Volume 10, Issue 41, October 30, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 41, October 30, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Lung cancer among women in the United StatesExternal
        Henley SJ, Gallaway S, Singh SD, O’Neil ME, Buchanan Lunsford N, Momin B, Richards TB.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018 Oct 12.

        November marks Lung Cancer Awareness Month, and reminds us that lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. In this brief report, we highlight CDC resources that can be used to examine the most recent data on lung cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality among women. Using the U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations tool, we report that in 2015, 104,992 new cases of lung cancer and 70,073 lung cancer deaths were reported among women in the United States. The 5-year relative survival among females diagnosed with lung cancer was 22%, and as of 2015, approximately 185,759 women were living with a lung cancer diagnosis. We also describe ways CDC works to collect and disseminate quality cancer surveillance data, prevent initiation of tobacco use, promote cessation, eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke, identify and eliminate disparities, promote lung cancer screening, and help cancer survivors live longer by improving health outcomes.

      • The early natural history of albuminuria in young adults with youth-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetesExternal
        Kahkoska AR, Isom S, Divers J, Mayer-Davis EJ, Dolan L, Shah AS, Afkarian M, Pettitt DJ, Lawrence JM, Marcovina S, Saydah SH, Dabelea D, Maahs DM, Mottl AK.
        J Diabetes Complications. 2018 Oct 4.

        AIMS: To determine among adolescents and young adults with youth-onset type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes the rates and risk factors for albuminuria regression and progression. METHODS: Data from SEARCH, a longitudinal observational study of youth-onset type 1 diabetes (N=1316) and type 2 diabetes (N=143) were analyzed. Urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured from random urine specimens at baseline and follow-up visits (mean 7years later). Albuminuria regression was defined as halving of baseline UACR when baseline UACR was >/=30mug/mg; progression was defined as doubling of baseline UACR when follow-up UACR was >/=30mug/mg, respectively. Multivariable regression assessed risk factors associated with low-risk albuminuria category (combined persistently-low albuminuria and regression) versus moderate-risk albuminuria category (combined persistently-high albuminuria and progression). RESULTS: Albuminuria progression was more common in type 2 diabetes versus type 1 diabetes (15.4% versus 6.0%, p<0.001). Moderate-risk albuminuria was associated with increasing HbA1c (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and lack of private health insurance (aOR=2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.5) in type 1 diabetes; and African American race (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.2-14.2), lower estimated insulin sensitivity score (aOR=2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3), baseline UACR (aOR=3.2, 95% CI 1.7-5.8), and follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (10-unit increase aOR=1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) in type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In the first decade of diabetes duration, kidney complications in type 2 diabetes are significantly more aggressive than in type 1 diabetes and may be associated with less modifiable risk factors including race, insulin sensitivity, and eGFR. Early interventions may help reduce long-term kidney complications.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Severe pertussis infections in the United States, 2011-2015External
        Mbayei SA, Faulkner A, Miner C, Edge K, Cruz V, Pena SA, Kudish K, Coleman J, Pradhan E, Thomas S, Martin S, Skoff TH.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 15.

        Background: The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased in recent years. While characteristics of severe pertussis infection have been described in infants, fewer data are available in older children and adults. In this analysis, we characterize pertussis infections in hospitalized patients of all ages. Methods: Cases of pertussis with cough onset from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 from 7 U.S. Emerging Infections Program Network states were reviewed. Additional information on hospitalized patients was obtained through abstraction of the inpatient medical record. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were conducted to characterize severe pertussis infection and identify potential risk factors. Results: Among 15,942 cases of pertussis reported, 515 (3.2%) were hospitalized. Three hospitalized patients died. Infants aged <2 months accounted for 1.6% of all pertussis cases but 29.3% of hospitalizations. Infants aged 2-11 months and adults aged >/=65 years also had high rates of hospitalization. Infants aged <2 months whose mothers received Tdap during the 3 rd trimester and children aged 2 months to 11 years who were up to date on pertussis-containing vaccines had a 43-66% reduced risk of hospitalization. Among adolescents aged 12-20 years, 43.5% had a history of asthma and among adults and >/=65 years, 26.8% had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: Individuals at the extreme ends of life may be the most vulnerable to severe pertussis infections, though hospitalization was reported across all age groups. Continued monitoring of severe pertussis infections will be important to help guide prevention, control, and treatment options.

      • Not taking medicine over a specific period of time-non-persistence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-may be associated with higher HIV-viral load. However, national estimates of non-persistence among U.S. HIV patients are lacking. We examined the association between non-persistence and various factors, including sustained HIV-viral suppression (VS) stratified by adherence, and assessed reasons for non-persistence using Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) data. MMP conducts clinical and behavioral surveillance among cross-sectional representative samples of adults receiving HIV care in the U.S. We analyzed weighted MMP interview and medical record abstraction data collected between 6/2011-5/2015 from 18,423 patients self-reporting ART use. We defined non-persistence as a self-initiated decision to not take ART for >/=2 consecutive days in the past 12-months, non-adherence as missing >/=1 ART dose during the past 3-days and sustained VS as all HIV-viral loads documented in medical record during the past 12-months as undetectable or <200 copies/mL. We used Rao-Scott chi-square tests to examine the association between non-persistence and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and medication-related factors. We examined the association between non-persistence and sustained VS, stratified by adherence, and present prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Reasons for non-persistence were assessed. Overall, 7% of patients reported non-persistence. Drug use, depression and medication side effects were associated with non-persistence (P < 0.01). Non-persistence was associated with the lack of sustained VS (PR: .66, CI:63-.70); this association did not differ by adherence level. However, VS was lower among the non-persistent/adherent compared with the persistent/non-adherent [51% (CI:47-54) versus 61% (CI:36-46), P < 0.01]. The most prevalent reason for non-persistence was treatment fatigue (38%). Though few persons in HIV care reported non-persistence, our findings suggest that non-persistence is associated with lack of sustained VS, regardless of adherence. Routine screening for non-persistence during clinical appointments and counseling for those at risk for non-persistence may help improve clinical outcomes.

    • Food Safety
      • Public health investigation and response to a hepatitis A outbreak from imported scallops consumed raw – Hawaii, 2016External
        Viray MA, Hofmeister MG, Johnston DI, Krishnasamy VP, Nichols C, Foster MA, Balajadia R, Wise ME, Manuzak A, Lin Y, Xia G, Basler C, Nsubuga J, Woods J, Park SY.
        Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Oct 17:1-8.

        During the summer of 2016, the Hawaii Department of Health responded to the second-largest domestic foodborne hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in the post-vaccine era. The epidemiological investigation included case finding and investigation, sequencing of RNA positive clinical specimens, product trace-back and virologic testing and sequencing of HAV RNA from the product. Additionally, an online survey open to all Hawaii residents was conducted to estimate baseline commercial food consumption. We identified 292 confirmed HAV cases, of whom 11 (4%) were possible secondary cases. Seventy-four (25%) were hospitalised and there were two deaths. Among all cases, 94% reported eating at Oahu or Kauai Island branches of Restaurant Chain A, with 86% of those cases reporting raw scallop consumption. In contrast, a food consumption survey conducted during the outbreak indicated 25% of Oahu residents patronised Restaurant Chain A in the 7 weeks before the survey. Product trace-back revealed a single distributor that supplied scallops imported from the Philippines to Restaurant Chain A. Recovery, amplification and sequence comparison of HAV recovered from scallops revealed viral sequences matching those from case-patients. Removal of product from implicated restaurants and vaccination of those potentially exposed led to the cessation of the outbreak. This outbreak further highlights the need for improved imported food safety.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines in the severe 2017-2018 epidemic season: a step towards improved influenza vaccine effectivenessExternal
        Barr IG, Donis RO, Katz JM, McCauley JW, Odagiri T, Trusheim H, Tsai TF, Wentworth DE.
        NPJ Vaccines. 2018 ;3:44.

        The 2017-2018 seasonal influenza epidemics were severe in the US and Australia where the A(H3N2) subtype viruses predominated. Although circulating A(H3N2) viruses did not differ antigenically from that recommended by the WHO for vaccine production, overall interim vaccine effectiveness estimates were below historic averages (33%) for A(H3N2) viruses. The majority (US) or all (Australian) vaccine doses contained multiple amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein, resulting from the necessary adaptation of the virus to embryonated hen’s eggs used for most vaccine manufacturing. Previous reports have suggested a potential negative impact of egg-driven substitutions on vaccine performance. With BARDA support, two vaccines licensed in the US are produced in cell culture: recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV, Flublok) manufactured in insect cells and inactivated mammalian cell-grown vaccine (ccIIV, Flucelvax). Quadrivalent ccIIV (ccIIV4) vaccine for the 2017-2018 influenza season was produced using an A(H3N2) seed virus propagated exclusively in cell culture and therefore lacking egg adaptative changes. Sufficient ccIIV doses were distributed (but not RIV doses) to enable preliminary estimates of its higher effectiveness relative to the traditional egg-based vaccines, with study details pending. The increased availability of comparative product-specific vaccine effectiveness estimates for cell-based and egg-based vaccines may provide critical clues to inform vaccine product improvements moving forward.

