Volume 10, Issue 36, September 25, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 36, September 25, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week, Science Clips is pleased to feature articles from the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) supplement Public Health Emergencies: Unpacking Medical Countermeasures Management for Preparedness and ResponseExternal, published in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Medical countermeasures (MCMs) are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality in the event of a large-scale public health emergency that stems from chemical, biological, radiological, natural disasters or widespread infectious disease and contagions. MCMs are a broad spectrum of medical assets that can provide life-saving support to prevent epidemics or in response to a public health emergency.

The supplement provides a glimpse of public health preparedness requirements to ensure MCM are available for immediate deployment when the public requires protection.  There are 14 articles in the form of briefs, commentaries, a public health practice summary, analytic essay, and a series of content focused perspectives to highlight past, present, and future considerations for MCM preparedness programs, response, and evaluation. 

The papers presented in the supplement represent a small fraction of the topic areas spanning the varied and complex components of a MCM response. The state of the nation’s biodefense continues to evolve and shine new light on emerging issues and challenges related to supporting a MCM response. A successful MCM mission relies on seamless coordination of a multitude of stakeholders across local, state, tribal, territorial, and federal entities, agencies, organizations, public and private partners, and individuals. Continued training, assessment, and evaluation are critical to ensure timely, and appropriate quality care following mass emergencies that rely on MCM to foster optimal health outcomes for all people.

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs). The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Medical countermeasures: Mission, method, and managementExternal
        Avchen RN, LeBlanc TT, Kosmos C.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S172.

        [No abstract]

      2. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Strategic National Stockpile is a national repository of potentially life-saving medical countermeasures including pharmaceuticals and medical supplies for use in a public health emergency severe enough to cause local, regional, and state supplies to run out. Several planning considerations can assist state, local, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in preparing to receive, distribute, dispense, and administer medical countermeasures from the Strategic National Stockpile. These considerations include, but are not limited to, issues surrounding regulatory requirements, controlled substances, cold chain management, and ancillary supply needs. Multiple aspects to consider for each of these functions are discussed here to assist partners in their planning efforts.

      3. Serosurveillance of first-year military personnel for hepatitis A and BExternal
        Broderick M, Kamili S, Nelson NP, Le T, Faix D, Romero-Steiner S.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S204-s206.

        [No abstract]

      4. An efficient model for designing medical countermeasure just-in-time training during public health emergenciesExternal
        Cathcart LA, Ramirez-Leon G, Orozco YA, Flanagan EA, Young SE, Garcia RA.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S212-s214.

        Rapidly training numerous staff and volunteers to distribute and dispense medical countermeasures is challenging because of limited resources and evolving information during public health emergencies. The Applied Learning and Development Team within the Division of State and Local Readiness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) proposes just-in-time training (JITT) templates that can be rapidly customized and implemented early in any public health emergency. The proposed template model aligns with modular training design research to increase relevance and rapid deployment of training. Two case studies are described to demonstrate the potential for training templates to support medical countermeasure responses: (1) customization and implementation of a JITT to prepare staff to work on a CDC task force during the 2016-2017 Zika virus response and (2) a new modular, customizable course to teach the basics about working at a point-of-dispensing site. Flexible JITT templates in these cases reduce the burden on emergency planners and trainers, allowing for rapidly developed, customized training viable for all emergency responses.

      5. Public health emergency response lessons learned by Rapid Deployment Force 3, 2006-2016External
        Iskander J, McLanahan E, Thomas JD, Henry JB, Byrne D, Williams H.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S179-s182.

        Following Hurricane Katrina, the uniformed US Public Health Service created an updated system through which its officers participated in emergency responses. The Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) concept, begun in 2006, involved five teams of officers with diverse clinical and public health skill sets organized into an incident command system led by a team commander. Each team can deploy within 12 hours, according to a defined but flexible schedule. The core RDF mission is to set up and provide care for up to 250 patients, primarily persons with chronic diseases or disabilities, in a temporary federal medical station. Between 2006 and 2016, the RDF 3 team deployed multiple times in response to natural disasters and public health emergencies. Notable responses included Hurricane Sandy in 2012, the unaccompanied children mission in 2014, and the Louisiana floods in 2016. Lessons learned from the RDF 3 experience include the need for both clinical and public health capacity, the value of having special mental health resources, the benefits of collaboration with other federal medical responders, and recognition of the large burden of chronic disease management issues following natural disasters.

      6. Timely antiviral administration during an influenza pandemic: Key componentsExternal
        Koonin LM, Patel A.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S215-s220.

        Prompt treatment of ill persons with influenza antivirals will be an important part of a future pandemic influenza response. This essay reviews key lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the changing landscape of antiviral drug availability, and identifies and describes the multiple components needed to ensure the timely administration of antiviral drugs during a future pandemic. Fortunately, many of these planning efforts can take place before a pandemic strikes to improve outcomes during a future public health emergency.

      7. Medical countermeasure actions – a historical perspectiveExternal
        LeBlanc TT, Ekperi L, Avchen RN, Kosmos C.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S175-s176.

        [No abstract]

      8. [No abstract]

      9. Key elements for conducting vaccination exercises for pandemic influenza preparednessExternal
        Lehnert JD, Moulia DL, Murthy NC, Fiebelkorn AP, Vagi SJ, Dopson SA, Graitcer SB.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S194-s195.

        [No abstract]

      10. Performance of point of dispensing setup drills for distribution of medical countermeasures: United States and Territories, 2012-2016External
        Pagaoa M, Leblanc TT, Renard P, Brown S, Fanning M, Avchen RN.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S221-s223.

        OBJECTIVES: To describe results of points of dispensing (POD) medical countermeasure drill performance among local jurisdictions. METHODS: To compare POD setup times for each year, we calculated descriptive statistics of annual jurisdictional POD setup data submitted by over 400 local jurisdictions across 50 states and 8 US territories to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) program monitoring database from July 2012 to June 2016. RESULTS: In data collected from July 2012 to June 2015, fewer than 5% of PODs required more than 240 minutes to set up, although the proportion increased from July 2015 to June 2016 to almost 12%. From July 2012 to June 2016, more than 60% of PODs were set up in less than 90 minutes, with 60 minutes as the median setup time during the period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results yield evidence of national progress for response to a mass medical emergency. Technical assistance may be required to aid certain jurisdictions for improvement. Public Health Implications. The results of this study may inform future target times for performance on POD setup activities and highlight jurisdictions in need of technical assistance.

      11. Use of medical countermeasures in small-scale emergency responsesExternal
        Perry IA, Noe RS, Stewart A.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(S3):S196-s201.

        It is well documented that long-standing focus on public health emergency preparedness medical countermeasures (MCMs) distribution and mass dispensing capabilities for mitigation of bioterrorism incidents and a lack of real-world opportunities to test national preparedness for large-scale emergencies has hindered development of a body of evidence-based practices in the United States. To encourage jurisdictions seeking innovative opportunities for continuous improvement, we describe instances when the MCM capabilities were used to address smaller-scale, more-frequent public health emergencies such as disease outbreaks, natural disasters, or routine influenza vaccination. We argue that small-scale events represent a critical opportunity that state, local, tribal, and territorial entities can utilize for greater gains in MCM operational readiness than through exercises or planned reviews. By using and evaluating MCM capabilities during a real response, jurisdictions can advance preparedness science and support the translation of research into practice, thereby increasing their capacity to scale up for larger, rarer, higher-consequence emergencies.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Prevalence of chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain among adults – United States, 2016External
        Dahlhamer J, Lucas J, Zelaya C, Nahin R, Mackey S, DeBar L, Kerns R, Von Korff M, Porter L, Helmick C.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 14;67(36):1001-1006.

        Chronic pain, one of the most common reasons adults seek medical care (1), has been linked to restrictions in mobility and daily activities (2,3), dependence on opioids (4), anxiety and depression (2), and poor perceived health or reduced quality of life (2,3). Population-based estimates of chronic pain among U.S. adults range from 11% to 40% (5), with considerable population subgroup variation. As a result, the 2016 National Pain Strategy called for more precise prevalence estimates of chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain (i.e., chronic pain that frequently limits life or work activities) to reliably establish the prevalence of chronic pain and aid in the development and implementation of population-wide pain interventions (5). National estimates of high-impact chronic pain can help differentiate persons with limitations in major life domains, including work, social, recreational, and self-care activities from those who maintain normal life activities despite chronic pain, providing a better understanding of the population in need of pain services. To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain in the United States, CDC analyzed 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. An estimated 20.4% (50.0 million) of U.S. adults had chronic pain and 8.0% of U.S. adults (19.6 million) had high-impact chronic pain, with higher prevalences of both chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain reported among women, older adults, previously but not currently employed adults, adults living in poverty, adults with public health insurance, and rural residents. These findings could be used to target pain management interventions.

      2. Availability of the National Diabetes Prevention Program in United States counties, March 2017External
        Jayapaul-Philip B, Dai S, Kirtland K, Haslam A, Nhim K.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Sep 6;15:E109.

        [No abstract]

      3. Effectiveness of clinical decision support based intervention in the improvement of care for adult sickle cell disease patients in primary careExternal
        Mainous AG, Carek PJ, Lynch K, Tanner RJ, Hulihan MM, Baskin J, Coates TD.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2018 Sep-Oct;31(5):812-816.

        INTRODUCTION: Although most patients with rare diseases like sickle cell disease (SCD) are treated in the primary care setting, primary care physicians may find it challenging to keep abreast of medication improvements and complications associated with treatment for rare and complex diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical decision support (CDS) -based intervention system for transfusional iron overload in adults with SCD to improve management in primary care. METHODS: An electronic medical record based clinical decision support system for potential transfusional iron overload in SCD patients in primary care was evaluated. The intervention was implemented in 3 family medicine clinics with a control group of 3 general internal medicine clinics. Data were collected in the 6 months before the intervention and 6 months after the intervention. There were 47 patients in the family medicine group and 24 in the general internal medicine group. RESULTS: There was no management change in the control group while the intervention group improved primary care management from 0% to 44% (P < .001). CONCLUSION: A CDS tool can improve management of SCD patients in primary care.

      4. BACKGROUND: Measuring blood pressure (BP) requires an appropriate BP cuff size given measured mid-arm circumference (mid-AC). OBJECTIVE: To provide mid-AC means and percentiles for US population aged more than 3 years and examine the frequency distribution of mid-AC cuffed by Baum and Welch Allyn cuff systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey, was used to estimate mean mid-AC (n=24 723). RESULTS: Mean mid-AC did not differ from 2011 to 2016 (31.0 vs. 31.3 cm, P>0.05). During 2011-2016, mean mid-AC was greater for males than females (32.0 vs. 30.4 cm, P<0.001) and was largest among adults 40-49 years (34.0 cm). Non-Hispanic Black persons had the largest mean mid-AC (32.0 cm) and non-Hispanic Asian persons the smallest (28.4 cm). Increased BMI was associated with increased mean mid-AC for those 3-19 years (normal, 22.0 cm and obese, 31.5 cm, P<0.001) and more than 20 years (normal, 28.2 cm and obese, 37.8 cm, P<0.001). Among those aged 8-17 years, high BP status was associated with a larger mean mid-AC (normotensive 26.1 cm vs. high BP 28.2 cm, P=0.001). Among adults aged 18 years and older, hypertension status was associated with a larger mean mid-AC (normotensive 32.4 cm vs. hypertensive 34.2 cm, P<0.001). Among those aged 12-19 years, 13.0% required a Baum large cuff (35-46.9 cm mid-AC) and 21.7% required a Welch Allyn large cuff (32-39.9 cm mid-AC). Among those aged more than 20 years, 33.2% required a Baum large cuff, 48.2% required a Welch Allyn large cuff, 1.3% required a Baum extra-large cuff (44-66 cm mid-AC), and 9.5% required a Welch Allyn extra-large cuff (40-55 cm mid-AC). CONCLUSION: Currently, BP is obtained in clinic, pharmacy, home, and ambulatory setting using single or multiple cuffs. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mid-AC data should be considered for accurate cuffing avoiding cuff hypertension or hypotension.

