+ years). CONCLUSIONS: This data brief provides recent prevalence estimates for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, congenital cataract, and anotia/microtia that address a data gap by examining pooled data from 30 population-based surveillance systems, covering a five-year birth cohort of about 12.4 million births.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. BACKGROUND: Although prenatal iron-containing supplements have been associated with lower anemia prevalence in later pregnancy, few trials have examined the effect of supplements on the anemia status of post-partum women and their infants. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of folic acid alone (FA), iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrients (MMN) when provided to pregnant women with no or mild anemia on the hemoglobin levels of post-partum women and their infants at 6 and 12 months of age. We also examined the potential modifying effect of maternal hemoglobin concentration at enrollment. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in China; 18,775 nulliparous women with a hemoglobin concentration > 100 g/L were randomly assigned to receive daily FA (400 mug); IFA (FA, Fe 30 mg), or MMN (FA, Fe and 13 micronutrients) from before 20 gestational weeks until delivery. RESULTS: Compared with daily prenatal FA, supplementation with IFA or MMN did not affect the prevalence of anemia at 4-6 weeks post-partum (27.2%, 26.8%, and 26.3%, respectively). At 6 months of age, the anemia prevalence in infants was 6.9%, 6.7%, and 6.7%, respectively. Findings were similar at 12 months of age. Among both post-partum women and infants, findings were similar across all levels of hemoglobin at enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to FA alone, prenatal IFA and MMN provided to women with no or mild anemia did not affect anemia in women post-partum or their infants regardless of baseline maternal hemoglobin concentration at enrollment.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Application of the draft NIOSH Occupational Exposure Banding Process to Bisphenol A: A case studyExternal
        Hines CJ, Lentz TJ, McKernan L, Rane P, Whittaker C.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Nov 20:1-20.

        Bisphenol A is a commercially important chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and other specialty products. Despite an extensive body of in vitro, animal and human observational studies on the effects of exposure to bisphenol A, no authoritative bodies in the U.S. have adopted or recommended occupational exposure limits for bisphenol A. In 2017, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health published a Draft process for assigning health-protective occupational exposure bands, i.e. an airborne concentration range, to chemicals lacking an occupational exposure limit. Occupational exposure banding is a systematic process that uses both quantitative and qualitative toxicity information on selected health effect endpoints to assign an occupational exposure band for a chemical. The Draft process proposes three methodological tiers of increasing complexity for assigning an occupational exposure band. We applied Tier 1 (based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling) and Tier 2 (based on authoritative sources/reviews) to assign an occupational exposure band to bisphenol A. Under both Tier 1 and 2, the occupational exposure band for bisphenol A was “E” (<0.01 mg/m(3)), an assignment based on eye damage. “E” is the lowest exposure concentration range, reserved for chemicals with high potential toxicity. If eye damage was excluded in assigning an air concentration exposure range, then bisphenol A would band as “D” (>0.01 to 0.1 mg/m(3)) under Tier 1 (based on reproductive toxicity and respiratory/skin sensitization) and under Tier 2 (based on specific target organ toxicity-repeated exposure). In summary, Tiers 1 and 2 gave the same occupational exposure band for bisphenol A when eye damage was included (“E”) or excluded (“D”) as an endpoint.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Improving protection against respirable dust at an underground crusher boothExternal
        Patts JR, Cecala AB, Rider JP, Organiscak JA.
        Min Eng. 2018 ;70(11):48-52.

        The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health completed a 15-month study at an underground limestone mine crusher booth that evaluated three research parameters: (1) the effectiveness of a filtration and pressurization system for improving the air quality inside the operator booth, (2) the relative effectiveness of n > 99 and n > 95 experimental prototype filters in the system, and (3) the performance of three different cab pressure monitoring devices. The protection factor was quantified monthly using particle counters in the respirable dust range of 0.3 to 1 urn particle size, and gravimetric dust samples were gathered at the beginning and end of the overall study. Under static (closed-door) conditions, the filtration unit offered a gravimetric calculated protection factor between 10 and 31, depending on the filter type and loading condition. The monthly particle counting analysis shows that the n > 95 filter offers a protection factor nearly five times that of the n > 99 filter, where n = 15 samples. The booth pressure monitors were tested and proved to be a valid indicator of system performance over time.