      • Impact of maternally derived pertussis antibody titers on infant whole-cell pertussis vaccine response in a low income settingExternal
        Ibrahim R, Ali SA, Kazi AM, Rizvi A, Guterman LB, Bednarczyk RA, Kim E, Park S, Paulos S, Jeyachandran A, Patel D, Gorantla Y, Wong E, Rajam G, Schiffer J, Omer SB.
        Vaccine. 2018 Oct 5.

        BACKGROUND: Maternal vaccines against pertussis are not yet recommended in the developing world. Besides unclear burden estimates, another concern is that transplacental transfer of maternal pertussis antibodies could result in attenuation of the immune response to whole cell pertussis (DTwP) primary vaccination series in infants. This study was taken up to determine whether higher levels of maternal pertussis antibodies attenuate immune response of infants to DTwP vaccination series given at 6-10-14weeks of age. METHODOLOGY: A total of 261 pregnant women and their infants from four low-income settlements in Karachi, Pakistan were enrolled in this study. The study endpoints were infant antibody titers for Pertussis toxin (PTx), Filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), Pertactin (PRN) and Fimbriae type 2/3 (FIM) – from birth through 18weeks of age. Cord blood or pre-vaccine pertussis antibody titers indicate the concentration of maternal antibodies transferred to infants. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between higher maternal antibody titers and infant immune response to DTwP vaccine. Geometric Mean Ratio (GMR) was calculated as the ratio of infant antibody titers at specified time points against the maternal antibody titers at the time of delivery. RESULTS: At eighteen weeks of age, the adjusted beta regression coefficient for PTx was 0.06 (95% CI: -0.49-0.61), FHA 0.02 (95% CI: -0.26 -0.29), PRN 0.02 (95%CI -0.38- 0.43), and FIM 0.17 (95%CI: -0.21-0.54). Among infants who received at least two doses of DTwP vaccine, higher maternal antibody titers did not have any attenuating effect on infant post-immunization antibody titers against all four pertussis antigens. CONCLUSION: Maternal pertussis antibodies did not attenuate infant’s immune response to pertussis antigens in DTwP primary vaccine given at 6-10-14weeks of age.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Phenotypic switching in newly emerged multidrug-resistant pathogen Candida aurisExternal
        Bentz ML, Sexton DJ, Welsh RM, Litvintseva AP.
        Med Mycol. 2018 Oct 16.

        Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread rapidly in healthcare settings. Phenotypic switching has been observed in other Candida species and can potentially interfere with correct identification. The aim of this study is to address misidentification of C. auris by describing alternate phenotypes after broth enrichment and subculturing on CHROMagar Candida. Each isolate displayed different frequencies of phenotypic switching, suggesting a strain to strain variability. Increased knowledge of the multiple phenotypes of C. auris increases the chance of isolating and identifying C. auris by reducing the risk of discarding false negative alternate colony morphologies.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      • Prevalence and treatment of depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in US childrenExternal
        Ghandour RM, Sherman LJ, Vladutiu CJ, Ali MM, Lynch SE, Bitsko RH, Blumberg SJ.
        J Pediatr. 2018 Oct 12.

        OBJECTIVES: To use the latest data to estimate the prevalence and correlates of currently diagnosed depression, anxiety problems, and behavioral or conduct problems among children, and the receipt of related mental health treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) to report nationally representative prevalence estimates of each condition among children aged 3-17 years and receipt of treatment by a mental health professional. Parents/caregivers reported whether their children had ever been diagnosed with each of the 3 conditions and whether they currently have the condition. Bivariate analyses were used to examine the prevalence of conditions and treatment according to sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. The independent associations of these characteristics with both the current disorder and utilization of treatment were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among children aged 3-17 years, 7.1% had current anxiety problems, 7.4% had a current behavioral/conduct problem, and 3.2% had current depression. The prevalence of each disorder was higher with older age and poorer child health or parent/caregiver mental/emotional health; condition-specific variations were observed in the association between other characteristics and the likelihood of disorder. Nearly 80% of those with depression received treatment in the previous year, compared with 59.3% of those with anxiety problems and 53.5% of those with behavioral/conduct problems. Model-adjusted effects indicated that condition severity and presence of a comorbid mental disorder were associated with treatment receipt. CONCLUSIONS: The latest nationally representative data from the NSCH show that depression, anxiety, and behavioral/conduct problems are prevalent among US children and adolescents. Treatment gaps remain, particularly for anxiety and behavioral/conduct problems.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      • Method for measuring wear on boot outsoles using a 3D laser scannerExternal
        Whitson AE, Kocher LM, Pollard J, Nasarwanji M.
        Footwear Sci. 2018 .

        In the mining industry, slips and falls are the second leading cause of non-fatal injuries. Footwear is the primary defence against a slip; consequently, the condition of the footwear outsole is critical to maintaining slip resistance. Currently, there is no published method that can be used to determine when the outsole no longer affords adequate slip protection. Moreover, quantifying the condition of the outsole through the measurement of outsole features can be tedious. This article introduces a new method for the quantification of boot outsole wear. Using a handheld 3D scanner, boot scans can be taken quickly and the developed models used to measure outsole features. This method also accounts for the bending of the boot due to normal wear, which may otherwise introduce erroneous measures. When compared to measurements with a traditional handheld calliper, this new method offers more flexibility in terms of data collection, accounts for other types of boot transformations, and is more efficient to use over multiple measurement periods with no statistically significant differences in measurement.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Clinical course of chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis in Alaska Native childrenExternal
        Kinghorn B, Singleton R, McCallum GB, Bulkow L, Grimwood K, Hermann L, Chang AB, Redding G.
        Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Oct 16.

        INTRODUCTION: Alaska Native (AN) children from the Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta region have high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD), including bronchiectasis. We characterized the clinical progress of an AN adolescent cohort with CSLD/bronchiectasis, and estimated bronchiectasis prevalence trends in this region. METHODS: The original cohort comprised 41 AN children (originally aged 0.5-8 years) with CSLD/bronchiectasis, recruited between 2005 and 2008, with follow-up in 2015-2016. Clinical assessments, lung function, radiography, medical chart review, and spirometry were obtained. We also conducted data queries of bronchiectasis diagnoses in YK individuals born between 1990 and 2010 to estimate prevalence. RESULTS: Thirty-four (83%) of the original cohort aged 7.3-17.6 years were reviewed, of whom 14 (41%) had high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-confirmed bronchiectasis, eight (24%) had no evidence of bronchiectasis on HRCT scans, while 12 (35%) had not undergone HRCT scans. Annual lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) frequency decreased with age, although 27 (79%) still had respiratory symptoms, including all with HRCT-confirmed bronchiectasis, who were also more likely than those without confirmed bronchiectasis to have recent wheeze (80 vs 25%, P = 0.005), auscultatory crackles (60 vs 0%, P < 0.001), and lower mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second/forced vital capacity ratio (73 vs 79%, P = 0.03). The bronchiectasis prevalence for YK AN people born during 2000-2009 was 7 per 1000 births, which was lower than previously reported. CONCLUSION: Despite reduced LRTI frequency, most AN children with CSLD/bronchiectasis had symptoms/signs of underlying lung disease as they entered adolescence. Close clinical follow-up remains essential for managing these patients as they transition to adulthood.

      2. Policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) approaches are commonly used to improve population health. Cancer-related examples include providing data and education to stakeholders about policies that support healthy living, or health systems changes such as universal reminders about recommended cancer screening. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds health departments to form cancer coalitions that develop and implement cancer plans. NCCCP initiated a demonstration program in 13 of 65 funded grantees to determine whether skilled, dedicated staffing and using a strategic process to examine data, form a workgroup, and develop an agenda would enhance their capacity to implement PSE approaches, recruit new partners, and provide data and education to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to compare demonstration program grantees to other NCCCP grantees on their ability to develop and implement PSE strategies, and the short-term results that were achieved. Program directors (PDs) from each NCCCP-funded jurisdiction completed web surveys at 2 time points during implementation to assess changes in their capacity for PSE approaches, identify implementation activities, and document short-term outcomes. Responses from demonstration program PDs and other PDs at both time points were compared in a descriptive analysis. Demonstration program grantees experienced greater increases in skills and capacity to address PSE approaches, engaged in necessary implementation activities more often, and achieved greater improvements in stakeholder and decision maker awareness and support for PSE strategies, compared to nonparticipating NCCCP grantees. These findings support continued implementation of PSE approaches for sustainable cancer prevention and control.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. An innovative approach to assess similarity between sex partnersExternal
        An Q, Song R, Finlayson TJ, Sionean C, Wejnert C.
        AIDS Behav. 2018 Oct 12.