      5. Potential need for expanded pharmacologic treatment and lifestyle modification services under the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension GuidelineExternal
        Ritchey MD, Gillespie C, Wozniak G, Shay CM, Thompson-Paul AM, Loustalot F, Hong Y.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2018 Sep 8.

        Application of the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline expands the number of US adults requiring blood pressure (BP) management. The authors use 2011-2014 NHANES data to describe the population groups most affected by the new guideline, compared with the previous JNC-7 guideline, and describe the previous interaction with the health care sector among those adults recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification. The 2017 Hypertension Guideline reclassifies 32.3 million US adults as newly hypertensive and recommends BP-related treatment of 133.7 million adults, including 57.8 million with uncontrolled BP recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment and 50.5 million newly recommended lifestyle modification alone. An estimated 13.1 million (22.7%) adults recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment, and 20.6 million (40.8%) adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone report not having established health care linkages. Among the adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone, the odds of reclassification from no recommended intervention, under JNC-7, to recommended lifestyle modification alone were lower for adults with established linkages to care (aOR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.67-0.91]) compared to those without, decreased with increasing age, were greater for men (1.72 [1.52-1.94]) compared to women and were greater for obese adults (1.23 [1.00-1.53]) compared with normal or underweight adults. Application of the 2017 Hypertension Guideline increases the number and alters the distribution of US adults in need of initiating or intensifying BP treatment. This includes identifying millions of US adults who previously had limited interaction with health care and are now recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification.

      6. [No abstract]

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Low case finding among men and poor viral load suppression among adolescents are impeding Namibia’s ability to achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 TargetsExternal
        Agolory S, de Klerk M, Baughman AL, Sawadogo S, Mutenda N, Pentikainen N, Shoopala N, Wolkon A, Taffa N, Mutandi G, Jonas A, Mengistu AT, Dzinotyiweyi E, Prybylski D, Hamunime N, Medley A.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;5(9):ofy200.

        Background: In 2015, Namibia implemented an Acceleration Plan to address the high burden of HIV (13.0% adult prevalence and 216 311 people living with HIV [PLHIV]) and achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets by 2020. We provide an update on Namibia’s overall progress toward achieving these targets and estimate the percent reduction in HIV incidence since 2010. Methods: Data sources include the 2013 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (2013 NDHS), the national electronic patient monitoring system, and laboratory data from the Namibian Institute of Pathology. These sources were used to estimate (1) the percentage of PLHIV who know their HIV status, (2) the percentage of PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART), (3) the percentage of patients on ART with suppressed viral loads, and (4) the percent reduction in HIV incidence. Results: In the 2013 NDHS, knowledge of HIV status was higher among HIV-positive women 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-93.7%) than HIV-positive men 82.5% (95% CI, 78.1%-86.1%). At the end of 2016, an estimated 88.3% (95% CI, 86.3%-90.1%) of PLHIV knew their status, and 165 939 (76.7%) PLHIV were active on ART. The viral load suppression rate among those on ART was 87%, and it was highest among >/=20-year-olds (90%) and lowest among 15-19-year-olds (68%). HIV incidence has declined by 21% since 2010. Conclusions: With 76.7% of PLHIV on ART and 87% of those on ART virally suppressed, Namibia is on track to achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets by 2020. Innovative strategies are needed to improve HIV case identification among men and adherence to ART among youth.

      2. Characteristics of large mumps outbreaks in the United States during July 2010-December 2015External
        Clemmons NS, Redd SB, Gastanaduy PA, Marin M, Patel M, Fiebelkorn AP.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 10.

        Background: Mumps is an acute viral illness that classically presents with parotitis. Although the United States experienced a 99% reduction in mumps cases following implementation of the 2-dose vaccination program in 1989, mumps has resurged in the past 10 years. Methods: We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of mumps outbreaks with >/=20 cases reported in the United States electronically through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System and from supplemental outbreak data through direct communications with jurisdictions from July 2010 through December 2015. Mumps cases were defined using the 2012 Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition. Results: Twenty-three outbreaks with 20-485 cases/outbreak were reported in 18 jurisdictions. The duration of outbreaks ranged from 1.5-8.5 months (median: 3 months). All outbreaks involved close-contact settings; 18 (78%) involved universities, 16 (70%) occurred primarily among young adults (median: 18-24 years of age), and 9 (39%) occurred in highly vaccinated populations (2 dose measles-mumps-rubella [MMR] vaccine coverage >85%). Conclusions: During 2010-2015, multiple mumps outbreaks among highly vaccinated populations in close-contact settings occurred. Most cases occurred among vaccinated young adults, suggesting waning immunity played a role. Further evaluation of risk factors associated with these outbreaks is warranted.

      3. Notes from the Field: Enterovirus A71 neurologic disease in children – Colorado, 2018External
        Messacar K, Burakoff A, Nix WA, Rogers S, Oberste MS, Gerber SI, Spence-Davizon E, Herlihy R, Dominguez SR.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 14;67(36):1017-1018.

        [No abstract]

      4. Risk factors for oral human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men – 2 cities, United States, 2012-2014External
        Oliver SE, Gorbach PM, Gratzer B, Steinau M, Collins T, Parrish A, Kerndt PR, Crosby RA, Unger ER, Markowitz LE, Meites E.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Oct;45(10):660-665.

        BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV), including oropharyngeal cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccination is recommended for US MSM through age 26 years. Oral HPV infection is associated with oropharyngeal cancer. We determined oral HPV prevalence and risk factors among young MSM. METHODS: The Young Men’s HPV study enrolled MSM aged 18 through 26 years from clinics in Chicago and Los Angeles during 2012 to 2014. Participants self-reported demographics, sexual behaviors, vaccination and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Self-collected oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1-consensus PCR. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors associated with oral HPV among participants not previously vaccinated. RESULTS: Oral HPV was detected in 87 (9.4%) of 922; 9-valent vaccine types were detected in 37 (4.0%) of 922. Among HIV-positive participants, 17 (19.3%) of 88 had oral HPV detected. Oral HPV was more prevalent among those reporting first sex at 18 years of age or younger (aPR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.16-5.12); HIV infection (aPR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.14-3.48); greater than 5 sex partners within the past month (aPR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.31); performing oral sex on greater than 5 partners within the last 3 months (aPR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.13); and having greater than 5 male sex partners within the last 3 months (aPR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.08-2.87). Only 454 (49.2%) of 922 were aware that HPV can cause oropharyngeal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Many oral HPV infections were with types targeted by vaccination. Oral HPV infections were significantly associated with HIV and sexual behaviors. Fewer than half of participants were aware that HPV could cause oropharyngeal cancer.

      5. Sexual risk behavior differences among sexual minority high school students – United States, 2015 and 2017External
        Rasberry CN, Lowry R, Johns M, Robin L, Dunville R, Pampati S, Dittus PJ, Balaji A.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 14;67(36):1007-1011.

        Sexual minority youths (i.e., those identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or another nonheterosexual identity or reporting same-sex attraction or sexual partners) are at higher risk than youths who are not sexual minority youth (nonsexual minority youth) for negative health behaviors and outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), pregnancy (1),* and related sexual risk behaviors (2). Less is known about sexual risk behavior differences between sexual minority youth subgroups. This is the first analysis of subgroup differences among sexual minority youths using nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. CDC analyzed pooled data from the 2015 and 2017 cycles of the national YRBS, a cross-sectional, school-based survey assessing health behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses examined differences in eight sexual risk behaviors between subgroups of sexual minority youths and nonsexual minority youths, as well as within sexual minority youths. Logistic regression models controlling for race/ethnicity and grade found that bisexual females and “not sure” males reported higher prevalences for many behaviors than did heterosexual students. For behavior-based subgroups, the largest number of differences were seen between students who had sexual contact with both sexes compared with students with only opposite-sex sexual contact. Findings highlight subgroup differences within sexual minority youths that could inform interventions to promote healthy behavior.

      6. Vulnerabilities associated with post-disaster declines in HIV-testing: Decomposing the impact of Hurricane SandyExternal
        Thomas E, Ekperi L, LeBlanc TT, Adams E. E., Wilt GE, Molinari NA, Carbone EG.
        PLoS Curr. 2018 Aug 21;10.

        Introduction: Using Interrupted Time Series Analysis and generalized estimating equations, this study identifies factors that influence the size and significance of Hurricane Sandy’s estimated impact on HIV testing in 90 core-based statistical areas from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013. Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of sociodemographic and storm-related variables on relative change in HIV testing resulting from Interrupted Time Series analyses. Results: There is a significant negative relationship between HIV prevalence and the relative change in testing at all time periods. A one unit increase in HIV prevalence corresponds to a 35% decrease in relative testing the week of the storm and a 14% decrease in relative testing at week twelve. Building loss was also negatively associated with relative change for all time points. For example, a one unit increase in building loss at week 0 corresponds with an 8% decrease in the relative change in testing (p=0.0001) and a 2% at week twelve (p=0.001). Discussion: Our results demonstrate that HIV testing can be negatively affected during public health emergencies. Communities with high percentages of building loss and significant HIV disease burden should prioritize resumption of testing to support HIV prevention.

      7. A step forward in the treatment of influenzaExternal
        Uyeki TM.
        N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 6;379(10):975-977.

        [No abstract]

    • Environmental Health
      1. Association of prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A and pubertal timing in boys and girlsExternal
        Berger K, Eskenazi B, Kogut K, Parra K, Lustig RH, Greenspan LC, Holland N, Calafat AM, Ye X, Harley KG.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Sep;126(9):97004.

        BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in many consumer products, may impact the timing of puberty. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the association of prenatal exposure to high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA with pubertal timing in boys and girls participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and BPA at two time points during pregnancy among participating mothers ([Formula: see text]) and conducted clinical Tanner staging of puberty on their children every 9 months between 9 and 13 y of age. We conducted accelerated failure time models and examined the role of child overweight/obese status in this association. RESULTS: The sum of urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [Formula: see text], monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and BPA were associated with later onset of at least one of the three outcomes assessed in girls (thelarche, pubarche, or menarche) and with earlier onset of at least one of the two outcomes assessed in boys (gondarche and pubarche). We found that monocarboxynonyl phthalate, monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and BPA were associated with later pubarche and menarche mostly among normal-weight girls but not overweight/obese girls. MBzP was associated with later thelarche in all girls, and [Formula: see text] was associated with later thelarche and menarche in all girls. BPA and all phthalate biomarkers were associated with earlier gonadarche and pubarche in all boys as well as in overweight/obese boys when stratified by weight. Among normal-weight boys, associations with BPA were also inverse, whereas associations with phthalate metabolites were close to the null or positive. CONCLUSIONS: Several high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA were associated with later puberty in girls and earlier puberty in boys included in the CHAMACOS cohort study. Childhood overweight/obesity may modify these associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3424.

      2. Public health agency responses and opportunities to protect against health impacts of climate change among US populations with multiple vulnerabilitiesExternal
        Hutchins SS, Bouye K, Luber G, Briseno L, Hunter C, Corso L.
        J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018 Sep 6.