      2. Canopy air curtains on roof bolting machines have been proven to protect miners from respirable dust, preventing their overexposure to dust. Another desired application for canopy air curtains is in the compartments of shuttle cars. The challenges faced in developing the design of canopy air curtains for shuttle cars include mine ventilation rates in tandem with the shuttle car tram speeds. The resulting cab airspeeds may exceed 182 m/min (600 fpm), as found in the present study conducted in a central Appalachian underground coal mine by U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers. Prior research and laboratory testing had indicated that successfully protecting a miner in high air velocities is difficult, because the clean air from the canopy air curtain is unable to penetrate through the high-velocity mine air. In this study, the dust concentrations to which a shuttle car operator was exposed were measured, and air velocities experienced by the operator were measured as well using a recording vane anemometer. The results indicate that the highest exposure to respirable dust, 2.22 mg/m3, occurred when the shuttle car was loading at the continuous miner, where the average airspeed was 48 m/min (157 fpm). While tramming, the operator was exposed to 0.77 mg/m3 of respirable dust with an average airspeed of 62 m/min (203 fpm). This study indicates that a canopy air curtain system can be designed to greatly reduce an operator’s exposure to respirable dust by providing clean air to the operator, as the majority of the operator’s dust exposure occurs in air velocities slower than 61 m/min (200 fpm).

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Plasmodium falciparum treated with artemisinin-based combined therapy exhibits enhanced mutation, heightened cortisol and TNF-alpha inductionExternal
        Idowu AO, Bhattacharyya S, Gradus S, Oyibo W, George Z, Black C, Igietseme J, Azenabor AA.
        Int J Med Sci. 2018 ;15(13):1449-1457.

        The artemisinin-based combined therapy (ACT) post-treatment illness in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic areas is characterized by vague malaria-like symptoms. The roles of treatment modality, persistence of parasites and host proinflammatory response in disease course are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that ACT post-treatment syndrome is driven by parasite genetic polymorphisms and proinflammatory response to persisting mutant parasites. Patients were categorized as treated, untreated and malaria-negative. Malaria positive samples were analyzed for Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, K13 kelch gene polymorphisms, while all samples were evaluated for cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10, TGF-beta, IFN-gamma) and corticosteroids (cortisol and dexamethasone) levels. The treated patients exhibited higher levels of parasitemia, TNF-alpha, and cortisol, increased incidence of parasite genetic mutations, and greater number of mutant alleles per patient. In addition, corticosteroid levels declined with increasing number of mutant alleles. TGF-beta levels were negatively correlated with parasitemia, while IL-10 and TGF-beta were negatively correlated with increasing number of mutant alleles. However, IL-12 displayed slight positive correlation and TNF-alpha exhibited moderate positive correlation with increasing number of mutant alleles. Since post-treatment management ultimately results in patient recovery, the high parasite gene polymorphism may act in concert with induced cortisol and TNF-alpha to account for ACT post-treatment syndrome.