        We present a simple, comprehensive method for assessing similarity between sex partners of a participant and demonstrate its application using data collected in 2015 as part of CDC’s National HIV behavioral surveillance (NHBS) among persons who inject drugs (PWID). We found that the pairwise similarity between sex partners of a survey participant was high. The similarity between second-to-last and third-to-last partners in the past 3 months was significantly higher than that between last and second-to-last partner in partner type, frequency of sex acts, and the contextual characteristics of sex behavior at last sexual encounter. The proposed approach provides an innovative measure of the added value of multi-partner series. The empirical analysis suggests that querying additional sex partners contributes limited data to characterize a participant’s sexual behaviors among NHBS PWID. Future studies should apply the proposed method to evaluate the added value of data on multiple sex partners among other populations.

      2. Addressing gaps in HIV preexposure prophylaxis care to reduce racial disparities in HIV incidence in the United StatesExternal
        Jenness SM, Maloney KM, Smith DK, Hoover KW, Goodreau SM, Rosenberg ES, Weiss KM, Liu AY, Rao DW, Sullivan PS.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 11.

        The potential for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the racial disparities in HIV incidence in the United States may be limited by racial gaps in PrEP care. We used a network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission for younger black and white men who have sex with men (B/WMSM) in the Atlanta area to evaluate how race-stratified transitions through the PrEP care continuum from initiation to adherence and retention could impact HIV incidence overall and disparities in incidence between races, using current empirical estimates of BMSM continuum parameters. Relative to a no-PrEP scenario, implementing PrEP according to observed BMSM parameters was projected to yield a 23% decline in HIV incidence (HR = 0.77) among BMSM at year 10. The racial disparity in incidence in this observed scenario was 4.95 per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR), a 19% decline from the 6.08 per 100 PYAR disparity in the no-PrEP scenario. If BMSM parameters were increased to WMSM values, incidence would decline by 47% (HR = 0.53), with an associated disparity of 3.30 per 100 PYAR (a 46% decline in the disparity). PrEP could simultaneously lower HIV incidence overall and reduce racial disparities despite current gaps in PrEP care. Interventions addressing these gaps will be needed to substantially decrease disparities.

      3. HIV and transgender women in Kampala, Uganda – double jeopardyExternal
        King R, Nanteza J, Sebyala Z, Bbaale J, Sande E, Poteat T, Kiyingi H, Hladik W.
        Cult Health Sex. 2018 Oct 17:1-14.

        Transgender women in Kampala face stigma, high HIV acquisition or transmission risk and poor access to health services. We explored the HIV and gender-related contexts of their lives. Snowball sampling was used to enrol 45 participants between July-October 2013. Data collection included audio-computer-assisted self-interviews, qualitative face-to-face interviews and blood tests for HIV and CD4. One in five respondents tested HIV positive. Emergent themes revealed highly varied forms of gender identity and gender expression. Almost all respondents asserted that they frequently engaged in sex work, mainly due to lack of employment. HIV-related themes included limited access to non-stigmatising health services, inconsistent condom use, inaccurate perceptions of self and partners’ risk, alcohol use, receptive anal sex with men, multiple sex partners, frequent self and enacted stigma, and violence. Findings highlight the urgency of providing members of this marginalised population with tailored, innovative, comprehensive and effective HIV prevention programmes that address structural issues such as access to HIV services and limited employment as well as behavioural issues such as inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, self and enacted stigma, violence and alcohol use.

      4. Adult gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis prevalence, incidence, treatment and syndromic case reporting in South Africa: Estimates using the Spectrum-STI model, 1990-2017External
        Kularatne RS, Niit R, Rowley J, Kufa-Chakezha T, Peters RP, Taylor MM, Johnson LF, Korenromp EL.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(10):e0205863.

        OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in prevalence and incidence of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia in adult men and women in South Africa. METHODS: The Spectrum-STI tool estimated trends in prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia, fitting South African prevalence data. Results were used, alongside programmatic surveillance data, to estimate trends in incident gonorrhea cases resistant to first-line treatment, and the reporting gap of symptomatic male gonorrhea and chlamydia cases treated but not reported as cases of urethritis syndrome. RESULTS: In 2017 adult (15-49 years) the estimated female and male prevalences for syphilis were 0.50% (95% CI: 0.32-0.80%) and 0.97% (0.19-2.28%), for gonorrhea 6.6% (3.8-10.8%) and 3.5% (1.7-6.1%), and for chlamydia 14.7% (9.9-21%) and 6.0% (3.8-10.4%), respectively. Between 1990 and 2017 the estimated prevalence of syphilis declined steadily in women and men, probably in part reflecting improved treatment coverage. For gonorrhea and chlamydia, estimated prevalence and incidence showed no consistent time trend in either women or men. Despite growing annual numbers of gonorrhea cases – reflecting population growth – the estimated number of first line treatment-resistant gonorrhea cases did not increase between 2008 and 2017, owing to changes in first-line antimicrobial treatment regimens for gonorrhea in 2008 and 2014/5. Case reporting completeness among treated male urethritis syndrome episodes was estimated at 10-28% in 2017. CONCLUSION: South Africa continues to suffer a high STI burden. Improvements in access and quality of maternal, STI and HIV health care services likely contributed to the decline in syphilis prevalence. The lack of any decline in gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence highlights the need to enhance STI services beyond clinic-based syndromic case management, to reinvigorate primary STI and HIV prevention and, especially for women, to screen for asymptomatic infections.

      5. Generalizing the per-protocol treatment effect: The case of ACTG A5095External
        Lu H, Cole SR, Hall HI, Schisterman EF, Breger TL, K. Edwards J, Westreich D.
        Clin Trials. 2018 Oct 17:1740774518806311.

        Background Intention-to-treat comparisons of randomized trials provide asymptotically consistent estimators of the effect of treatment assignment, without regard to compliance. However, decision makers often wish to know the effect of a per-protocol comparison. Moreover, decision makers may also wish to know the effect of treatment assignment or treatment protocol in a user-specified target population other than the sample in which the trial was fielded. Here, we aimed to generalize results from the ACTG A5095 trial to the US recently HIV-diagnosed target population. Methods We first replicated the published conventional intention-to-treat estimate (2-year risk difference and hazard ratio) comparing a four-drug antiretroviral regimen to a three-drug regimen in the A5095 trial. We then estimated the intention-to-treat effect that accounted for informative dropout and the per-protocol effect that additionally accounted for protocol deviations by constructing inverse probability weights. Furthermore, we employed inverse odds of sampling weights to generalize both intention-to-treat and per-protocol effects to a target population comprising US individuals with HIV diagnosed during 2008-2014. Results Of 761 subjects in the analysis, 82 dropouts (36 in the three-drug arm and 46 in the four-drug arm) and 59 protocol deviations (25 in the three-drug arm and 34 in the four-drug arm) occurred during the first 2 years of follow-up. A total of 169 subjects incurred virologic failure or death. The 2-year risks were similar both in the trial and in the US HIV-diagnosed target population for estimates from the conventional intention-to-treat, dropout-weighted intention-to-treat, and per-protocol analyses. In the US target population, the 2-year conventional intention-to-treat risk difference (unit: %) for virologic failure or death comparing the four-drug arm to the three-drug arm was -0.4 (95% confidence interval: -6.2, 5.1), while the hazard ratio was 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 1.34); the 2-year risk difference was -0.9 (95% confidence interval: -6.9, 5.3) for the dropout-weighted intention-to-treat comparison (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 1.32) and -0.7 (95% confidence interval: -6.7, 5.5) for the per-protocol comparison (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.69, 1.34). Conclusion No benefit of four-drug antiretroviral regimen over three-drug regimen was found from the conventional intention-to-treat, dropout-weighted intention-to-treat or per-protocol estimates in the trial sample or target population.

      6. Time spent with HIV viral load above 1500 copies/ml among patients in HIV care, 2000-2014External
        Mendoza MC, Gardner L, Armon C, Rose CE, Palella FJ, Novak RM, Tedaldi EM, Buchacz K.
        Aids. 2018 Sep 10;32(14):2033-2042.

        OBJECTIVE: Sexual HIV transmission is more likely to occur when plasma HIV RNA level (viral load) exceeds 1500 copies/ml. We assessed the percentage of person-time spent with viral load above 1500 copies/ml (pPT >1500) among adults with HIV in care. DESIGN: Observational cohort in eight United States HIV clinics. METHODS: Participants had at least one HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) clinic visit and at least two viral loads during 2000-2014. We assessed pPT above 1500 in time intervals between consecutive viral load pairs, overall and by ART status. Trends in pPT above 1500 and associations between pPT above 1500 and chosen baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: There were 5873 patients contributing 37 794 person-years; 86.0% person-years had prescribed ART, with increasing coverage over time. Over 2000-2014 pPT above 1500 was 24.2%, decreasing from 38.3% in 2000-2002 to 11.3% in 2012-2014. During observation time with ART prescribed, pPT above 1500 was 16.4% overall, decreasing from 29.9% in 2000-2002 to 8.0% in 2012-2014. pPT above 1500 was higher in patients less than 35 vs. at least 50 years old (31.5 vs. 15.6%), women vs. men (30.8 vs. 22.3%), and black vs. white and Latino/Hispanic patients (32.7 vs. 19.9 and 23.7%, respectively). Multivariable correlates of higher pPT above 1500 included no prescribed ART, being younger, non-Hispanic black vs. white, baseline viral load above 1500 copies/ml or lower CD4 count, and baseline public vs. private insurance. CONCLUSION: pPT above 1500 declined during 2000-2014. Results support decreasing HIV transmission risk from persons in HIV care over the last decade, and the need to focus interventions on patient groups more consistently viremic.