        During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries, exacerbation of health conditions, disruption of mental well-being, as well as indirect impacts through food- and water-related infections and illnesses. While all populations are at risk for these adverse health outcomes, some populations are at greater risk because of multiple vulnerabilities resulting from increased exposure to risk-prone areas, increased sensitivity due to underlying health conditions, and limited adaptive capacity primarily because of a lack of economic resources to respond adequately. We discuss current governmental public health responses and their future opportunities to improve resilience of special populations at greatest risk for adverse health outcomes. Vulnerability assessment, adaptation plans, public health emergency response, and public health agency accreditation are all current governmental public health actions. Governmental public health opportunities include integration of these current responses with health equity initiatives and programs in communities.

    • Food Safety
      1. Chicken liver has been implicated in several reported U.S. illness outbreaks, probably caused by inadequate cooking and pathogen contamination. To identify commonalities among these outbreaks that could represent targets for prevention, we describe chicken liver-associated U.S. outbreaks during 2000-2016 reported to the Food Safety and Inspection Service, to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and in published literature. We identified 28 outbreaks (23 [82.1%] were campylobacteriosis only, 3 [10.7%] were salmonellosis only, and 2 [7.1%] were caused by both pathogens), with 18 (64.3%) occurring during 2014-2016. Common outbreak features included blended chicken liver dishes (e.g., pate; 24 [85.7%]), inadequate cooking (26 [92.8%]), and preparation in foodservice settings (e.g., sit-down restaurants; 25 [89.3%]). The increasing frequency of reported outbreaks highlights chicken liver as an important food safety problem. Public health partners should collaborate on prevention measures, including education on proper foodservice preparation of blended chicken liver dishes.

      2. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile in retail meats, food-producing and companion animals, and humans in MinnesotaExternal
        Shaughnessy MK, Snider T, Sepulveda R, Boxrud D, Cebelinski E, Jawahir S, Holzbauer S, Johnston BD, Smith K, Bender JB, Thuras P, Diez-Gonzalez F, Johnson JR.
        J Food Prot. 2018 Sep 10:1635-1642.

        Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) now accounts for approximately 50% of CDI cases in central Minnesota; animals and meat products are potential sources. From November 2011 to July 2013, we cultured retail meat products and fecal samples from food-producing and companion animals in central Minnesota for C. difficile by using standard methods. The resulting 51 C. difficile isolates, plus 30 archived local veterinary C. difficile isolates and 208 human CA-CDI case isolates from central Minnesota (from 2012) from the Minnesota Department of Health, were characterized molecularly, and source groups were compared using discriminant analysis. C. difficile was recovered from 0 (0%) of 342 retail meat samples and 51 (9%) of 559 animal fecal samples. Overall, the 81 animal source isolates and 208 human source isolates were highly diverse genetically. Molecular traits segregated extensively in relation to animal versus human origin. Discriminant analysis classified 95% of isolates correctly by source group; only five (2.5%) human source isolates were classified as animal source. These data do not support meat products or food-producing and companion animals as important sources of CA-CDI in the central Minnesota study region.

      3. Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and of foodborne disease in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration recommends foodworkers infected with norovirus be excluded from work while symptomatic and 48 hours after their symptoms subside. Compliance with this recommendation is not ideal and the population-level impacts of changes in foodworker compliance have yet to be quantified. We aimed to assess population impacts of varying degrees of compliance with the current recommendation through a compartmental model. We modeled the number and proportion of symptomatic norovirus cases averted in the U.S. population, by specific age ranges (0-4 year-olds, 5-17 year-olds, 18-64 year-olds, and 65+ year-olds), under various scenarios of foodworker exclusion (i.e., proportion compliant and days of post-symptomatic exclusion) compared to a referent scenario, which assumes 66.6% of norovirus symptomatic foodworkers and 0% of post-symptomatic foodworkers are excluded. Overall, we estimated 6.0 million norovirus cases have already been avoided annually under the referent scenario and 6.7 million (28%) more cases may be avoided through 100% compliance with the current recommendations. Substantial population-level benefits were predicted from improved compliance in exclusion of norovirus infected foodworkers – benefits that may be realized through policies or programs incentivizing self-exclusion.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Recent dramatic advances in multiomics research coupled with exponentially increasing volume, complexity, and interdisciplinary nature of publications are making it challenging for scientists to stay up-to-date on the literature. Strategies to address this challenge include the creation of online databases and warehouses to support timely and targeted dissemination of research findings. Although most of the early examples have been in cancer genomics and pharmacogenomics, the approaches used can be adapted to support investigators in heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) disorders research. In this article, we describe the creation of an HLBS population genomics (HLBS-PopOmics) knowledge base as an online, continuously updated, searchable database to support the dissemination and implementation of studies and resources that are relevant to clinical and public health practice. In addition to targeted searches based on the HLBS disease categories, cross-cutting themes reflecting the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomics research; systematic evidence reviews; and clinical practice guidelines supporting screening, detection, evaluation, and treatment are also emphasized in HLBS-PopOmics. Future updates of the knowledge base will include additional emphasis on transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other omics research; explore opportunities for leveraging data sets designed to support scientific discovery; and incorporate advanced machine learning bioinformatics capabilities.

    • Global Health
      1. Illness among US resident student travelers after return to the United States: A GeoSentinel Analysis, 2007-2017External
        Angelo KM, Haulman NJ, Terry AC, Leung DT, Chen LH, Barnett ED, Hagmann SH, Hynes NA, Connor BA, Anderson S, McCarthy A, Shaw M, Van Genderen PJ, Hamer DH.
        J Travel Med. 2018 Aug 23.

        BACKGROUND: The number of US students studying abroad more than tripled during the past 20 years. As study abroad programs’ destinations diversify, students increasingly travel to resource-limited countries, placing them at risk for infectious diseases. Data describing infections acquired by US students while traveling internationally are limited. We describe illnesses among students who returned from international travel and suggest how to prevent illness among these travelers. METHODS: GeoSentinel is a global surveillance network of travel and tropical medicine providers that monitors travel-related morbidity. This study included records of US resident student international travelers, 17-24 years old, who returned to the United States, had a confirmed travel-related illness at one of 15 US GeoSentinel sites during 2007-2017, and had a documented exposure region. Records were analyzed to describe demographic and travel characteristics and diagnoses. RESULTS: The study included 432 students. The median age was 21 years; 69% were female. More than 70% had a pre-travel consultation with a healthcare provider. The most common exposure region was sub-Saharan Africa (112; 26%). Students were most commonly exposed in India (44; 11%), Ecuador (28; 7%), Ghana (25; 6%), and China (24; 6%). The median duration of travel abroad was 40 days (range: 1-469) and presented to a GeoSentinel site a median of 8 days (range: 0-181) after travel; 98% were outpatients. Of 581 confirmed diagnoses, the most common diagnosis category was gastrointestinal (45%). Acute diarrhea was the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis (113 of 261; 43%). Thirty-one (7%) students had vector-borne diseases [14 (41%) malaria and 11 (32%) dengue]. Three had vaccine-preventable diseases (two typhoid; one hepatitis A); two had acute HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Students experienced travel-related infections, despite the majority having a pre-travel consultation. US students should receive pre-travel advice, vaccinations, and chemoprophylaxis to prevent gastrointestinal, vector-borne, sexually transmitted, and vaccine-preventable infections.

      2. High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: time for a revolutionExternal
        Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, Jordan K, Leslie HH, Roder-DeWan S, Adeyi O, Barker P, Daelmans B, Doubova SV, English M, Elorrio EG, Guanais F, Gureje O, Hirschhorn LR, Jiang L, Kelley E, Lemango ET, Liljestrand J, Malata A, Marchant T, Matsoso MP, Meara JG, Mohanan M, Ndiaye Y, Norheim OF, Reddy KS, Rowe AK, Salomon JA, Thapa G, Twum-Danso NA, Pate M.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2018 Sep 5.

        [No abstract]

    • Health Disparities
      1. Racial and ethnic differences in viral suppression among HIV-positive women in careExternal
        Nwangwu-Ike N, Frazier EL, Crepaz N, Tie Y, Sutton MY.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Oct 1;79(2):e56-e68.

        BACKGROUND: Women with HIV diagnoses are less likely to be virally suppressed than men. Women of different racial/ethnic groups may be differentially affected by sociodemographic factors. We examined differences in viral suppression among women by race/ethnicity and associated variables to inform prevention interventions. METHODS: We used data from the 2010-2014 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, a cross-sectional survey of HIV-positive adults in care. We limited analyses to black, Hispanic, and white women. We calculated weighted prevalences of recent viral suppression (undetectable or <200 copies/mL) and sustained viral suppression (consistent viral suppression during the past 12 months) among women by race/ethnicity. We computed adjusted prevalence differences (aPDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for viral suppression by racial/ethnic group, controlling for selected variables, including available social determinants of health variables. RESULTS: Among women, 62.9% were black, 19.8% Hispanic, and 17.3% white. Overall, 74.3% had recent viral suppression, and 62.3% had sustained viral suppression. Compared with white women (79.7%, CI: 77.2 to 82.2), black (72.5%, CI: 70.3 to 74.7; PD: 7.2) and Hispanic (75.4%, CI: 72.6 to 78.3; PD: 4.3) women were less likely to have recent viral suppression. In multivariable analyses, after adjusting for antiretroviral therapy adherence, HIV disease stage, age, homelessness, and education, black-white aPDs remained significant for recent (aPD: 4.8, CI: 1.6 to 8.1) and sustained (aPD: 5.0, CI: 1.1 to 9.0) viral suppression. CONCLUSION: Viral suppression was suboptimal for all women, but more for black and Hispanic women. Differences between black, Hispanic, and white women may be partially due to antiretroviral therapy adherence, HIV disease stage, and social determinants of health factors.

      2. Expanded in-school instructional time and the advancement of health equity: A Community Guide Systematic ReviewExternal
        Peng Y, Finnie RK, Hahn RA, Truman BI, Johnson RL, Fielding JE, Muntaner C, Fullilove MT, Zhang X.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Sep 10.

        Expanded in-school instructional time (EISIT) may reduce racial/ethnic educational achievement gaps, leading to improved employment, and decreased social and health risks. When targeted to low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations, EISIT may thus promote health equity. Community Guide systematic review methods were used to search for qualified studies (through February 2015, 11 included studies) and summarize evidence of the effectiveness of EISIT on educational outcomes. Compared with schools with no time change, schools with expanded days improved students’ test scores by a median of 0.05 standard deviation units (range, 0.0-0.25). Two studies found that schools with expanded day and year improved students’ standardized test scores (0.04 and 0.15 standard deviation units). Remaining studies were inconclusive. Given the small effect sizes and a lack of information about the use of added time, there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of EISIT on academic achievement and thus health equity.

    • Health Economics
      1. Estimation of direct healthcare costs of fungal diseases in the United StatesExternal
        Benedict K, Jackson BR, Chiller T, Beer KD.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 10.