      2. BACKGROUND: Children hospitalised with severe anaemia in malaria endemic areas in Africa are at high risk of readmission or death within 6 months post-discharge. Currently, no strategy specifically addresses this period. In Malawi, 3 months of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) with monthly treatment courses of artemether-lumefantrine given at discharge and at 1 and 2 months prevented 30% of all-cause readmissions by 6 months post-discharge. Another efficacy trial is needed before a policy of malaria chemoprevention can be considered for the post-discharge management of severe anaemia in children under 5 years of age living in malaria endemic areas. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if 3 months of PMC with monthly 3-day treatment courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is safe and superior to a single 3-day treatment course with artemether-lumefantrine provided as part of standard in-hospital care in reducing all-cause readmissions and deaths (composite primary endpoint) by 6 months in the post-discharge management of children less than 5 years of age admitted with severe anaemia of any or undetermined cause. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, two-arm, placebo-controlled, individually randomised trial in children under 5 years of age recently discharged following management for severe anaemia. Children in both arms will receive standard in-hospital care for severe anaemia and a 3-day course of artemether-lumefantrine at discharge. At 2 weeks after discharge, surviving children will be randomised to receive either 3-day courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine at 2, 6 and 10 weeks or an identical placebo and followed for 26 weeks through passive case detection. The trial will be conducted in hospitals in malaria endemic areas in Kenya and Uganda. The study is designed to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of all-cause readmissions or death (composite primary outcome) from 1152 to 864 per 1000 child years (power 80%, alpha = 0.05) and requires 520 children per arm (1040 total children). RESULTS: Participant recruitment started in May 2016 and is ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02671175 . Registered on 28 January 2016.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Self-directed Walk With Ease workplace wellness program – Montana, 2015-2017External
        Silverstein RP, VanderVos M, Welch H, Long A, Kabore CD, Hootman JM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Nov 23;67(46):1295-1299.

        Arthritis occurs in 27% of adults in Montana, among whom 50% have activity limitations, 16% have social participation restrictions, and 23% have severe joint pain attributable to arthritis (1). Physical activity is beneficial in managing arthritis symptoms and in preventing other chronic diseases (2). Walk With Ease is a 6-week evidence-based physical activity program recommended by CDC to increase physical activity and help improve arthritis symptoms (3). In 2015, Walk With Ease was added to an ongoing workplace wellness program for Montana state employees; the results for five outcomes (minutes spent walking, engaging in other physical activity [including swimming, bicycling, other aerobic equipment use, and other aerobic exercise], stretching, pain, and fatigue) were analyzed by the Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services and CDC. Outcomes at baseline (pretest), 6 weeks after the program (posttest), and 6 months later (follow-up) were analyzed by self-reported arthritis status at the time the participant enrolled in the program. Significant increases (p<0.05) in the mean number of minutes spent per week walking and engaging in other physical activity were observed among participants with and without arthritis at the 6-week posttest. Time spent stretching did not change significantly at posttest for either group. Mean pain levels among participants without arthritis increased significantly both at the 6-week posttest and 6-month follow-up; however, pain and fatigue decreased significantly at posttest and follow-up for participants with or without arthritis who began the program with moderate or severe pain and fatigue levels. The data from these analyses suggest that, as a component of a workplace wellness program, self-directed Walk With Ease might be effective in increasing physical activity not only among adults with arthritis, but also among persons without arthritis.

      2. Joint prevalence of sitting time and leisure-time physical activity among US adults, 2015-2016External
        Ussery EN, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, Katzmarzyk PT, Carlson SA.
        Jama. 2018 Nov 20;320(19):2036-2038.

        [No abstract]

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Client and provider factors associated with companionship during labor and birth in Kigoma Region, TanzaniaExternal
        Dynes MM, Binzen S, Twentyman E, Nguyen H, Lobis S, Mwakatundu N, Chaote P, Serbanescu F.
        Midwifery. 2018 Nov 13;69:92-101.

        BACKGROUND: Labor and birth companionship is a key aspect of respectful maternity care. Lack of companionship deters women from accessing facility-based delivery care, though formal and informal policies against companionship are common in sub-Saharan African countries. AIM: To identify client and provider factors associated with labor and birth companionship DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation among delivery clients and providers in 61 health facilities in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, April-July 2016. METHODS: Multilevel, mixed effects logistic regression analyses were conducted on linked data from providers (n=249) and delivery clients (n=935). Outcome variables were Companion in labor and Companion at the time of birth. FINDINGS: Less than half of women reported having a labor companion (44.7%) and 12% reported having a birth companion. Among providers, 26.1% and 10.0% reported allowing a labor and birth companion, respectively. Clients had significantly greater odds of having a labor companion if their provider reported the following traits: working more than 55 hours/week (aOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.97), feeling very satisfied with their job (aOR 3.66, 95% CI 1.36-9.85), and allowing women to have a labor companion (aOR 3.73, 95% CI 1.58-8.81). Clients had significantly lower odds of having a labor companion if their provider reported having an on-site supervisor (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.95). Clients had significantly greater odds of having a birth companion if they self-reported labor complications (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.02-7.81) and had a labor companion (aOR 44.74, 95% CI 11.99-166.91). Clients had significantly greater odds of having a birth companion if their provider attended more than 10 deliveries in the last month (aOR 3.43, 95% CI 1.08-10.96) compared to fewer deliveries. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These results suggest that health providers are the gatekeepers of companionship, and the work environment influences providers’ allowance of companionship. Facilities where providers experience staff shortages and high workload may be particularly responsive to programmatic interventions that aim to increase staff acceptance of birth companionship.