      7. Water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics among HIV-positive households participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in rural western Kenya, 2008-2012External
        Schilling KA, Awuor AO, Rajasingham A, Moke F, Omore R, Amollo M, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Ayers T, Laserson K, Blackstock A, Rothenberg R, Stauber CE, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, O’Reilly CE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Oct;99(4):905-915.

        Diarrheal illness, a common occurrence among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), is largely preventable through access to safe drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. We examined WASH characteristics among households with and without HIV-positive residents enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Western Kenya. Using univariable logistic regression, we examined differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative households in regard to WASH practices. Among HIV-positive households, we explored the relationship between the length of time knowing their HIV status and GEMS enrollment. No statistically significant differences were apparent in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive and HIV-negative households. However, we found differences in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive households who were aware of their HIV status >/= 30 days before enrollment compared with HIV-positive households who found out their status < 30 days before enrollment or thereafter. Significantly more households aware of their HIV-positive status before enrollment reported treating their drinking water (odds ratio [OR] confidence interval [CI]: 2.34 [1.12, 4.86]) and using effective water treatment methods (OR [CI]: 9.6 [3.09, 29.86]), and had better drinking water storage practices. This suggests that within this region of Kenya, HIV programs are effective in promoting the importance of practicing positive WASH-related behaviors among PLHIV.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Not your typical “historian”: Archiving successes and lessons learned during emergency responseExternal
        Lefevre A, Walter-Garcia M, Hanson K, Smith-Easley J.
        Disaster Prev Manag. 2018 .

        Purpose: In the incident command system (ICS) structure, response documentation is formally found within the planning section. However, longer term emergency responses have demonstrated the need for a flexible and innovative role that encompasses a variety of activities, including response documentation, communications science, real-time evaluation of major themes, and information management. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: This need can be universally met through the functional role of “Historian,” a term specific to ICS, or in the case of public health response, incident management system (IMS). It should be noted that the Historian role discussed is not related to the academic study of history, but to archiving key successes and challenges during a response. Ideally the Historian should be activated at the start of an emergency response and remain active to capture the overall picture of the response, including internal information, such as lessons learned, response activities, and decision-making processes. Findings: The Historian compiles details of response activities that inform leadership, donors and external communications products while alleviating pressures on the planning section. The primary, minimum output of an IMS Historian is a response timeline, which notes major internal and external events during a response with emphasis on major themes, lessons learned, and creating a user-friendly interface to display this information (see the list “Abbreviated Example of Hurricane Matthew Response Timeline” in the text). Originality/value: In a world with competing priorities and ongoing emergencies, the Historian?s role of archiving details of response efforts can help the international public health community to share lessons learned and contribute to lower morbidity and mortality among those affected by emergencies.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Host Decoy Trap (HDT) with cattle odour is highly effective for collection of exophagic malaria vectorsExternal
        Abong’o B, Yu X, Donnelly MJ, Geier M, Gibson G, Gimnig J, Ter Kuile F, Lobo NF, Ochomo E, Munga S, Ombok M, Samuels A, Torr SJ, Hawkes FM.
        Parasit Vectors. 2018 Oct 15;11(1):533.

        BACKGROUND: As currently implemented, malaria vector surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa targets endophagic and endophilic mosquitoes, leaving exophagic (outdoor blood-feeding) mosquitoes underrepresented. We evaluated the recently developed host decoy trap (HDT) and compared it to the gold standard, human landing catch (HLC), in a 3 x 3 Latin square study design outdoors in western Kenya. HLCs are considered to represent the natural range of Anopheles biting-behaviour compared to other sampling tools, and therefore, in principle, provide the most reliable profile of the biting population transmitting malaria. The HDT incorporates the main host stimuli that attract blood-meal seeking mosquitoes and can be baited with the odours of live hosts. RESULTS: Numbers and species diversity of trapped mosquitoes varied significantly between HLCs and HDTs baited with human (HDT-H) or cattle (HDT-C) odour, revealing important differences in behaviour of Anopheles species. In the main study in Kisian, the HDT-C collected a nightly mean of 43.2 (95% CI: 26.7-69.8) Anopheles, compared to 5.8 (95% CI: 4.1-8.2) in HLC, while HDT-H collected 0.97 (95% CI: 0.4-2.1), significantly fewer than the HLC. Significantly higher proportions of An. arabiensis were caught in HDT-Cs (0.94 +/- 0.01; SE) and HDT-Hs (0.76 +/- 0.09; SE) than in HLCs (0.45 +/- 0.05; SE) per trapping night. The proportion of An. gambiae (s.s.) was highest in HLC (0.55 +/- 0.05; SE) followed by HDT-H (0.20 +/- 0.09; SE) and least in HDT-C (0.06 +/- 0.01; SE). An unbaited HDT placed beside locales where cattle are usually corralled overnight caught mostly An. arabiensis with proportions of 0.97 +/- 0.02 and 0.80 +/- 0.2 relative to the total anopheline catch in the presence and absence of cattle, respectively. A mean of 10.4 (95% CI: 2.0-55.0) Anopheles/night were trapped near cattle, compared to 0.4 (95% CI: 0.1-1.7) in unbaited HDT away from hosts. CONCLUSIONS: The capability of HDTs to combine host odours, heat and visual stimuli to simulate a host provides the basis of a system to sample human- and cattle-biting mosquitoes. HDT-C is particularly effective for collecting An. arabiensis outdoors. The HDT offers the prospect of a system to monitor and potentially control An. arabiensis and other outdoor-biting mosquitoes more effectively.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Elevated concentrations of urinary triclocarban, phenol and paraben among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Predictors and trendsExternal
        Ashrap P, Watkins DJ, Calafat AM, Ye X, Rosario Z, Brown P, Velez-Vega CM, Alshawabkeh A, Cordero JF, Meeker JD.
        Environ Int. 2018 Oct 10.

        BACKGROUND: Understanding important sources and pathways of exposure to common chemicals known or suspected to impact human health is critical to eliminate or reduce the exposure. This is particularly important in areas such as Puerto Rico, where residents have higher exposures to numerous chemicals, as well as higher rates of many adverse health outcomes, compared to the mainland US. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess distributions, time trends, and predictors of urinary triclocarban, phenol, and paraben biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in Northern Puerto Rico. METHODS: We recruited 1003 pregnant women between years 2010 and 2016 from prenatal clinics and collected urine samples and questionnaire data on personal care product use at up to three separate visits, between 16 and 28weeks gestation. Urine samples were analyzed for triclocarban, seven phenols and four parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F, triclosan, butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, and propylparaben. RESULTS: Detectable triclocarban, phenol and paraben concentrations among pregnant women were prevalent and tended to be higher than levels measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population, especially triclocarban, which had a median concentration 37 times higher in Puerto Rico participants (2.6 vs 0.07ng/mL). A decreasing temporal trend was statistically significant for urine concentrations of BPA during the study period, while the BPA substitute BPS showed an increasing temporal trend. Significant and positive associations were found between biomarker concentrations with the products use in the past 48-h (soap, sunscreen, lotion, cosmetics). There was an increasing trend of triclocarban/triclosan urinary concentrations with increased concentrations of triclocarban/triclosan listed as the active ingredient in the bar soap/liquid soap products reported being used. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest several potential exposure sources to triclocarban, phenols, and parabens in this population and may help inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure.

      2. Association of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A with early pregnancy endpointsExternal
        Chin HB, Jukic AM, Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Ferguson KK, Calafat AM, McConnaughey DR, Baird DD.
        Environ Res. 2018 Oct 1;168:254-260.