        Background: Fungal diseases range from relatively minor superficial and mucosal infections to severe, life-threatening systemic infections. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to poor patient outcomes and high medical costs. The overall burden of fungal diseases in the United States is challenging to quantify because they are likely substantially underdiagnosed. Methods: To estimate total national direct medical costs associated with fungal diseases from a healthcare payer perspective, we used insurance claims data from the Truven Health MarketScan(R) 2014 Research Databases, combined with hospital discharge data from the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample and outpatient visit data from the 2005-2014 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. All costs were adjusted to 2017 dollars. Results: We estimate that fungal diseases cost more than $7.2 billion in 2017, including $4.5 billion from 75,055 hospitalizations and $2.6 billion from 8,993,230 outpatient visits. Hospitalizations for Candida infections (n=26,735, total cost $1.4 billion) and Aspergillus infections (n=14,820, total cost $1.2 billion) accounted for the highest total hospitalization costs of any disease. Over half of outpatient visits were for dermatophyte infections (4,981,444 visits, total cost $802 million), and 3,639,037 visits occurred for non-invasive candidiasis (total cost $1.6 billion). Conclusions: Fungal diseases impose a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. Our results likely under-estimate their true costs because they are underdiagnosed. More comprehensive estimates of the public health impact of these diseases are needed to improve their recognition, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

      2. BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States (US) were born from 1945 through 1965-testing is recommended for this cohort. However, HCV incidence is increasing among younger persons in many parts of the country and treatment is recommended for all adults with HCV infection. We aimed to estimate the cost effectiveness of universal 1-time screening for HCV infection in all adults living in the US and to determine the prevalence of HCV antibody above which HCV testing is cost-effective. METHODS: We developed a Markov state transition model to estimate the effects of universal, 1-time screening of adults 18 years or older in the US, compared with the current guideline-based strategy of screening adults born from 1945 through 1965. We compared potential outcomes of 1-time universal screening of adults or birth cohort screening followed by antiviral treatment of those with HCV infection vs no screening. We measured effectiveness with quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and costs with 2017 US dollars. RESULTS: Based on our model, universal 1-time screening of US residents with general population prevalence of HCV antibody greater than 0.07% cost less than $50,000/QALY compared with a strategy of no screening. Compared with 1-time birth cohort screening, universal 1-time screening and treatment cost $11,378/QALY gained. Universal screening was cost-effective compared with birth cohort screening when the prevalence of HCV antibody positivity was greater than 0.07% among adults not in the cohort born from 1945 through 1965. CONCLUSION: Using a Markov state transition model, we found a strategy of universal 1-time screening for chronic HCV infection to be cost-effective compared with either no screening or birth cohort-based screening alone.

      3. Asthma affects more than 24 million Americans, including 6.2 million children. Although asthma cannot be cured, it can be effectively managed with care based on nationally recognized guidelines. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of guidelines-recommended treatments and services can help patients receive the most appropriate care. In this article, we describe the American Lung Association’s Asthma Guidelines-Based Care Coverage Project (the Project) to determine the extent of asthma care coverage and associated barriers in state Medicaid programs – information that has been previously unavailable. The Project tracked coverage for 7 areas of guidelines-based asthma care and 9 barriers related to accessing care in Medicaid programs for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Results from the Project show a lack of consistent and comprehensive coverage across states, as well as coverage-related challenges to accessing asthma care within states.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Reactivation of Chagas disease among heart transplant recipients in the United States, 2012-2016External
        Gray AE, La Hoz RM, Green JS, Vikram HR, Benedict T, Rivera H, Montgomery SP.
        Transpl Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11:e12996.

        BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for progressive cardiomyopathy from chronic Chagas disease. However, in the presence of the immunosuppression required for heart transplantation, the likelihood of Chagas disease reactivation is significant. Reactivation may cause myocarditis resulting in allograft dysfunction and the rapid onset of congestive heart failure. Reactivation rates have been well documented in Latin America; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the risk in non-endemic countries. METHODS: We present our experience with 31 patients with chronic Chagas disease who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation in the United States from 2012-2016. Patients were monitored following a standard schedule. RESULTS: Nineteen of the 31 patients (61%) developed evidence of reactivation. Among the 19 patients, a majority (95%) were identified by laboratory monitoring using polymerase chain reaction testing. One patient was identified after the onset of clinical symptoms of reactivation. All subjects with evidence of reactivation were alive at follow-up (median: 60 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Transplant programs in the United States are encouraged to implement a monitoring program for heart transplant recipients with Chagas disease. Our experience using a pre-emptive approach of monitoring for Chagas disease reactivation was effective at identifying reactivation before symptoms developed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. Transmission of mobile colistin resistance (mcr-1) by duodenoscopeExternal
        Shenoy ES, Pierce VM, Walters MS, Moulton-Meissner H, Lawsin A, Lonsway D, Shugart A, McAllister G, Halpin AL, Zambrano-Gonzalez A, Ryan EE, Suslak D, DeJesus A, Barton K, Madoff LC, McHale E, DeMaria A, Hooper DC.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11.

        Background: Clinicians increasingly utilize polymyxins for treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Emergence of plasmid-mediated, mobile colistin resistance genes creates potential for rapid spread of polymyxin resistance. We investigated the possible transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying mcr-1 via duodenoscope and report the first documented healthcare transmission of mcr-1-harboring bacteria in the United States. Methods: A field investigation, including screening targeted high-risk groups, evaluation of the duodenoscope, and genome sequencing of isolated organisms, was conducted. The study site included a tertiary care academic health center in Boston, Massachusetts, and extended to community locations in New England. Results: Two patients had highly related mcr-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical cultures; a duodenoscope was the only identified epidemiological link. Screening tests for mcr-1 in 20 healthcare contacts and 2 household contacts were negative. K. pneumoniae and E. coli were recovered from the duodenoscope; neither carried mcr-1. Evaluation of the duodenoscope identified intrusion of biomaterial under the sealed distal cap; devices were recalled to repair this defect. Conclusions: We identified transmission of mcr-1 in a United States acute care hospital that likely occurred via duodenoscope despite no identifiable breaches in reprocessing or infection control practices. Duodenoscope design flaws leading to transmission of multidrug-resistant organsisms persist despite recent initiatives to improve device safety. Reliable detection of colistin resistance is currently challenging for clinical laboratories, particularly given the absence of an FDA-cleared test; improved clinical laboratory capacity for colistin susceptibility testing is needed to prevent the spread of mcr-carrying bacteria in healthcare settings.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Continued occurrence of serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis in two regions located in the meningitis belt in Ghana five years after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccineExternal
        Bozio CH, Abdul-Karim A, Abenyeri J, Abubakari B, Ofosu W, Zoya J, Ouattara M, Srinivasan V, Vuong JT, Opare D, Asiedu-Bekoe F, Lessa FC.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0203205.

        BACKGROUND: Increases in pneumococcal meningitis were reported from Ghanaian regions that lie in the meningitis belt in 2016-2017, despite introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2012 using a 3-dose schedule (6, 10, and 14 weeks). We describe pneumococcal meningitis epidemiology in the Ghanaian Northern and Upper West regions across two meningitis seasons. METHODS: Suspected meningitis cases were identified using World Health Organization standard definitions. Pneumococcal meningitis was confirmed if pneumococcus was the sole pathogen detected by polymerase chain reaction, culture, or latex agglutination in cerebrospinal fluid collected from a person with suspected meningitis during December 2015-March 2017. Pneumococcal serotyping was done using PCR. Annual age-specific pneumococcal meningitis incidence (cases per 100,000 population) was calculated, adjusting for suspected meningitis cases lacking confirmatory testing. FINDINGS: Among 153 pneumococcal meningitis cases, 137 (89.5%) were serotyped; 100 (73.0%) were PCV13-type, including 85 (62.0%) that were serotype 1, a PCV13-targeted serotype. Persons aged >/=5 years accounted for 96.7% (148/153) of cases. Comparing 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons, the proportion of non-serotype 1 PCV13-type cases decreased from 20.0% (9/45) to 4.1% (3/74) (p = 0.008), whereas the proportion that was serotype 1 was stable (71.1% (32/45) vs. 58.1% (43/74); p = 0.16). Estimated adjusted pneumococcal meningitis incidence was 1.8 in children aged <5 years and ranged from 6.8-10.5 in older children and adults. CONCLUSIONS: High pneumococcal meningitis incidence with a large proportion of serotype 1 disease in older children and adults suggests infant PCV13 vaccination has not induced herd protection with this schedule in this high-transmission setting.

      2. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the United States during the 2016-2017 seasonExternal
        Flannery B, Chung JR, Monto AS, Martin ET, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Jackson ML, Jackson LA, Rolfes MA, Spencer S, Fry AM.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11.

        Background: In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses remained antigenically similar to vaccine components. Methods: During the 2016-2017 influenza season, vaccine effectiveness (VE) across age groups and vaccine types was examined among outpatients with acute respiratory illness at 5 US sites using a test-negative design that compared the odds of vaccination among reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza positives and negatives. Results: Among 7083 enrollees, 1342 (19%) tested positive for influenza A(H3N2), 648 (9%) were positive for influenza B (including B/Yamagata, n = 577) and 5040(71%) were influenza negative. Vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32% to 46%) against any influenza virus, 33% (95%CI, 23% to 41%) against influenza A(H3N2) viruses and 53% (95%CI, 43% to 61%) against influenza B viruses. Conclusions: The 2016-2017 influenza vaccines provided moderate protection against any influenza among outpatients, but were less protective against influenza A(H3N2) viruses than B viruses. Approaches to improving effectiveness against A(H3N2) viruses are needed.

      3. Uptake and safety of Hepatitis B vaccination during pregnancy: A Vaccine Safety Datalink studyExternal
        Groom HC, Irving SA, Koppolu P, Smith N, Vazquez-Benitez G, Kharbanda EO, Daley MF, Donahue JG, Getahun D, Jackson LA, Tse Kawai A, Klein NP, McCarthy NL, Nordin JD, Sukumaran L, Naleway AL.
        Vaccine. 2018 Sep 4.

        INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection acquired during pregnancy can pose a risk to the infant at birth that can lead to significant and lifelong morbidity. Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is recommended for anyone at increased risk for contracting HBV infection, including pregnant women. Limited data are available on the safety of HepB administration during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of maternal HepB receipt among pregnant women and evaluate the potential association between maternal vaccination and pre-specified maternal and infant safety outcomes. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of pregnancies in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) resulting in live birth outcomes from 2004 through 2015. Eligible pregnancies in women aged 12-55years who were continuously enrolled from 6months pre-pregnancy to 6weeks postpartum in VSD integrated health systems were included. We compared pregnancies with HepB exposure to those with other vaccine exposures, and to those with no vaccine exposures. High-risk conditions for contracting HBV infection were identified up to one-year prior to or during the pregnancy using ICD-9 codes. Maternal and fetal adverse events were also evaluated according to maternal HepB exposure status. RESULTS: Among over 650,000 pregnancies in the study period, HepB was administered at a rate of 2.1 per 1000 pregnancies (n=1399), commonly within the first 5weeks of pregnancy. Less than 3% of the HepB-exposed group had a high-risk ICD-9 code indicating need for HepB; this was similar to the rate among HepB unvaccinated groups. There were no significant associations between HepB exposure during pregnancy and gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, pre-term delivery, low birthweight or small for gestational age infants. CONCLUSIONS: Most women who received maternal HepB did not have high-risk indications for vaccination. No increased risk for the adverse events that were examined were observed among women who received maternal HepB or their offspring.

      4. Rotavirus vaccination and the global burden of rotavirus diarrhea among children younger than 5 yearsExternal
        Troeger C, Khalil IA, Rao PC, Cao S, Blacker BF, Ahmed T, Armah G, Bines JE, Brewer TG, Colombara DV, Kang G, Kirkpatrick BD, Kirkwood CD, Mwenda JM, Parashar UD, Petri WA, Riddle MS, Steele AD, Thompson RL, Walson JL, Sanders JW, Mokdad AH, Murray CJ, Hay SI, Reiner RC.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Aug 13.