      2. Abortion surveillance – United States, 2015External
        Jatlaoui TC, Boutot ME, Mandel MG, Whiteman MK, Ti A, Petersen E, Pazol K.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018 Nov 23;67(13):1-45.

        PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2015, data were received from 49 reporting areas. Abortion data provided by these 49 reporting areas for each year during 2006-2015 were used in trend analyses. Census and natality data were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 638,169 abortions for 2015 were reported to CDC from 49 reporting areas. Among these 49 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2015 was 11.8 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 188 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2014 to 2015, the total number of reported abortions decreased 2% (from 652,639), the abortion rate decreased 2% (from 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years), and the abortion ratio decreased 2% (from 192 abortions per 1,000 live births). From 2006 to 2015, the total number of reported abortions decreased 24% (from 842,855), the abortion rate decreased 26% (from 15.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years), and the abortion ratio decreased 19% (from 233 abortions per 1,000 live births). In 2015, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2006-2015). In 2015 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women aged >/=30 years accounted for a smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2015, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 31.1% and 27.6% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 19.9 and 17.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and >/=40 years accounted for 17.7%, 10.0%, and 3.5% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.6, 7.0, and 2.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 30-34, 35-39, and >/=40 years, respectively. From 2006 to 2015, the abortion rate decreased among women in all age groups. In 2015, adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years accounted for 0.3% and 9.8% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 0.5 and 6.7 abortions per 1,000 adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years, respectively. From 2006 to 2015, the percentage of abortions accounted for by adolescents aged 15-19 years decreased 41%, and their abortion rate decreased 54%. This decrease in abortion rate was greater than the decreases for women in any older age group. In contrast to the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age, abortion ratios in 2015 and throughout the entire period of analysis were highest among adolescents and lowest among women aged 25-39 years. Abortion ratios decreased from 2006 to 2015 for women in all age groups. In 2015, almost two thirds (65.4%) of abortions were performed at </=8 weeks’ gestation, and nearly all (91.1%) were performed at </=13 weeks’ gestation. Few abortions were performed between 14 and 20 weeks’ gestation (7.6%) or at >/=21 weeks’ gestation (1.3%). During 2006-2015 the percentage of all abortions performed at >13 weeks’ gestation remained consistently low (</=9.0%). Among abortions performed at </=13 weeks’ gestation, a shift occurred toward earlier gestational ages, with the percentage performed at </=6 weeks’ gestation increasing 11%. In 2015, 24.6% of all abortions were performed by early medical abortion (a nonsurgical abortion at </=8 weeks’ gestation), 64.3% were performed by surgical abortion at </=13 weeks’ gestation, and 8.8% were performed by surgical abortion at >13 weeks’ gestation; all other methods were uncommon (</=2.2%). Among those that were eligible for early medical abortion on the basis of gestational age (i.e., performed at </=8 weeks’ gestation), 35.8% were completed by this method. In 2015, women with one or more previous live births accounted for 59.3% of abortions, and women with no previous live births accounted for 40.7%. Women with one or more previous induced abortions accounted for 43.6% of abortions, and women with no previous abortion accounted for 56.3%. Women with three or more previous births accounted for 14.2% of abortions, and women with three or more previous abortions accounted for 8.2% of abortions. Deaths of women associated with complications from abortion for 2015 are being assessed as part of CDC’s Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. In 2014, the most recent year for which data were available, six women were identified to have died as a result of complications from legal induced abortion. INTERPRETATION: Among the 49 areas that reported data every year during 2006-2015, decreases in the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions resulted in historic lows for the period of analysis for all three measures of abortion. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: The data in this report can help program planners and policymakers identify groups of women with the highest rates of abortion. Unintended pregnancy is the major contributor to induced abortion. Increasing access to and use of effective contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and further reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Zika virus infection among pregnant women and their neonates in New York City, January 2016-June 2017External
        Conners EE, Lee EH, Thompson CN, McGibbon E, Rakeman JL, Iwamoto M, Cooper H, Vora NM, Limberger RJ, Fine AD, Liu D, Slavinski S.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Aug;132(2):487-495.

        OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare differences in the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of pregnant women with confirmed or probable Zika virus infection and to compare the risk of having a neonate with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection with that of having a neonate without evidence of Zika virus infection by maternal characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with Zika virus infection who completed pregnancy in New York City from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017. Confirmed Zika virus infection was defined as 1) nucleic acid amplification test-detected Zika virus, or 2) a nonnegative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result and a plaque-reduction neutralization test result positive for Zika virus but negative for dengue virus, or 3) delivery of a neonate with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection. Probable infection was defined as a nonnegative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result and a positive plaque-reduction neutralization test result for Zika virus and dengue virus. RESULTS: We identified 390 women with confirmed (28%) or probable (72%) Zika virus infection. Fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis was reported by 31% of women and were more common among women with confirmed than with probable infection (43% vs 26%, P=.001). Of 366 neonates born to these women, 295 (81%) were tested for Zika virus and 22 (7%) had laboratory-diagnosed congenital Zika virus infection. The relative risk (RR) for having a neonate with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection was greater among women with fever (RR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-10.7), tingling (RR 4.8, CI 1.7-13.7), or numbness (RR 6.9, CI 2.6-18.2) during pregnancy or the periconception period. However, the RR did not differ whether the mother had confirmed or probable Zika virus infection (RR 1.6, CI 0.7-4.1). CONCLUSION: In New York City, a greater proportion of women had probable Zika virus infection than confirmed infection. Women with some symptoms during pregnancy or periconceptionally were more likely to have a neonate with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection. Neonates born to women with confirmed or probable Zika virus infection should be tested for Zika virus infection.

      2. Exposure history, post-exposure prophylaxis use, and clinical characteristics of human rabies cases in China, 2006-2012External
        Guo C, Li Y, Huai Y, Rao CY, Lai S, Mu D, Yin W, Yu H, Nie S.
        Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 21;8(1):17188.

        Rabies is still a public health threat in China. Evaluating the exposure history, clinical characteristics, and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of the cases could help in identifying approaches to reducing the number of these preventable deaths. We analysed data collected from 10,971 case-investigations conducted in China from 2006 to 2012. Most cases (n = 7,947; 92.0%) were caused by animal bites; 5,800 (55.8%) and 2,974 (28.6%) exposures were from domestic and free-roaming dogs, respectively. Only 278 (4.8%) of these domestic dogs had previously received rabies vaccination. Among all cases, 5,927 (59.7%) cases had category III wounds, 1,187 (11.7%) cases initiated the rabies PEP vaccination and 234 (3.9%) cases with category III wounds received rabies immunoglobulin. In our adjusted logistic regression model, male cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.44) and farmers (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10-1.77) and person older than 55 years (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.17) were less likely than females and persons in other occupations or younger than 15 years to initiate PEP vaccination. The median incubation period was 66 days (interquartile range (IQR): 33-167 days). To reduce the number of human deaths due to rabies, rabies prevention campaigns targeting males and farmers and older people should be conducted. Increasing routine rabies vaccination among domestic dogs will be essential in the long term.

      3. Persistence of yellow fever virus-specific neutralizing antibodies after vaccination among US travellersExternal
        Lindsey NP, Horiuchi KA, Fulton C, Panella AJ, Kosoy OI, Velez JO, Krow-Lucal ER, Fischer M, Staples JE.
        J Travel Med. 2018 Jan 1;25(1).