        BACKGROUND: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are environmental contaminants that may affect early embryonic development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between phthalate metabolites and BPA with early pregnancy endpoints in a cohort of women followed from before conception. METHODS: We quantified 11 phthalate metabolites and BPA in 137 conception cycles from naturally conceived clinical pregnancies. Phthalate metabolites and BPA concentrations were measured in a pooled sample of three daily morning urine specimens. Daily urinary hormone measurements had previously been used to define ovulation, implantation, and corpus luteum rescue. We assessed associations between conception cycle exposures (phthalate biomarkers and BPA) and 1) time from ovulation to implantation; 2) type of corpus luteum rescue (timing and pattern of rise in progesterone: early, late, or no rise); and 3) rate of initial rise in hCG. RESULTS: Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were associated with earlier implantation (6-8 days vs. 9 days (the most commonly observed); per natural log-unit, OR (95% CI) =2.8 (1.2, 6.7) and OR (CI) =2.1 (1.2, 3.7), respectively). Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with later implantation (10-12 days vs. 9 days); OR (CI) =1.5 (1.0, 2.1). Compared with implantation on day 9, BPA was significantly associated with both earlier and later implantation (OR=2.2 for both). Women with concentrations above the median of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (p=0.04) or above the median of the molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites ( summation operatorDEHP) (p=0.08) had a slower initial rise in hCG. Increasing MCPP was associated with an increased odds of a late rise rescue (OR (CI) =2.9 (1.0, 8.5); late rise vs. early rise), while increasing MEP was associated with a no rise rescue (OR (CI) =1.6 (0.9, 2.8); no rise vs. early rise). CONCLUSIONS: The reported associations varied in their direction of effect, some potentially protective, others adverse. This may reflect the complexity with which these potential endocrine disrupting chemicals can be acting, but chance findings are also possible. Given that women continue to be exposed to these compounds (or their precursors), continued research on the effects they may have on pregnancy is warranted.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Effective regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) has been linked to numerous health outcomes. Within-person variation in diurnal measures of HPA-axis regulation assessed over days, months, and years can range between 50-73% of total variation. In this study of 59 youth (ages 8-13), we quantified the stability of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the diurnal slope, and tonic cortisol concentrations at waking and bedtime across 8 days (2 sets of 4 consecutive days separated by 3 weeks), 3 weeks, and 3 years. We then compared the stability of these indices across three key developmental factors: age, pubertal status, and sex. Youth provided 4 saliva samples per day (waking, 30 min post-waking, before dinner, and before bedtime) for 4 consecutive days during the 3rd week of an ongoing 8-week daily diary study. Youth repeated this same sampling procedure 3 weeks and 3 years later. Using multi-level modeling, we computed the amount of variance in diurnal HPA-axis regulation that was accounted for by nesting an individual’s diurnal cortisol indices within days, weeks, or years. Across days, diurnal slope was the most stable index, whereas waking cortisol and CAR were the least stable. All indices except bedtime cortisol were similarly stable when measured across weeks, and all indices were uniformly stable when measured across 3 years. Boys, younger participants, and youth earlier in their pubertal development at study enrollment exhibited greater HPA-axis stability overall compared with females and older, more physically mature participants. We conclude that important within- and between-subjects questions can be answered about health and human development by studying HPA-axis regulation, and selection of the index of interest should be determined in part by its psychometric characteristics. To this end, we propose a decision tree to guide study design for research in pediatric samples by longitudinal timeframe and sample characteristics.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Genome sequences of rhinovirus genotype C56 detected in three patients with acute respiratory illness, California, 2016 to 2017External
        Pan CY, Yagi S, Padilla T, Fei Fan Ng T, Marine RL, Nix WA, Wadford DA.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2018 ;7(7).

        We report here two genome sequences of a newly designated rhinovirus genotype, RV-C56, which were obtained from respiratory specimens of three patients with acute respiratory illness in 2016 and 2017. To our knowledge, these sequences represent the first near-complete genomes for RV-C56 strains.

    • Global Health
      1. Effectiveness of strategies to improve health-care provider practices in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic reviewExternal
        Rowe AK, Rowe SY, Peters DH, Holloway KA, Chalker J, Ross-Degnan D.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2018 Nov;6(11):e1163-e1175.

        BACKGROUND: Inadequate health-care provider performance is a major challenge to the delivery of high-quality health care in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Health Care Provider Performance Review (HCPPR) is a comprehensive systematic review of strategies to improve health-care provider performance in LMICs. METHODS: For this systematic review we searched 52 electronic databases for published studies and 58 document inventories for unpublished studies from the 1960s to 2016. Eligible study designs were controlled trials and interrupted time series. We only included strategy-versus-control group comparisons. We present results of improving health-care provider practice outcomes expressed as percentages (eg, percentage of patients treated correctly) or as continuous measures (eg, number of medicines prescribed per patient). Effect sizes were calculated as absolute percentage-point changes. The summary measure for each comparison was the median effect size (MES) for all primary outcomes. Strategy effectiveness was described with weighted medians of MES. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016046154. FINDINGS: We screened 216 477 citations and selected 670 reports from 337 studies of 118 strategies. Most strategies had multiple intervention components. For professional health-care providers (generally, facility-based health workers), the effects were near zero for only implementing a technology-based strategy (median MES 1.0 percentage points, IQR -2.8 to 9.9) or only providing printed information for health-care providers (1.4 percentage points, -4.8 to 6.2). For percentage outcomes, training or supervision alone typically had moderate effects (10.3-15.9 percentage points), whereas combining training and supervision had somewhat larger effects than use of either strategy alone (18.0-18.8 percentage points). Group problem solving alone showed large improvements in percentage outcomes (28.0-37.5 percentage points), but, when the strategy definition was broadened to include group problem solving alone or other strategy components, moderate effects were more typical (12.1 percentage points). Several multifaceted strategies had large effects, but multifaceted strategies were not always more effective than simpler ones. For lay health-care providers (generally, community health workers), the effect of training alone was small (2.4 percentage points). Strategies with larger effect sizes included community support plus health-care provider training (8.2-125.0 percentage points). Contextual and methodological heterogeneity made comparisons difficult, and most strategies had low quality evidence. INTERPRETATION: The impact of strategies to improve health-care provider practices varied substantially, although some approaches were more consistently effective than others. The breadth of the HCPPR makes its results valuable to decision makers for informing the selection of strategies to improve health-care provider practices in LMICs. These results also emphasise the need for researchers to use better methods to study the effectiveness of interventions. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CDC Foundation.

    • Health Disparities
      1. Examining the effectiveness of year-round school calendars on improving educational attainment outcomes within the context of advancement of health equity: A Community Guide Systematic ReviewExternal
        Finnie RK, Peng Y, Hahn RA, Johnson RL, Fielding JE, Truman BI, Muntaner C, Fullilove MT, Zhang X.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Oct 15.

        Students may lose knowledge and skills achieved in the school year during the summer break, with losses greatest for students from low-income families. Community Guide systematic review methods were used to summarize evaluations (published 1965-2015) of the effectiveness of year-round school calendars (YRSCs) on academic achievement, a determinant of long-term health. In single-track YRSCs, all students participate in the same school calendar; summer breaks are replaced by short “intersessions” distributed evenly throughout the year. In multi-track YRSCs, cohorts of students follow separate calendar tracks, with breaks at different times throughout the year. An earlier systematic review reported modest gains with single-track calendars and no gains with multi-track calendars. Three studies reported positive and negative effects for single-track programs and potential harm with multi-track programs when low-income students were assigned poorly resourced tracks. Lack of clarity about the role of intersessions as simple school breaks or as additional schooling opportunities in YRSCs leaves the evidence on single-track programs insufficient. Evidence on multi-track YRSCs is also insufficient.

    • Health Economics
      1. Asthma-related impact of extending US parents’ health insurance coverage to young adultsExternal
        Hsu J, Qin X, Mirabelli MC.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep 25.

        [No abstract]

      2. The clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of MMR vaccination to prevent measles importations among US international travelersExternal
        Hyle EP, Fields NF, Fiebelkorn AP, Walker AT, Gastanaduy P, Rao SR, Ryan ET, LaRocque RC, Walensky RP.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 11.

        Background: Measles importations and subsequent spread from US travelers returning from abroad are responsible for most measles cases in the US. Increasing measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination among departing US travelers could reduce the clinical impact and costs of measles in the US. Methods: We designed a decision tree to evaluate MMR vaccination at a pretravel health encounter, compared with no encounter. We derived input parameters from Global TravEpiNet data and literature. We quantified “Riskexposure” to measles while traveling and the average number of US-acquired cases and contacts due to an imported measles case. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the impact of: destination-specific Riskexposure, including “hotspots” with active measles outbreaks; the percentage of previously unvaccinated travelers; and travelers returning to US communities with heterogeneous MMR coverage. Results: The no encounter strategy projected 22 importations and 66 US-acquired measles cases costing $14.8M/10M international travelers. The pretravel encounter strategy projected 15 importations and 35 US-acquired cases at $190.3M/10M international travelers. The pretravel encounter was not cost-effective for all international travelers (ICER, $4.6M/measles case averted) but could offer better value (ICER, <$100,000/measles case averted) or even be cost-saving for travelers to “hotspots,” especially if travelers were unvaccinated or returning to US communities with heterogeneous MMR coverage. Conclusions: A pretravel health encounter that improves MMR vaccination among US international travelers could reduce measles cases but is costly. This strategy offers the best value for travelers with high likelihood of measles exposure, especially if previously unvaccinated or returning to US communities with heterogeneous MMR coverage.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Reply to Mercuro et alExternal
        Kabbani S, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, Fleming-Dutra KE, Pavia AT, Hicks LA.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 28;67(8):1307-1308.