        Importance: Rotavirus infection is the global leading cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years. Objectives: To examine the extent of rotavirus infection among children younger than 5 years by country and the number of deaths averted because of the rotavirus vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: This report builds on findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, a cross-sectional study that measured diarrheal diseases and their etiologic agents. Models were used to estimate burden in data-sparse locations. Exposure: Diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rotavirus-associated mortality and morbidity by country and year and averted deaths attributable to the rotavirus vaccine by country. Results: Rotavirus infection was responsible for an estimated 128500 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 104500-155600) among children younger than 5 years throughout the world in 2016, with 104733 deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (95% UI, 83406-128842). Rotavirus infection was responsible for more than 258 million episodes of diarrhea among children younger than 5 years in 2016 (95% UI, 193 million to 341 million), an incidence of 0.42 cases per child-year (95% UI, 0.30-0.53). Vaccine use is estimated to have averted more than 28000 deaths (95% UI, 14600-46700) among children younger than 5 years, and expanded use of the rotavirus vaccine, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, could have prevented approximately 20% of all deaths attributable to diarrhea among children younger than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Rotavirus-associated mortality has decreased markedly over time in part because of the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. This study suggests that prioritizing vaccine introduction and interventions to reduce diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality is necessary in the continued global reduction of rotavirus infection.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Women’s mortality due to violent deaths is a public health issue that has received national attention. Many data systems only collect death certificate data, which provide very limited information about the circumstances surrounding a violent death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) is the first and only surveillance system to capture data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports allowing for a more comprehensive picture and targeted prevention efforts. The system currently operates in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; however, with additional funding from the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018, this surveillance system will fully expand to cover all 50 states. A number of analyses have been conducted using NVDRS data to compare suicide and homicide among women with men; however, only a handful of studies have been conducted among subgroups of women. The present study provides an overview of NVDRS while highlighting a few key analytic studies with implications for suicide and homicide prevention/intervention among women. Data from the 2014 NVDRS Surveillance Summary are also presented to emphasize the unique opportunity to use NVDRS data to study the characteristics of suicide and homicide among women. The summary includes data from 18 states that were collected statewide. This information can provide state and local public health experts with essential data on female suicide and homicide, not provided in other surveillance systems, to help shape prevention and intervention efforts.

      2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among ChildrenExternal
        Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, Breiding MJ, Haegerich TM, Gioia GA, Turner M, Benzel EC, Suskauer SJ, Giza CC, Joseph M, Broomand C, Weissman B, Gordon W, Wright DW, Moser RS, McAvoy K, Ewing-Cobbs L, Duhaime AC, Putukian M, Holshouser B, Paulk D, Wade SL, Herring SA, Halstead M, Keenan HT, Choe M, Christian CW, Guskiewicz K, Raksin PB, Gregory A, Mucha A, Taylor HG, Callahan JM, DeWitt J, Collins MW, Kirkwood MW, Ragheb J, Ellenbogen RG, Spinks TJ, Ganiats TG, Sabelhaus LJ, Altenhofen K, Hoffman R, Getchius T, Gronseth G, Donnell Z, O’Connor RE, Timmons SD.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Sep 4:e182853.

        Importance: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, in children is a rapidly growing public health concern because epidemiologic data indicate a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits for mTBI over the past decade. However, no evidence-based clinical guidelines have been developed to date for diagnosing and managing pediatric mTBI in the United States. Objective: To provide a guideline based on a previous systematic review of the literature to obtain and assess evidence toward developing clinical recommendations for health care professionals related to the diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI. Evidence Review: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Board of Scientific Counselors, a federal advisory committee, established the Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline Workgroup. The workgroup drafted recommendations based on the evidence that was obtained and assessed within the systematic review, as well as related evidence, scientific principles, and expert inference. This information includes selected studies published since the evidence review was conducted that were deemed by the workgroup to be relevant to the recommendations. The dates of the initial literature search were January 1, 1990, to November 30, 2012, and the dates of the updated literature search were December 1, 2012, to July 31, 2015. Findings: The CDC guideline includes 19 sets of recommendations on the diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI that were assigned a level of obligation (ie, must, should, or may) based on confidence in the evidence. Recommendations address imaging, symptom scales, cognitive testing, and standardized assessment for diagnosis; history and risk factor assessment, monitoring, and counseling for prognosis; and patient/family education, rest, support, return to school, and symptom management for treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: This guideline identifies the best practices for mTBI based on the current evidence; updates should be made as the body of evidence grows. In addition to the development of the guideline, CDC has created user-friendly guideline implementation materials that are concise and actionable. Evaluation of the guideline and implementation materials is crucial in understanding the influence of the recommendations.

      3. Diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury in children: A systematic reviewExternal
        Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, Breiding MJ, Haegerich TM, Gioia GA, Turner M, Benzel EC, Suskauer SJ, Giza CC, Joseph M, Broomand C, Weissman B, Gordon W, Wright DW, Moser RS, McAvoy K, Ewing-Cobbs L, Duhaime AC, Putukian M, Holshouser B, Paulk D, Wade SL, Herring SA, Halstead M, Keenan HT, Choe M, Christian CW, Guskiewicz K, Raksin PB, Gregory A, Mucha A, Taylor HG, Callahan JM, DeWitt J, Collins MW, Kirkwood MW, Ragheb J, Ellenbogen RG, Spinks TJ, Ganiats TG, Sabelhaus LJ, Altenhofen K, Hoffman R, Getchius T, Gronseth G, Donnell Z, O’Connor RE, Timmons SD.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Sep 4:e182847.

        Importance: In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the research guiding pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) clinical management, in large part because of heightened concerns about the consequences of mTBI, also known as concussion, in children. The CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control’s (NCIPC) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), a federal advisory committee, established the Pediatric Mild TBI Guideline workgroup to complete this systematic review summarizing the first 25 years of literature in this field of study. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the pediatric mTBI literature to serve as the foundation for an evidence-based guideline with clinical recommendations associated with the diagnosis and management of pediatric mTBI. Evidence Review: Using a modified Delphi process, the authors selected 6 clinical questions on diagnosis, prognosis, and management or treatment of pediatric mTBI. Two consecutive searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL, and SportDiscus. The first included the dates January 1, 1990, to November 30, 2012, and an updated search included December 1, 2012, to July 31, 2015. The initial search was completed from December 2012 to January 2013; the updated search, from July 2015 to August 2015. Two authors worked in pairs to abstract study characteristics independently for each article selected for inclusion. A third author adjudicated disagreements. The risk of bias in each study was determined using the American Academy of Neurology Classification of Evidence Scheme. Conclusion statements were developed regarding the evidence within each clinical question, and a level of confidence in the evidence was assigned to each conclusion using a modified GRADE methodology. Data analysis was completed from October 2014 to May 2015 for the initial search and from November 2015 to April 2016 for the updated search. Findings: Validated tools are available to assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of pediatric mTBI. A significant body of research exists to identify features that are associated with more serious TBI-associated intracranial injury, delayed recovery from mTBI, and long-term sequelae. However, high-quality studies of treatments meant to improve mTBI outcomes are currently lacking. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review was used to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of pediatric mTBI. While an increasing amount of research provides clinically useful information, this systematic review identified key gaps in diagnosis, prognosis, and management.

      4. This study seeks to assess the impact of economic factors on sexual, emotional, and physical violence on Nigerian children and adolescents aged 13-24 years. Data collected from the Nigerian Violence Against Children Survey (VACS), a national, cross-sectional household survey of females and males aged 13-24 years were used to examine sexual, emotional, and physical violence victimization. Data were collected on household economic status, e.g., flooring and roofing materials, transportation. A poverty index was developed using the Simple Poverty Scorecard() for Nigeria to determine the impact that economic factors have on these violence measures. Children aged 13-17 years in households with high economic status (ES) were 1.81, 1.78, and 4.91 times, more likely to experience sexual, emotional, and physical violence, respectively, within the last 12 months than those in the lowest ES. Individuals aged 18-24 years in households with high ES were 1.62 and 1.41 times more likely to experience emotional and physical violence, respectively, prior to age 18 than those in the lowest ES. Individuals aged 18-24 years in households with middle or high ES were 1.65 and 1.96, respectively, times more likely to experience physical violence prior to age 18 than those in the lowest ES. Highest tertile ES was significantly associated with sexual, emotional, and physical violence among Nigerians aged 13-24 years. Further research is needed to determine the cause of increased violence amongst high ES households. Targeted interventions towards this ES class are recommended to reduce violence against children in Nigeria.

      5. Chronic pain among suicide decedents, 2003 to 2014: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting SystemExternal
        Petrosky E, Harpaz R, Fowler KA, Bohm MK, Helmick CG, Yuan K, Betz CJ.
        Ann Intern Med. 2018 Sep 11.

        Background: More than 25 million adults in the United States have chronic pain. Chronic pain has been associated with suicidality, but previous studies primarily examined nonfatal suicidal behaviors rather than suicide deaths associated with chronic pain or the characteristics of such deaths. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain among suicide decedents in a large multistate sample and to characterize suicide decedents with and without chronic pain. Design: Retrospective analysis of National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data. The NVDRS links death certificate, coroner or medical examiner, and law enforcement data collected by investigators, who often interview informants who knew the decedent to gather information on precipitating circumstances surrounding the suicide. Information is abstracted by using standard coding guidance developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Setting: 18 states participating in the NVDRS. Participants: Suicide decedents with and without chronic pain who died during 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2014. Measurements: Demographic characteristics, mechanism of death, toxicology results, precipitating circumstances (mental health, substance use, interpersonal problems, life stressors), and suicide planning and intent. Results: Of 123 181 suicide decedents included in the study, 10 789 (8.8%) had evidence of chronic pain, and the percentage increased from 7.4% in 2003 to 10.2% in 2014. More than half (53.6%) of suicide decedents with chronic pain died of firearm-related injuries and 16.2% by opioid overdose. Limitation: The results probably underrepresent the true percentage of suicide decedents who had chronic pain, given the nature of the data and how they were captured. Conclusion: Chronic pain may be an important contributor to suicide. Access to quality, comprehensive pain care and adherence to clinical guidelines may help improve pain management and patient safety. Primary Funding Source: None.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Survey of diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in adults: Infectious disease physician practices and implications for burden estimatesExternal
        Allen KE, Beekmann SE, Polgreen P, Poser S, St Pierre J, Santibanez S, Gerber SI, Kim L.
        Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 21.

        Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) often causes respiratory illness in adults. Over 40 RSV vaccine and monoclonal antibody products are currently in preclinical development or clinical trials. Because RSV diagnostic practices may impact disease burden estimates, we investigated infectious disease physicians’ RSV diagnostic practices among their adult patients.

      2. Molecular epidemiology, ecology, and evolution of group A streptococciExternal
        Bessen DE, Smeesters PR, Beall BW.
        Microbiol Spectr. 2018 Sep;6(5).

        The clinico-epidemiological features of diseases caused by group A streptococci (GAS) is presented through the lens of the ecology, population genetics, and evolution of the organism. The serological targets of three typing schemes (M, T, SOF) are themselves GAS cell surface proteins that have a myriad of virulence functions and a diverse array of structural forms. Horizontal gene transfer expands the GAS antigenic cell surface repertoire by generating numerous combinations of M, T, and SOF antigens. However, horizontal gene transfer of the serotype determinant genes is not unconstrained, and therein lies a genetic organization that may signify adaptations to a narrow ecological niche, such as the primary tissue reservoirs of the human host. Adaptations may be further shaped by selection pressures such as herd immunity. Understanding the molecular evolution of GAS on multiple levels-short, intermediate, and long term-sheds insight on mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, the emergence and spread of new clones, rational vaccine design, and public health interventions.