        Background: Few studies have assessed the duration of humoral immunity following yellow fever (YF) vaccination in a non-endemic population. We evaluated seropositivity among US resident travellers based on time post-vaccination. Methods: We identified serum samples from US travellers with YF virus-specific plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) performed at CDC from 1988 to 2016. Analyses were conducted to assess the effect of time since vaccination on neutralizing antibody titer counts. Results: Among 234 travellers who had neutralizing antibody testing performed on a specimen obtained >/=1 month after vaccination, 13 received multiple YF vaccinations and 221 had one dose of YF vaccine reported. All 13 who received more than one dose of YF vaccine had a positive PRNT regardless of the amount time since most recent vaccination. Among the 221 travellers with one reported dose of YF vaccine, 155 (70%) were vaccinated within 10 years (range 1 month-9 years) and 66 (30%) were vaccinated >/=10 years (range 10-53 years) prior to serum collection. Among the 155 individuals vaccinated, <10 years prior to serum collection, 146 (94%) had a positive PRNT compared with 82% (54/66) of individuals vaccinated >/=10 years prior to serum collection (P = 0.01). Post-vaccination PRNT titers showed a time-dependent decrease. Individuals with immunocompromising conditions were less likely to have a positive PRNT (77%) compared with those who were not immunocompromised (92%; P = 0.04). Conclusion: Although the percentage of vaccinees with a positive PRNT and antibody titers decreased over time, a single dose of YF vaccine provided long-lasting protection in the majority of US travellers. A booster dose could be considered for certain travellers who are planning travel to a high risk area based on immune competence and time since vaccination.

      4. A systematic review on the impact of gestational Lyme disease in humans on the fetus and newbornExternal
        Waddell LA, Greig J, Lindsay LR, Hinckley AF, Ogden NH.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(11):e0207067.

        Lyme disease (LD), caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Europe. A systematic review (SR) was conducted to summarize the global literature on adverse birth outcomes associated with gestational LD in humans. The SR followed an a priori protocol of pretested screening, risk of bias, and data extraction forms. Data were summarized descriptively and random effects meta-analysis (MA) was used where appropriate. The SR identified 45 relevant studies, 29 describing 59 cases reported as gestational LD in the United States, Europe, and Asia (1969-2017). Adverse birth outcomes included spontaneous miscarriage or fetal death (n = 12), newborn death (n = 8), and newborns with an abnormal outcome (e.g. hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress and syndactyly) at birth (n = 16). Only one report provided a full case description (clinical manifestations in the mother, negative outcome for the child, and laboratory detection of B. burgdorferi in the child) that provides some evidence for vertical transmission of B. burgdorferi that has negative consequences for the fetus. The results of 17 epidemiological studies are included in this SR. Prevalence of adverse birth outcomes in an exposed population (defined by the authors as: gestational LD, history of LD, tick bites or residence in an endemic area) was compared to that in an unexposed population in eight studies and no difference was reported. A meta-analysis of nine studies showed significantly fewer adverse birth outcomes in women reported to have been treated for gestational LD (11%, 95%CI 7-16) compared to those who were not treated during pregnancy (50%, 95%CI 30-70) providing indirect evidence of an association between gestational LD and adverse birth outcomes. Other risk factors investigated; trimester of exposure, length of LD during pregnancy, acute vs. disseminated LD at diagnosis, and symptomatic LD vs. seropositive women with no LD symptoms during pregnancy were not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes. This SR summarizes evidence from case studies that provide some limited evidence for transplacental transmission of B. burgdorferi. There was inconsistent evidence for adverse birth outcomes of gestational LD in the epidemiological research, and uncommon adverse outcomes for the fetus may occur as a consequence of gestational LD. The global evidence does not fully characterize the potential impact of gestational LD, and future research that addresses the knowledge gaps may change the findings in this SR. Given the current evidence; prompt diagnosis and treatment of LD during pregnancy is recommended.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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