        [No abstract]

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. BACKGROUND: Limited data is available on the use of different HPV vaccines in the same subjects. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a mixed vaccination schedule with one dose of nonavalent (9vHPV) and one dose of bivalent vaccine (2vHPV) administered in different order versus two doses of 9vHPV vaccine. METHODS: 371 girls and boys aged 9-10years were randomized (1:1) to receive (I) two doses of 9vHPV or (II) a mixed schedule of 2vHPV+9vHPV or 9vHPV+2vHPV with a 6month interval. Antibodies to HPV were tested by ELISA in blood samples collected one or six months post-first dose and one month post-second dose. RESULTS: Post-first dose of 9vHPV 99.4-100% of subjects were seropositive to 9 HPV types included in the vaccine. GMTs varied from 5.0 to 73.6IU(AU)/ml depending on HPV type. Post-first dose of 2vHPV all subjects were seropositive to HPV16 and 18 (GMTs 16.7 and 11.7IU/ml, respectively) and 50.0-76.7% were seropositive to 7 types not included in 2vHPV (GMTs varied from 0.3 to 17.5AU/ml depending on type). Post-second dose all subjects, regardless of the study group, were seropositive to 9 HPV types included in 9vHPV. Anti-HPV16 and 18 GMTs were higher in subjects with the mixed schedule and for the other 7 HPV types higher in subjects who received two doses of 9vHPV vaccine. A higher proportion of subjects who received 2vHPV reported local or systemic adverse events than those who received 9vHPV as the first dose. Post-second dose there were no differences in reported adverse events between the two vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the mixed HPV vaccination schedules used in this study are immunogenic and have an acceptable safety profile. Although the seroprotective threshold of antibodies remains unknown the 100% seropositivity to all 9 HPV types included in 9vHPV and the increase of GMTs observed in all study groups post-second dose administration are reassuring and suggest protection might be achieved regardless of the schedule used. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02567955.

      2. Influence of immune priming and egg adaptation in the vaccine on antibody responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after influenza vaccination in adultsExternal
        Liu F, Tzeng WP, Horner L, Kamal RP, Tatum HR, Blanchard EG, Xu X, York I, Tumpey TM, Katz JM, Lu X, Levine MZ.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 5;218(10):1571-1581.

        Background: Although ferret antisera used in influenza surveillance did not detect antigenic drift of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the 2015-2016 season, low vaccine effectiveness was reported in adults. We investigated the immune basis of low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after vaccination. Methods: Prevaccination and postvaccination serum samples collected from >300 adults (aged 18-49 years) in 6 seasons (2010-2011 to 2015-2016) were analyzed using hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate the antibody responses to 13 A(H1N1) viruses circulated from 1977 to 2016. Microneutralization and serum adsorption assays were used to verify the 163K and 223R specificity of antibodies. Results: Individual antibody profiles to A(H1N1) viruses revealed 3 priming patterns: USSR/77, TW/86, or NC/99 priming. More than 20% of adults had reduced titers to cell-propagated circulating 6B.1 and 6B.2 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses compared with the A/California/07/2009 vaccine virus X-179A. Significantly reduced antibody reactivity to circulating viruses bearing K163Q was observed only in the USSR/77-primed cohort, whereas significantly lower reactivity caused by egg-adapted Q223R change was detected across all 3 cohorts. Conclusion: Both 163K specificity driven by immune priming and 223R specificity from egg-adapted changes in the vaccine contributed to low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after vaccination. Our study highlights the need to incorporate human serology in influenza surveillance and vaccine strain selection.

      3. INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the public health benefit of yearly influenza vaccinations, CDC estimates the number of influenza cases and hospitalizations averted by vaccine. Available input data on cases and vaccinations is aggregated by month and the estimation model is intentionally simple, raising concerns about the accuracy of estimates. METHODS: We created a synthetic dataset with daily counts of influenza cases and vaccinations, calculated “true” averted cases using a reference model applied to the daily data, aggregated the data by month to simulate data that would actually be available, and evaluated the month-level data with seven test methods (including the current method). Methods with averted case estimates closest to the reference model were considered most accurate. To examine their performance under varying conditions, we re-evaluated the test methods when synthetic data parameters (timing of vaccination relative to cases, vaccination coverage, infection rate, and vaccine effectiveness) were varied over wide ranges. Finally, we analyzed real (i.e., collected by surveillance) data from 2010 to 2017 comparing the current method used by CDC with the best-performing test methods. RESULTS: In the synthetic dataset (population 1 million persons, vaccination uptake 55%, seasonal infection risk without vaccination 12%, vaccine effectiveness 48%) the reference model estimated 28,768 averted cases. The current method underestimated averted cases by 9%. The two best test methods estimated averted cases with <1% error. These two methods also worked well when synthetic data parameters were varied over wide ranges (</=6.2% error). With the real data, these two methods estimated numbers of averted cases that are a median 8% higher than the currently-used method. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two methods for estimating numbers of influenza cases averted by vaccine that are more accurate than the currently-used algorithm. These methods will help us to better assess the benefits of influenza vaccination.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. An intimate partner violence prevention intervention in a nurse home visitation program: A randomized clinical trialExternal
        Feder L, Niolon PH, Campbell J, Whitaker DJ, Brown J, Rostad W, Bacon S.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018 Oct 11.

        BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with many negative consequences, particularly for pregnant women. This randomized trial investigated the effectiveness of an IPV preventive intervention embedded within the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants enrolled over a 20-month period and were interviewed at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Eligibility criteria included first pregnancy, eligible for the nutrition program Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), English or Spanish speaking, and at least 15 years of age. All women initially referred and screened were randomized to either intervention (NFP+) or control (NFP only) condition. The final sample consisted of 238 women completing baseline assessments; retention was 81% at 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: Analyses indicated that there were no main effects: the intervention affected participants differently depending on their baseline experience with IPV. For physical violence victimization, an interaction between baseline victimization and treatment was found; the intervention reduced victimization at 1 year (and approached significance at 2 years), but only among women who had not experienced past-year physical victimization at baseline. For sexual violence victimization, another interaction emerged; women in the intervention group were more likely to report sexual violence victimization at 2-year follow-up, but only among participants who had reported sexual victimization at baseline. The only effect on IPV perpetration was psychological perpetration at 2-year follow-up; again, the treatment effect was moderated by baseline perpetration. The intervention reduced psychological perpetration for participants who were nonperpetrators at baseline, but had no effect on those reporting perpetration. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings suggest that the intervention was effective in reducing some forms of violence among those not experiencing IPV at baseline, but was ineffective or potentially harmful for those already experiencing IPV.

      2. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can negatively affect lifelong health and opportunity. Acquired brain injury (ABI), which includes traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as other causes of brain injury, is a health condition that affects millions annually. The present study uses data from the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the relationship between ACEs and ABI. The study sample included 3454 participants who completed questions on both ABI and ACEs. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between ACEs and ABI as well as ACEs and TBI. Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse, household mental illness and household substance abuse were significantly associated with ABI after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and employment. Compared with those reporting no ACEs, individuals reporting three ACEs had 2.55 times the odds of having experienced an ABI; individuals reporting four or more ACEs had 3.51 times the odds of having experienced an ABI. Examining TBI separately, those who experienced sexual abuse, physical abuse, household mental illness and had incarcerated household members in childhood had greater odds of reported TBI, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and income. Respondents reporting three ACEs (AOR=4.16, 95% CI (1.47 to 11.76)) and four or more ACEs (AOR=3.39, 95% CI (1.45 to 7.90)) had significantly greater odds of reporting TBI than respondents with zero ACEs. Prevention of early adversity may reduce the incidence of ABI; however, additional research is required to elucidate the potential pathways from ACEs to ABI, and vice versa.

      3. Addressing intimate partner violence to improve women’s preconception healthExternal
        Morgan IA, Robbins CL, Basile KC.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018 Oct;27(10):1189-1194.

        Exposure to violence can harm women’s overall health and well-being. Data suggest that one in three women in the United States experience some form of violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime. In this commentary, we describe the implications of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women’s health, specifically for women of reproductive age. We use a life-course perspective to describe the compounded impact of IPV on preconception health. Preconception health generally refers to the overall health and well-being of women (and men) before pregnancy. This report also discusses primary prevention of IPV and healthcare recommendations, and highlights surveillance systems that capture IPV indicators among women of reproductive age. Ongoing collection of state-level surveillance data may inform the implementation of intervention programs tailored to reproductive age women at risk for IPV.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Background: Secondary spread of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs often in endemic settings in developing countries. The host immune signatures contributing to protection against subsequent HEV reinfection are unknown. Methods: Twelve seroconverted rhesus macaques were re-inoculated with homologous HEV genotype 1 (gt1, Sar-55) and followed for 115 days. HEV RNA, HEV-specific T-cell responses, IgG anti-HEV antibody, and the IgG anti-HEV avidity index were tested. Results: Four animals with baseline IgG anti-HEV levels from 1.5 to 13.4 WHO U/ml evidenced reinfection as determined by HEV RNA in stool, and increase in IgG anti-HEV levels between 63- and 285-fold (P= 0.003). Eight animals with baseline IgG anti-HEV levels from 2.8 to 90.7 WHO U/ml did not develop infection or shed virus in feces, and IgG anti-HEV antibody levels were unchanged (P= 0.017). The four reinfected animals showed a lower HEV-IgG avidity index (average 35.5%) than the 8 protected animals (average 62.1%). HEV-specific IFN- producing T cells were 2-fold higher in reinfected animals (P= 0.018). Conclusions: Pre-existing antibody and high IgG avidity index (>50%) are important factors for protection against HEV reinfection. HEV-specific T cell responses were elevated in reinfected animals after subsequent exposure to HEV.