      3. Mycobacterium decipiens sp. nov., a new species closely related to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexExternal
        Brown-Elliott BA, Simmer PJ, Trovato A, Hyle EP, Droz S, Buckwalter SP, Borroni E, Branda JA, Iana E, Mariottini A, Nelson J, Matteelli A, Toney NC, Scarparo C, de Man TJ, Vasireddy R, Gandhi RT, Wengenack NL, Cirillo DM, Wallace RJ, Tortoli E.
        Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Sep 11.

        Two mycobacterial strains with close similarity to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) were isolated from cutaneous lesions of patients in the USA and Italy. At the phenotypic level, similarities to the MTBC included slow growth rate, rough morphotype of the unpigmented colonies and nearly identical high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of mycolic acids. In contrast to the MTBC, the strains were niacin- and nitrate-negative, and catalase-positive both at 68 degrees C and in semi-quantitative tests. The clinical isolates were more closely related to M. tuberculosis than to any other known mycobacterium and scored positive with commercial DNA probes (Hologic AccuProbe M. tuberculosis). Both average nucleotide identity and genome-to-genome distance suggested the strains are different from the MTBC. Therefore, given the distinguishing phenotypic and genomic-scale differences, we submit that the strains belong to a new species we have named Mycobacteriumdecipiens with type strain TBL 1200985(T) (=ATCC TSD-117(T)=DSM 105360(T)).

      4. Differences in antigenic sites and other functional regions between genotype A and G mumps virus surface proteinsExternal
        Gouma S, Vermeire T, Van Gucht S, Martens L, Hutse V, Cremer J, Rota PA, Leroux-Roels G, Koopmans M, Binnendijk RV, Vandermarliere E.
        Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 6;8(1):13337.

        The surface proteins of the mumps virus, the fusion protein (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), are key factors in mumps pathogenesis and are important targets for the immune response during mumps virus infection. We compared the predicted amino acid sequences of the F and HN genes from Dutch mumps virus samples from the pre-vaccine era (1957-1982) with mumps virus genotype G strains (from 2004 onwards). Genotype G is the most frequently detected mumps genotype in recent outbreaks in vaccinated communities, especially in Western Europe, the USA and Japan. Amino acid differences between the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains (genotype A) and genotype G strains were predominantly located in known B-cell epitopes and in N-linked glycosylation sites on the HN protein. There were eight variable amino acid positions specific to genotype A or genotype G sequences in five known B-cell epitopes of the HN protein. These differences may account for the reported antigenic differences between Jeryl Lynn and genotype G strains. We also found amino acid differences in and near sites on the HN protein that have been reported to play a role in mumps virus pathogenesis. These differences may contribute to the occurrence of genotype G outbreaks in vaccinated communities.

      5. Molecular strain typing of the yaws pathogen, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenueExternal
        Katz SS, Chi KH, Nachamkin E, Danavall D, Taleo F, Kool JL, Addo KK, Ampofo W, Simpson SV, Ye T, Asiedu KB, Ballard RC, Chen CY, Pillay A.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0203632.

        Yaws is a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. The disease primarily affects children under 15 years of age living in low socioeconomic conditions in tropical areas. As a result of a renewed focus on the disease owing to a recent eradication effort initiated by the World Health Organization, we have evaluated a typing method, adapted from and based on the enhanced Centers for Disease Control and Prevention typing method for T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, for possible use in epidemiological studies. Thirty DNA samples from yaws cases in Vanuatu and Ghana, 11 DNA samples extracted from laboratory strains, and 3 published genomic sequences were fully typed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the tpr E, G, and J genes and by determining the number of 60-bp repeats within the arp gene. Subtyping was performed by sequencing a homonucleotide “G” tandem repeat immediately upstream of the rpsA gene and an 84-bp region of tp0548. A total of 22 complete strain types were identified; two strain types in clinical samples from Vanuatu (5q11/ak and 5q12/ak), nine strain types in clinical samples from Ghana (3q12/ah, 4r12/ah, 4q10/j, 4q11/ah, 4q12/ah, 4q12/v, 4q13/ah, 6q10/aj, and 9q10/ai), and twelve strain types in laboratory strains and published genomes (2q11/ae, 3r12/ad, 4q11/ad, 4q12/ad, 4q12/ag, 4q12/v, 5r12/ad, 6r12/x, 6q11/af, 10q9/r, 10q12/r, and 12r12/w). The tpr RFLP patterns and arp repeat sizes were subsequently verified by sequencing analysis of the respective PCR amplicons. This study demonstrates that the typing method for subsp. pallidum can be applied to subsp. pertenue strains and should prove useful for molecular epidemiological studies on yaws.

      6. Waning mumps IgG antibody and incomplete IgG avidity maturation may increase susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinees. To measure mumps IgG avidity, serum specimens serially diluted to the endpoint were incubated on a commercial mumps-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and treated with the protein denaturant diethylamine (60 mM, pH 10). End titer avidity indices (etAIs [percent ratio of detected diethylamine-resistant IgG at endpoint]) were calculated. Unpaired serum specimens (n = 108) from 15-month-old children living in a low-incidence setting were collected 1 month and 2 years after the first measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine dose (MMR1) and tested for mumps avidity. Per the receiver operating characteristic curve, the avidity assay is accurate (area under the curve, 0.994; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.956 to 1.000), 96.5% sensitive (95% CI, 87.9 to 99.6%), and 92.2% specific (95% CI, 81.1 to 97.8%) at an etAI of 30%. When 9 sets of paired serum specimens collected 1 to 60 months post-MMR1 were tested for mumps and measles IgG avidity using comparable methods, the mumps etAI increased from 11% to 40 to 60% in 6 months. From 6 to 60 months, avidity was sustained at a mean etAI of 50% (95% CI, 46 to 54%), significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than the mean measles etAI of 80% (95% CI, 74 to 86%). Mean etAIs in children 2 years post-MMR1 (n = 51), unvaccinated adults with distant mumps disease (n = 29), and confirmed mumps cases (n = 23) were 54, 62, and 57%, respectively. A mumps-specific endpoint avidity assay was developed and validated, and mumps avidity was determined to be generally sustained at etAIs of 40 to 60%, reaching etAIs of >80% in some individuals.IMPORTANCE Numerous outbreaks of mumps have occurred in the United States among two-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)-vaccinated populations since 2006. The avidity of mumps-specific IgG antibodies may affect susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinated individuals. To accurately measure mumps avidity, we developed and validated a mumps-specific IgG avidity assay that determines avidity at the endpoint titer of serially diluted serum specimens, providing results that are independent of IgG concentration. At low antibody titers, endpoint methods are considered more accurate than methods that determine avidity at a single dilution. We determined that 6 months after the first MMR dose, mumps IgG avidity is high and generally sustained at avidity indices of 40 to 60%, reaching values of >80% in some individuals. Additionally, 4% (4/103) of individuals had avidity indices of </=30% (low avidity) 2 years after vaccination. Inadequate mumps avidity maturation may be one factor influencing susceptibility to mumps virus infection among previously vaccinated or naturally infected individuals.

      7. Reference antigen-free and antibody-free LTD-IDMS assay for influenza H7N9 vaccine in vitro potency determinationExternal
        Morgenstern K, Xie Y, Palladino G, Barr JR, Settembre EC, Williams TL, Wen Y.
        Vaccine. 2018 Sep 4.

        Influenza vaccines are the most effective intervention to prevent the substantial public health burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the main antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), elicits functional neutralizing antibodies and largely determines IIV effectiveness. HA potency has been evaluated by single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID), the standard in vitro potency assay for IIVs, to predict vaccine immunogenicity with a correlation to protective efficacy. We previously reported that limited trypsin digestion (LTD) selectively degraded stressed HA, so that an otherwise conformationally insensitive biophysical quantification technique could specifically quantify trypsin-resistant, immunologically active HA. Here, we demonstrate that isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), a method capable of quantifying the absolute HA concentration without reference antigen use, can be further expanded by adding LTD followed with precipitation to selectively quantify the active HA. We test the LTD-IDMS assay on H7N9 vaccines stressed by low pH, raised temperature, or freeze/thaw cycles. This method, unlike SRID, has no requirement for strain-specific reference antigens or antibodies and can generate potency values that correlate with SRID. Thus, LTD-IDMS is a promising alternative in vitro potency assay for influenza vaccines to complement and potentially replace SRID in a pandemic when strain specific reagents may not be readily available.

      8. Proficiency of WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System participants in the identification and susceptibility testing of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. from 2003-2012External
        Pedersen SK, Wagenaar JA, Vigre H, Roer L, Mikoleit M, Aidara-Kane A, Cawthorne AL, Aarestrup FM, Hendriksen RS.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Sep 12.

        Campylobacter spp. are food- and water borne pathogens. While rather accurate estimates for these pathogens are available in industrialized countries, a lack of diagnostic capacity in developing countries limits accurate assessments of prevalence in many regions. Proficiency in the identification and susceptibility testing of these organisms is critical for surveillance and control efforts. The aim of the study was to assess performance for identification and susceptibility testing of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter among laboratories participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Foodborne Infections Network (GFN) External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) over a nine year period.Participants (primarily national level laboratories) were encouraged to self-evaluate performance as part of continuous quality improvement.The ability to correctly identify Campylobacter spp. varied by year and ranged from 61.9 % (2008) to 90.7 % (2012), and the ability to correctly perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for Campylobacter spp. appeared to steadily increase from 91.4 % to 93.6 % in the test period (2009-2012).Poorest performance (60.0 % correct identification and 86.8 % correct AST results) was observed in African laboratories.Overall, approximately 10 % of laboratories reported either an incorrect identification or antibiogramme. As most participants were (supra)-national reference laboratories, these data raise significant concerns regarding capacity and proficiency at the local, clinical level. Addressing these diagnostic challenges is critical for both patient level management and broader surveillance and control efforts.

      9. Screening for Pfhrp2/3-deleted Plasmodium falciparum, non-falciparum, and low-density malaria infections by a multiplex antigen assayExternal
        Plucinski MM, Herman C, Jones S, Dimbu R, Fortes F, Ljolje D, Lucchi N, Murphy SC, Smith NT, Cruz KR, Seilie AM, Halsey ES, Udhayakumar V, Aidoo M, Rogier E.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 7.

        Background: Detection of Plasmodium antigens provides evidence of malaria infection status and is the basis for most malaria diagnosis worldwide. Methods: We developed a sensitive bead-based multiplex assay for laboratory use which simultaneously detects the pan-Plasmodium pAldo, pan-Plasmodium pLDH, and P. falciparum PfHRP2 antigens. The assay was validated against purified recombinant antigens, mono-species malaria infections, and non-infected blood samples. To test against samples collected in an endemic setting, Angolan outpatient samples (n=1267) were assayed. Results: Of 466 Angolan samples positive for at least one antigen, the most common antigen profiles were PfHRP2+/pAldo+/pLDH+ (167, 36%), PfHRP2+/pAldo-/pLDH- (163, 35%), and PfHRP2+/pAldo+/pLDH- (129, 28%). Antigen profile was predictive of qRT-PCR positivity and parasite density. Eight Angolan samples (1.7%) had either no or very low levels of PfHRP2 but were positive for one or both of the other antigens. PCR analysis confirmed three (0.6%) were P. ovale infections, and two (0.4%) represented P. falciparum parasites lacking Pfhrp2 and/or Pfhrp3. Conclusions: These are the first reports of P. falciparum Pfhrp2/3 deletion mutants in Angola. High-throughput multiplex antigen detection can inexpensively screen for low density P. falciparum, non-falciparum, and Pfhrp2/3-deleted malaria parasites to provide population-level antigen estimates and identify specimens requiring further molecular characterization.

      10. Novel trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA34 identified in Salmonella Heidelberg in the USAExternal
        Tagg KA, Francois Watkins L, Moore MD, Bennett C, Joung YJ, Chen JC, Folster JP.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Sep 10.

        Background: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a synthetic antibiotic combination recommended for the treatment of complicated non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in humans. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is mediated by the acquisition of mobile genes, requiring both a dfr gene (trimethoprim resistance) and a sul gene (sulfamethoxazole resistance) for a clinical resistance phenotype (MIC >/=4/76 mg/L). In 2017, the CDC investigated a multistate outbreak caused by a Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg strain with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance, in which sul genes but no known dfr genes were detected. Objectives: To characterize and describe the molecular mechanism of trimethoprim resistance in a Salmonella Heidelberg outbreak isolate. Methods: Illumina sequencing data for one outbreak isolate revealed a 588 bp ORF encoding a putative dfr gene. This gene was cloned into Escherichia coli and resistance to trimethoprim was measured by broth dilution and Etest. Phylogenetic analysis of previously reported dfrA genes was performed using MEGA. Long-read sequencing was conducted to determine the context of the novel dfr gene. Results and conclusions: The novel dfr gene, named dfrA34, conferred trimethoprim resistance (MIC >/=32 mg/L) when cloned into E. coli. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, dfrA34 shares less than 50% identity with other known dfrA genes. The dfrA34 gene is located in a class 1 integron in a multiresistance region of an IncC plasmid, adjacent to a sul gene, thus conferring clinical trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. Additionally, dfrA34 is associated with ISCR1, enabling easy transmission between other plasmids and bacterial strains.

      11. Triplex real-time PCR without DNA extraction for the monitoring of meningococcal diseaseExternal
        Whaley MJ, Jenkins LT, Hu F, Chen A, Diarra S, Ouedraogo-Traore R, Sacchi CT, Wang X.
        Diagnostics (Basel). 2018 Aug 30;8(3).

        Detection of Neisseria meningitidis has become less time- and resource-intensive with a monoplex direct real-time PCR (drt-PCR) to amplify genes from clinical specimens without DNA extraction. To further improve efficiency, we evaluated two triplex drt-PCR assays for the detection of meningococcal serogroups AWX and BCY. The sensitivity and specificity of the triplex assays were assessed using 228 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from meningitis patients and compared to the monoplex for six serogroups. The lower limit of detection range for six serogroup-specific drt-PCR assays was 178(-)5264 CFU/mL by monoplex and 68(-)2221 CFU/mL by triplex. The triplex and monoplex showed 100% agreement for six serogroups and the triplex assays achieved similar sensitivity and specificity estimates as the monoplex drt-PCR assays. Our triplex method reduces the time and cost of processing CSF specimens by characterizing six serogroups with only two assays, which is particularly important for testing large numbers of specimens for N. meningitidis surveillance.

      12. Influence of molecular testing on influenza diagnosisExternal
        Yarbrough ML, Burnham CD, Anderson NW, Banerjee R, Ginocchio CC, Hanson KE, Uyeki TM.
        Clin Chem. 2018 Sep 12.

        [No abstract]

      13. Utilization of dried blood spot specimens can expedite nationwide surveillance of HIV drug resistance in resource-limited settingsExternal
        Zhang G, DeVos J, Medina-Moreno S, Wagar N, Diallo K, Beard RS, Zheng DP, Mwachari C, Riwa C, Jullu B, Wangari NE, Kibona MS, Ng’Ang’A LW, Raizes E, Yang C.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0203296.

        INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is crucial to ensuring the continued success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs. With the concern of reduced genotyping sensitivity of HIV on dried blood spots (DBS), DBS for HIVDR surveillance have been limited to ART-naive populations. To investigate if DBS under certain conditions may also be a feasible sample type for HIVDR testing in ART patients, we piloted nationwide surveys for HIVDR among ART patients using DBS in two African countries with rapid scale-up of ART. METHODS: EDTA-venous blood was collected to prepare DBS from adult and pediatric ART patients receiving treatment during the previous 12-36 months. DBS were stored at ambient temperature for two weeks and then at -80 degrees C until shipment at ambient temperature to the WHO-designated Specialized HIVDR Laboratory at CDC in Atlanta. Viral load (VL) was determined using NucliSENS EasyQ(R) HIV-1 v2.0 kits; HIVDR genotyping was performed using the ATCC HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping kits. RESULTS: DBS were collected from 1,368 and 1,202 ART patients; 244 and 255 these specimens had VL >/=1,000 copies/mL in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The overall genotyping rate of those DBS with VL >/=1,000 copies/mL was 93.0% (95% CI: 89.1%-95.6%) in Kenya and 91.8% (87.7%-94.6%) in Tanzania. The turnaround times for the HIVDR surveys from the time of collecting DBS to completing laboratory testing were 6.5 months and 9.3 months for the Kenya and Tanzania surveys, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates a favorable outcome of using DBS for nationwide surveillance of HIVDR in ART patients. Our results confirm that DBS collected and stored at ambient temperature for two weeks, and shipped with routine courier services are a reliable sample type for large-scale surveillance of acquired HIVDR.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Effects of inflammation on biomarkers of vitamin A status among a cohort of Bolivian infantsExternal
        Burke RM, Whitehead RD, Figueroa J, Whelan D, Aceituno AM, Rebolledo PA, Revollo R, Leon JS, Suchdev PS.
        Nutrients. 2018 Sep 5;10(9).

        Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects nearly 200 million children with negative health consequences. VAD can be measured by a retinol-binding protein (RBP) and serum retinol concentrations. Their concentrations are not always present in a 1:1 molar ratio and are affected by inflammation. This study sought to quantify VAD and its impact on infant mortality and infectious morbidity during the first 18 months of life in a cohort of mother-infant dyads in El Alto, Bolivia, while accounting for the previously mentioned measurement issues. Healthy mother-infant dyads (n = 461) were enrolled from two hospitals and followed for 12 to 18 months. Three serum samples were collected (at one to two, six to eight, and 12 to 18 months of infant age) and analyzed for RBP, and a random 10% subsample was analyzed for retinol. Linear regression of RBP on retinol was used to generate RBP cut-offs equivalent to retinol <0.7 micromol/L. All measures of RBP and retinol were adjusted for inflammation, which was measured by a C-reactive protein and alpha (1)-acid glycoprotein serum concentrations using linear regression. Infant mortality and morbidity rates were calculated and compared by early VAD status at two months of age. Retinol and RBP were weakly affected by inflammation. This association varied with infant age. Estimated VAD (RBP < 0.7 micromol/L) decreased from 71.0% to 14.8% to 7.7% at two, six to eight, and 12 to 18 months of age. VAD was almost nonexistent in mothers. Early VAD was not significantly associated with infant mortality or morbidity rates. This study confirmed a relationship between inflammation and vitamin A biomarkers for some subsets of the population and suggested that the vitamin A status in early infancy improves with age and may not have significantly affected morbidity in this population of healthy infants.

      2. A collaborative, mixed-methods evaluation of a low-cost, handheld 3D imaging system for child anthropometryExternal
        Conkle J, Keirsey K, Hughes A, Breiman J, Ramakrishnan U, Suchdev PS, Martorell R.
        Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Sep 8:e12686.

        3D imaging for body measurements (e.g., anthropometry) is regularly used for design of garments and ergonomic products. The development of low-cost 3D scanners provided an opportunity to extend the use of 3D imaging to the health sector. We developed and tested the AutoAnthro System, the first mobile, low-cost, full-body, 3D imaging system designed specifically for child anthropometry. This study evaluated the efficiency, invasiveness, and user experience of the newly developed 3D imaging system. We used a mixed-methods, collaborative approach that included a quantitative time-motion study and qualitative interviews of anthropometrists. The time-motion study employed continuous observation of manual measurement and scanning based on milestone timing, and we designed and analyzed the qualitative component based on grounded theory from a constructivist point of view. For cooperative children, anthropometrists considered the use of 3D imaging an easy, ‘streamlined experience,’ but with uncooperative children anthropometrists reported that capturing a good quality scan was out of their control. The mean time to complete a full set of scans was 68 seconds (standard deviation (SD) 29), compared to 135 seconds (SD 22) for a set of manual measurements (stature, head circumference, and arm circumference). We observed that crying was more common during manual measurement, and anthropometrist interviews confirmed that 3D imaging was less stressful for children than manual measurement. Overall, the anthropometrists were not yet ready to completely abandon traditional, manual equipment for 3D scanners. Revising the AutoAnthro System to address anthropometrists’ concerns on capturing good quality scans of uncooperative children should help to facilitate widespread use of 3D imaging for child anthropometry in the health sector.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Conference summary Understanding Small Enterprises Conference, 25-27 October 2017External
        Brown CE, Cunningham TR, Newman LS, Schulte PA.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2018 Sep 13;62(suppl_1):S1-s11.

        Objectives: The specific objectives of the 2017 Understanding Small Enterprises Conference were to: (i) identify successful strategies for overcoming occupational safety and health (OS&H) barriers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); (ii) disseminate best practices to research and business communities; (iii) build collaborations between different stakeholders including researchers, insurers, small enterprises, government agencies; and (iv) better inform OS&H research relevant to SMEs. Methods: A two and a half day international conference was organized, building upon three previously successful iterations. This conference brought together researchers, practitioners, and other stakeholders from 16 countries to share best practices and emerging strategies for improving OS&H in SMEs. Findings: Cross-cutting themes that emerged at the conference centered around: 1) stakeholder and intermediary involvement; 2) what occupational health and safety looks like across different industries; 3) intervention programs (tools and resources); 4) precarious and vulnerable work and the informal sector; and 5) Total Worker Health(R) in SMEs. Conclusion: A number of innovative initiatives were shared at the conference. Researchers must build collaborations involving a variety of stakeholder groups to ensure that OS&H solutions are successful in SMEs. Future OS&H research should continue to build upon the successful work of the 2017 Understanding Small Enterprises Conference.

      2. Background: Small construction businesses (SCBs) account for a disproportionate share of occupational injuries, days lost, and fatalities in the US and other modern economies. Owner/managers of SCBs confront risks associated with their own and workers’ safety and business survival, and their occupational safety and health (OSH) related values and practices are key drivers of safety and business outcomes. Given owner/mangers are the key to understanding and affecting change in smaller firms, as well as the pressing need for improved OSH in small firms particularly in construction, there is a critical need to better understand SCB owners’ readiness to improve or adopt enhanced OSH activities in their business. Unfortunately, the social expectation to support safety can complicate efforts to evaluate owners’ readiness. Objectives: To get a more accurate understanding of the OSH values and practices of SCBs and the factors shaping SCB owners’ readiness and intent to implement or improve safety and health programming by comparing their discourse on safety with their self-rated level of stage of change. Methods: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 SCB owner managers. Respondents were asked to self-rate their safety program activity on a 5-point scale from unaware or ignorant (‘haven’t thought about it at all’) to actively vigilant (‘well-functioning safety and health program for at least 6 months’). They were also asked to discuss the role and meaning of OSH within their trade and company, as well as attitudes and inclinations toward improving or enhancing business safety practices. Analysis and results: Respondents’ self-rating of safety program activity was compared and contrasted with results from discourse analysis of their safety talk, or verbal descriptions of their safety values and activities. Borrowing from normative and stage theories of safety culture and behavioral change, these sometimes contradictory descriptions were taxonomized along a safety culture continuum and a range of safety cultures and stages of readiness for change were found. These included descriptions of strong safety cultures with intentions for improvement as well as descriptions of safety cultures with more reactive and pathological approaches to OSH, with indications of no intentions for improvement. Some owner/managers rated themselves as having an effective OSH program in place, yet described a dearth of OSH activity and/or value for OSH in their business. Conclusion: Assessing readiness to change is key to improving OSH performance, and more work is needed to effectively assess SCB OSH readiness and thus enable greater adoption of best practices.