      2. Role of p53 in the chronic pulmonary immune response to tangled or rod-like multi-walled carbon nanotubesExternal
        Duke KS, Thompson EA, Ihrie MD, Taylor-Just AJ, Ash EA, Shipkowski KA, Hall JR, Tokarz DA, Cesta MF, Hubbs AF, Porter DW, Sargent LM, Bonner JC.
        Nanotoxicology. 2018 Oct 14:1-17.

        The fiber-like shape of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reminiscent of asbestos, suggesting they pose similar health hazards when inhaled, including pulmonary fibrosis and mesothelioma. Mice deficient in the tumor suppressor p53 are susceptible to carcinogenesis. However, the chronic pathologic effect of MWCNTs delivered to the lungs of p53 heterozygous (p53(+/-)) mice has not been investigated. We hypothesized that p53(+/-) mice would be susceptible to lung tumor development after exposure to either tangled (t-) or rod-like (r-) MWCNTs. Wild-type (p53(+/+)) or p53(+/-) mice were exposed to MWCNTs (1 mg/kg) via oropharyngeal aspiration weekly over four consecutive weeks and evaluated for cellular and pathologic outcomes 11-months post-initial exposure. No lung or pleural tumors were observed in p53(+/+) or p53(+/-) mice exposed to either t- or rMWCNTs. In comparison to tMWCNTs, the rMWCNTs induced the formation of larger granulomas, a greater number of lymphoid aggregates and greater epithelial cell hyperplasia in terminal bronchioles in both p53(+/-) and p53(+/+) mice. A constitutively larger area of CD45R(+)/CD3(+) lymphoid tissue was observed in p53(+/-) mice compared to p53(+/+) mice. Importantly, p53(+/-) mice had larger granulomas induced by rMWCNTs as compared to p53(+/+) mice. These findings indicate that a combination of p53 deficiency and physicochemical characteristics including nanotube geometry are factors in susceptibility to MWCNT-induced lymphoid infiltration and granuloma formation.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Diagnostic accuracy of phenotype classification in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy using medical record dataExternal
        Andrews JG, Lamb M, Conway K, Street N, Westfield C, Ciafaloni E, Matthews D, Cunniff C, Pandya S, Fox DJ, S. TARnet MD.
        J Neuromuscul Dis. 2018 Oct 3.

        Dystrophinopathies are caused by mutations in DMD resulting in progressive muscle weakness. They are historically divided into the more severe Duchenne (DMD) and milder Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy phenotypes. Classification is important for research and clinical care. The purpose of this study was to describe a multi-variable approach to classifying cases from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet) and to assess the accuracy of the diagnostic classification scheme. We used age at loss of mobility, molecular testing results, and age at symptom onset to classify cases as having DMD or BMD and to assess sensitivity and specificity. Mobility status showed low sensitivity and high specificity for predicting DMD (65.5% and 99.3%, respectively) and BMD (62.8% and 97.7%, respectively) phenotypes. Molecular testing showed 90.9% sensitivity and 66.4% specificity for DMD; 76.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity for BMD. Age of onset predicted DMD with sensitivity of 73.9% and specificity of 69.0%; BMD had 99.7% specificity and 36.7% sensitivity. Mobility status, molecular test results, and age at symptom onset are important but inconsistent measures for accurately classifying individuals into DMD or BMD phenotypes. These results have implications for prognosis in newly diagnosed individuals and for classifying phenotype in clinical trials.

      2. Good practices for the design, analysis, and interpretation of observational studies on birth spacing and perinatal health outcomesExternal
        Hutcheon JA, Moskosky S, Ananth CV, Basso O, Briss PA, Ferre CD, Frederiksen BN, Harper S, Hernandez-Diaz S, Hirai AH, Kirby RS, Klebanoff MA, Lindberg L, Mumford SL, Nelson HD, Platt RW, Rossen LM, Stuebe AM, Thoma ME, Vladutiu CJ, Ahrens KA.
        Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 12.

        BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies have shown that women with a shorter interpregnancy interval (the time from delivery to start of a subsequent pregnancy) are more likely to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery or small for gestational age birth, than women who space their births further apart. However, the studies used to inform these estimates have methodological shortcomings. METHODS: In this commentary, we summarise the discussions of an expert workgroup describing good practices for the design, analysis, and interpretation of observational studies of interpregnancy interval and adverse perinatal health outcomes. RESULTS: We argue that inferences drawn from research in this field will be improved by careful attention to elements such as: (a) refining the research question to clarify whether the goal is to estimate a causal effect vs describe patterns of association; (b) using directed acyclic graphs to represent potential causal networks and guide the analytic plan of studies seeking to estimate causal effects; (c) assessing how miscarriages and pregnancy terminations may have influenced interpregnancy interval classifications; (d) specifying how key factors such as previous pregnancy loss, pregnancy intention, and maternal socio-economic position will be considered; and (e) examining if the association between interpregnancy interval and perinatal outcome differs by factors such as maternal age. CONCLUSION: This commentary outlines the discussions of this recent expert workgroup, and describes several suggested principles for study design and analysis that could mitigate many potential sources of bias.

      3. Relationship of weight outcomes, co-occurring conditions, and severity of autism spectrum disorder in the study to explore early developmentExternal
        Levy SE, Pinto-Martin JA, Bradley CB, Chittams J, Johnson SL, Pandey J, Pomykacz A, Ramirez A, Reynolds A, Rubenstein E, Schieve LA, Shapira SK, Thompson A, Young L, Kral TV.
        J Pediatr. 2018 Oct 9.

        OBJECTIVE: To assess contributing factors to increased obesity risk, by comparing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays/disorders, and general population controls in weight status, and to examine associations between weight status and presence of co-occurring medical, behavioral, developmental, or psychiatric conditions across groups and ASD severity among children with ASD. STUDY DESIGN: The Study to Explore Early Development is a multisite cross-sectional study of children, 2-5 years of age, classified as children with ASD (n = 668), children with developmental delays/disorders (n = 914), or general population controls (n = 884). Using an observational cohort design, we compared the 3 groups. Children’s heights and weights were measured during a clinical visit. Co-occurring conditions (medical, behavioral, developmental/psychiatric) were derived from medical records, interviews, and questionnaires. ASD severity was measured by the Ohio State University Global Severity Scale for Autism. RESULTS: The odds of overweight/obesity were 1.57 times (95% CI 1.24-2.00) higher in children with ASD than general population controls and 1.38 times (95% CI 1.10-1.72) higher in children with developmental delays/disorders than general population controls. The aORs were elevated for children with ASD after controlling for child co-occurring conditions (ASD vs general population controls: aOR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.14-2.00). Among children with ASD, those with severe ASD symptoms were 1.7 times (95% CI 1.1-2.8) more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared with children with mild ASD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of excess weight gain in children with ASD, especially those with severe symptoms, and in children with developmental delays/disorders represents an important target for intervention.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Occupation and task as risk factors for asthma-related outcomes among healthcare workers in New York CityExternal
        Caridi MN, Humann MJ, Liang X, Su FC, Stefaniak AB, LeBouf RF, Stanton ML, Virji MA, Henneberger PK.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Oct 13.

        BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association of asthma onset and exacerbation with cleaning and disinfecting activities in a number of industries, including healthcare. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of asthma and related outcomes with occupations and tasks in urban healthcare workers in the United States. METHODS: A questionnaire was implemented in a sample of workers from nine healthcare occupations in New York City. We used regression models to examine the association of post-hire asthma, current asthma, exacerbation of asthma, a symptom algorithm for bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR-related symptoms), a symptom-based asthma score, and the symptom wheeze with occupation and four healthcare tasks, while adjusting for other risk factors and potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 2030 participants completed the questionnaire. The task of cleaning fixed surfaces was significantly associated with most outcome variables, including current asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.68), moderate exacerbation (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.25-7.67), and BHR-related symptoms (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.77). In comparison to nursing assistants, the occupations environmental service workers and registered nurses were at higher risk for current asthma, and licensed practical nurses were at higher risk for moderate exacerbation. Other tasks associated with outcomes were administering aerosolized medications with current asthma and moderate exacerbation, and sterilizing medical equipment with BHR-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the growing body of evidence for the association of asthma with cleaning and other activities in healthcare. Further research is especially needed to investigate the association of asthma-related outcomes with exposure metrics based on tasks, products, and chemical exposures in healthcare.

      2. BACKGROUND: We determined the incidence and circumstances of needlestick injuries and other body substance exposures among police officers in a city police department. METHODS: We analyzed data extracted from the city’s centralized human resource database on all incidents from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016, and characterized their circumstances. We calculated the annual incidence of needlestick injuries per 1,000 officers and per 10,000 reactive calls. We ran a Poisson regression model to determine the trend in the annual incidence over time. RESULTS: We found 13 needlestick injuries and 37 additional body substance exposures involving city police officers. Needlestick injuries most commonly occurred during pat-down searches and searches of property or vehicles; 9 source persons tested positive for hepatitis C. The annual incidence of needlestick injuries ranged from 0-5.1 per 1,000 police officers and from 0-2.5 per 10,000 reactive calls for service without a significant trend. Most body substance exposures consisted of spitting, human bites, and other contact with blood. No incidents reportedly led to transmission of bloodborne viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Although these appear to be rare events, police officers in this department are at risk for needlestick injuries and other body substance exposures. We recommended engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment control improvements.

      3. A field evaluation of a single sampler for respirable and inhalable indium and dust measurements at an indium-tin oxide manufacturing facilityExternal
        Hawley B, Gibbs JL, Cummings K, Stefaniak AB, Park JY, Stanton M, Virji MA.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Oct 16:1-30.

        Indium-tin oxide production has increased greatly in the last twenty years subsequent to increased global demand for touch screens and photovoltaics. Previous studies used measurements of indium in blood as an indicator of indium exposure and observed associations with adverse respiratory outcomes. However, correlations between measurements of blood indium and airborne respirable indium are inconsistent, in part because of the long half-life of indium in blood, but also because respirable indium measurements do not incorporate inhalable indium that can contribute to the observed biological burden. Information is lacking on relationships between respirable and inhalable indium exposure, which have implications for biological indicators like blood indium. The dual IOM sampler includes the foam disc insert and can simultaneously collect respirable and inhalable aerosol. Here, the field performance of the dual IOM sampler was evaluated by comparing performance with the respirable cyclone and traditional IOM for respirable and inhalable indium and dust exposure, respectively. Side-by-side area air samples were collected throughout an indium-tin oxide manufacturing facility. Cascade impactors were used to determine particle size distribution. Several statistical methods were used to evaluate the agreement between the pairs of samplers including calculating the concordance correlation coefficient and its accuracy and precision components. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of dust concentration on sampler differences. Respirable indium measurements showed better agreement (concordance correlation coefficient: 0.932) compared to respirable dust measurements (concordance correlation coefficient: 0.777) with significant differences observed in respirable dust measurements. The dual IOM measurements had high agreement with the traditional IOM for inhalable indium (concordance correlation coefficient: 0.997) but lower agreement for inhalable dust (concordance correlation coefficient: 0.886 and accuracy: 0.896) with a significantly large mean bias (-146.5 microg/m(3)). Dust concentration significantly affected sampler measurements of inhalable dust and inhalable indium. Results from this study suggest that the dual IOM is a useful single sampler for simultaneous measurements of occupational exposure to respirable and inhalable indium.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. NIOSH extramural research funding: Fulfilling the mandate of the MINER actExternal
        Burr JF, Snyder DP, Luxbacher GW.
        Min Eng. 2018 ;70(10):18-28.

        [No abstract]

      2. Airborne respirable coal dust capture by water sprays or wet scrubbers has been studied and developed over many decades as an engineering control to reduce dust exposure in coal mines and combat coal worker pneumoconiosis. Empirical relationships and deterministic models for particular dust capture experiments have previously been devised to show the key parameters involved in airborne coal dust capture. Many of the results from these models show that the significant parameters related to airborne dust capture are water spray pressure, water quantity, water droplet size, relative water droplet-to-dust particle velocity, and total operating air pressure of the scrubber. However, many airborne dust capture efficiency relationships and models developed for particular experiments cannot be readily applied to forecast the dust collection efficiency of different spray and scrubber design configurations, which rely on several key dimensional engineering measures. This study examines engineering measures from previous water spray and wet scrubber experiments conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) to develop empirical models for wet collection of airborne dusts. A dimensionless empirical model developed for predicting airborne dust capture efficiency of water sprays and wet scrubbers is presented.

      3. Portable refuge alternatives temperature and humidity testsExternal
        Yan L, Yantek D.
        Min Eng. 2018 ;70(10):43-49.

        Federal regulations require refuge alternatives in underground coal mines to sustain life for 96 h while maintaining an apparent temperature below 35 C (95 F). Research by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has shown that heat and humidity buildup is a major concern with refuge alternatives because they have limited ability to dissipate heat, and high internal air temperature and relative humidity (RH) may expose occupants to heat stress. The heat transfer process within and surrounding a refuge alternative is complex and not easily defined, analytically or experimentally. To investigate heat and humidity buildup in refuge alternatives, NIOSH conducted multiple in-mine, 96-h tests on a 10-person tent-type refuge alternative, a 23-person tent-type refuge alternative and a six-person metal-type refuge alternative. The results show that when moisture was introduced to represent perspiration and respiration from miners (wet tests), the average temperature at midheight increased by 10.5 C (18.9 F) and the RH approached 88 percent for the 10-person tent-type refuge alternative; the average temperature at midheight increased by 9.4 C (16.9 F) and the RH approached 94 percent for the 23-person tent-type refuge alternative; and the average temperature at midheight increased by 7.7 C (13.9 F) and the RH approached 95 percent for the six-person metal-type refuge alternative. For the dry tests, where no moisture was introduced, the average internal temperature increased by 12.6 C (22.7 F) for the 10-person tent-type refuge alternative, by 10.3 C (18.5 F) for the 23-person tent-type refuge alternative and by 8.4 C (15.1 F) for the six-person metal-type refuge alternative. These results may provide refuge alternative manufacturers and mine operators with guidelines and considerations for evaluating temperature profiles for portable refuge alternatives. The information may then be used to make decisions on occupancy ratings and heat mitigation strategies based on the thermal environment in which the refuge alternatives will be installed.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. BACKGROUND: An estimated 30 million women give birth annually in malaria endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes. To combat the adverse effects of MiP, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the provision of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. In 2012, the WHO updated its policy with respect to IPTp administration to recommend administration at each antenatal care visit in the second and third trimesters, with a minimum of three, rather than two, doses. While rapid improvements in coverage were expected, gains have occurred more slowly than anticipated. METHODS: The President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) assessed IPTp uptake before and after countries implemented the new WHO policy, and assessed how long it took for implementation to occur, using a combination of data from household surveys, routine health management information systems, and programmatic data provided to PMI. RESULTS: It took an average of 2 years for countries to complete the process of revising their IPTp policies, and it was not until 2015 that all 17 PMI countries had updated their policies. Policy dissemination and training had not been completed in several countries as of early 2018, and only seven countries had fully implemented the new policy including updating their antenatal care registers to collect information on IPTp3+ coverage. The coverage of IPTp1+, 2+, and 3+ has increased by 19, 16, and 13 percentage points since the revised IPTp policy adoption. DISCUSSION: Overall, coverage of both IPTp2+ and IPTp3+ has improved in recent years. The change in policy from a minimum of two to a minimum of three doses has likely contributed to these improvements. Progress has been slow, likely related to the complicated process of policy adoption exacerbated by the lag in measurement through national household surveys. The impact of future policy changes may be more readily seen if the policy change and implementation process were more streamlined and coordinated between key stakeholders (National Malaria Control Programmes and Reproductive Health Programmes), with more real-time data reporting.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other substance use by adolescents can have a serious impact on their health and well-being according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, 2016). School social workers (SSW) are trained to conduct assessments and interventions with adolescents and families to improve their functioning and academic performance (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 2003). Also, substance abuse prevention, identification, brief intervention, and referral to treatment are supported by the profession’s standards for working with adolescents (NASW, 2003). For SSW interested in incorporating these services into their work, this practice highlights column describes the importance and principles of conducting adolescent screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for substance use. Highlights are drawn from Substance Use Screening and Intervention Implementation Guide: No Amount of Substance Use Is Safe for Adolescents (hereinafter, AAP Guide), a guide developed through a cooperative agreement between AAP and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (AAP, 2016).

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. BACKGROUND: There are approximately 35,000 human deaths from rabies in Asia annually. Rabies can be prevented through timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) consisting of wound washing, rabies vaccine, and in some cases, rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). However, access to rabies PEP often remains limited to urban areas and is cost-prohibitive. There is little information on procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting of rabies PEP. METHODS: We interviewed key informants in the public sector from various levels in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka between March 2017 and May 2018 using a descriptive assessment tool to obtain information on procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting of rabies PEP. These four countries in Asia were chosen to showcase a range of rabies PEP systems. National rabies focal points were interviewed in each country and focal points helped identify additional key informants at lower levels. RESULTS: A total of 22 key informants were interviewed at various levels (central level to health facility level) including national rabies focal points in each country. Each country has a unique system for managing rabies PEP procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting. There are varying levels of PEP access for those with potential rabies exposures. Rabies PEP is available in select health facilities throughout the country in Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. In Cambodia, rabies PEP is limited to two urban centers. The availability of RIG in all four countries is limited. In these four countries, most aspects of the rabies PEP distribution system operate independently of systems for other vaccines. However, in Bhutan, rabies PEP and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) vaccines share cold chain space in some locations at the lowest level. All countries have a monitoring system in place, but there is limited reporting of data, particularly to the central level. CONCLUSION: Systems to procure, deliver, monitor, and report on rabies PEP are variable across countries. Sharing information on practices more widely among countries can help programs to increase access to this life-saving treatment.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019