      3. Influence of work characteristics on the association between police stress and sleep qualityCdc-pdfExternal
        Ma CC, Hartley TA, Sarkisian K, Fekedulegn D, Mnatsakanova A, Owens S, Gu JK, Tinney-Zara C, Violanti JM, Andrew ME.
        Saf Health Work. 2018 .

        Background: Police officers? stress perception, frequency of stressful events (stressors), and police work characteristics may contribute to poor sleep quality through different mechanisms. Methods: We investigated associations of stress severity (measured by stress rating score) and frequency of stressors with sleep quality and examined the influence of police work characteristics including workload, police rank, prior military experience, and shift work on the associations. Participants were 356 police officers (256 men and 100 women) enrolled in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study from 2004 to 2009. A mean stress rating score and mean frequency of stressors occurring in the past month were computed for each participant from the Spielberger Police Stress Survey data. Sleep quality was assessed using the global score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index survey. Linear associations of the stress rating score and frequency of stressors with sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score) were tested. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status were selected as potential confounders. Results: The stress rating score was positively and independently associated with poor sleep quality (beta = 0.17, p = 0.002). Only workload significantly modified this association (beta = 0.23, p = 0.001 for high workload group; p-interaction = 0.109). The frequency of stressors was positively and independently associated with poor sleep quality (beta = 0.13, p = 0.025). Only police rank significantly modified the association (beta = 0.007, p = 0.004 for detectives/other executives; p-interaction = 0.076). Conclusion: Both police officers? perception of stress severity and the frequency of stressors are associated with poor sleep quality. Stress coping or sleep promotion regimens may be more beneficial among police officers reporting high workloads.

      4. Components of an occupational safety and health communication research strategy for small- and medium-sized enterprisesExternal
        Schulte PA, Cunningham TR, Guerin RJ, Hennigan B, Jacklitsch B.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2018 Sep 13;62(suppl_1):S12-s24.

        The majority of the global labor force works in firms with fewer than 50 employees; firms with fewer than 250 employees make up 99% of workplaces. Even so, the lack of extensive or comprehensive research has failed to focus on occupational safety and health communication to these small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Given that the magnitude of all occupational safety and health (OSH) morbidity, mortality, and injury disproportionately occurs in businesses with fewer than 250 employees, efforts to communicate with employers to engage in preventative occupational safety and health efforts merit attention. This article provides an overview of important components that should be considered in developing an occupational safety and health (OSH) communication research strategy targeting SMEs. Such a strategy should raise awareness about the diversity and complexity of SMEs and the challenges of targeting OSH communication toward this diverse group. Companies of differing sizes (e.g. 5, 50, 500 employees) likely require differing communication approaches. Communication strategies will benefit from deconstructing the term ‘small business’ into smaller, more homogenous categories that might require approaches. Theory-based research assessing barriers, message content, channels, reach, reception, motivation, and intention to act serve as the foundation for developing a comprehensive research framework. Attention to this type of research by investigators is warranted and should be encouraged and supported. There would also be value in developing national and international strategies for research on communication with small businesses.

      5. Work-related lung cancer: The practitioner’s perspectiveExternal
        Weissman DN, Howard J.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Oct;108(10):1290-1292.

        [No abstract]

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Work practices and respiratory health status of Appalachian coal miners with progressive massive fibrosisExternal
        Reynolds LE, Blackley DJ, Colinet JF, Potts JD, Storey E, Short C, Carson R, Clark KA, Laney AS, Halldin CN.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Sep 5.

        OBJECTIVE: To characterize workplace practices and respiratory health among coal miners with large opacities consistent with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) who received care at a federally-funded black lung clinic network in Virginia. METHODS: Participants were interviewed about their workplace practices and respiratory health. Medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: Nineteen former coal miners were included. Miners reported cutting rock, working downwind of dust-generating equipment, non-adherence to mine ventilation plans (including dust controls), improper sampling of respirable coal mine dust exposures, working after developing respiratory illness, and suffering from debilitating respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent themes of suboptimal workplace practices contributing to development of PMF emerged during the interviews. Some of the practices reported were unsafe and unacceptable. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of these factors and how best to address them.

      2. Numerical and experimental investigation of carbon monoxide spread in underground mine firesExternal
        Zhou L, Yuan L, Bahrami D, Thomas RA, Rowland JH.
        J Fire Sci. 2018 ;36(5):406-418.

        The primary danger with underground mine fires is carbon monoxide poisoning. A good knowledge of smoke and carbon monoxide movement in an underground mine during a fire is of importance for the design of ventilation systems, emergency response, and miners escape and rescue. Mine fire simulation software packages have been widely used to predict carbon monoxide concentration and its spread in a mine for effective mine fire emergency planning. However, they are not highly recommended to be used to forecast the actual carbon monoxide concentration due to lack of validation studies. In this article, MFIRE, a mine fire simulation software based on ventilation networks, was evaluated for its carbon monoxide spread prediction capabilities using experimental results from large-scale diesel fuel and conveyor belt fire tests conducted in the Safety Research Coal Mine at The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The comparison between the simulation and test results of carbon monoxide concentration shows good agreement and indicates that MFIRE is able to predict the carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires with confidence. The Author(s) 2018.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Chloroquine as weekly chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment to prevent malaria in pregnancy in Malawi: a randomised controlled trialExternal
        Divala TH, Mungwira RG, Mawindo PM, Nyirenda OM, Kanjala M, Ndaferankhande M, Tsirizani LE, Masonga R, Muwalo F, Potter GE, Kennedy J, Goswami J, Wylie BJ, Muehlenbachs A, Ndovie L, Mvula P, Mbilizi Y, Tomoka T, Laufer MK.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 5.

        BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes. METHODS: We did an open-label, single-centre, randomised controlled trial at Ndirande Health Centre, Blantyre, in southern Malawi. We enrolled pregnant women (first or second pregnancy) at 20-28 weeks’ gestation who were HIV negative. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio using a computer-generated list to either intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (two doses of 1500 mg sulfadoxine and 75 mg pyrimethamine, 4 weeks apart), intermittent chloroquine (two doses of 600 mg on day 1, 600 mg on day 2, and 300 mg on day 3), or chloroquine prophylaxis (600 mg on day 1 then 300 mg every week). The primary endpoint was placental malaria in the modified intent-to-treat population, which consisted of participants who contributed placental histopathology data at birth. Secondary outcomes included clinical malaria, maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01443130. FINDINGS: Between February, 2012, and May, 2014, we enrolled and randomly allocated 900 women, of whom 765 contributed histopathological data and were included in the primary analysis. 108 (14%) women had placental malaria, which was lower than the anticipated prevalence of placental malaria infection. Protection from placental malaria was not improved by chloroquine as either prophylaxis (30 [12%] of 259 had positive histopathology; relative risk [RR] 0.75, 95% CI 0.48-1.17) or intermittent therapy (39 [15%] of 253; RR 1.00, 0.67-1.50) compared with intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (39 [15%] of 253). In protocol-specified analyses adjusted for maternal age, gestational age at enrolment, bednet use the night before enrolment, anaemia at enrolment, and malaria infection at enrolment, women taking chloroquine as prophylaxis had 34% lower placental infections than did those allocated intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.95). Clinical malaria was reported in nine women assigned intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, four allocated intermittent chloroquine (p=0.26), and two allocated chloroquine prophylaxis (p=0.063). Maternal anaemia was noted in five women assigned intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 15 allocated intermittent chloroquine (p=0.038), and six assigned chloroquine prophylaxis (p>0.99). Low birthweight was recorded for 31 babies born to women allocated intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 29 assigned intermittent chloroquine (p=0.78), and 41 allocated chloroquine prophylaxis (p=0.28). Four women assigned intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine had adverse events possibly related to study product compared with 94 women allocated intermittent chloroquine (p<0.0001) and 26 allocated chloroquine prophylaxis (p<0.0001). Three women had severe or life-threatening adverse events related to study product, of whom all were assigned intermittent chloroquine (p=0.25). INTERPRETATION: Chloroquine administered as intermittent therapy did not provide better protection from malaria and related adverse effects compared with intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a setting of high resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Chloroquine chemoprophylaxis might provide benefit in protecting against malaria during pregnancy, but studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning (FP) services into non-FP care visits is an essential strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality through reduction of short birth intervals and unplanned pregnancies. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted across 61 facilities in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, April-July 2016. Multilevel, mixed effects logistic regression analyses were conducted on matched data from providers (n = 330) and clients seeking delivery (n = 935), well-baby (n = 272), pregnancy loss (PL; n = 229), and other routine (postnatal, HIV/STI, other; n = 69) services. Outcomes of interest included receipt of FP information and a modern FP method (significance level p < 0.05). RESULTS: Clients had significantly greater odds of receiving FP information if the primary reason for seeking care was for PL versus (vs) any other types of care (aOR 1.97), had four or more pregnancies vs fewer (aOR 1.78), and had had a FP discussion with their partner vs no FP discussion (aOR 1.73). Clients had lower odds of receiving FP information if they were aged 40-49 vs 15-19 (aOR 0.50) and reported attending religious services at least weekly vs less frequently (aOR 0.61). Clients of providers who perceived that in-service training had helped vs had not helped job performance (aOR 2.27), and clients of providers having high vs low recent FP training index scores (aOR 1.58) had greater odds of receiving FP information. Clients had greater odds of receiving a modern method when they received information on two or more vs fewer methods (aOR 7.13), had had a FP discussion with their partner vs no discussion (aOR 5.87), if the primary reason for seeking care was for PL vs any other types of care (aOR 4.08), had zero vs one or more live births (aOR 3.92), made their own FP decisions vs not made own FP decisions (aOR 3.17), received FP information from two or more vs fewer sources (aOR 3.12), and were in the middle or high vs the low wealth tercile (aOR 1.99 and 2.30, respectively). Well-baby care clients, Other routine services clients, and married clients had significantly lower odds of receiving a method (aOR 0.14; aOR 0.08; and aOR 0.41, respectively) compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies that better integrate FP into routine care visits, encourage women to have FP discussions with their partners and providers, increase FP training among providers, and expand FP options and sources of information may help reduce the unmet need for FP, and ultimately lower maternal and neonatal mortality.

      2. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for dads: Public health surveillance of new fathers in the perinatal periodExternal
        Garfield CF, Simon CD, Harrison L, Besera G, Kapaya M, Pazol K, Boulet S, Grigorescu V, Barfield W, Warner L.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Oct;108(10):1314-1315.

        [No abstract]

      3. Contraceptive, condom and dual method use at last coitus among perinatally and horizontally HIV-infected young women in Atlanta, GeorgiaExternal
        Haddad LB, Brown JL, King C, Gause NK, Cordes S, Chakraborty R, Kourtis AP.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0202946.

        OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors within the social-ecological framework associated with most or moderately effective contraception, condom and dual method use at last coitus among young, HIV-infected women in Atlanta. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from November, 2013 until August, 2015 at the Grady Infectious Disease Clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. We recruited perinatally and horizontally HIV-infected women of ages 14-30 years to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview. We evaluated factors within a social-ecological framework associated with most or moderately effective contraceptive use (hormonal contraception or an IUD), condom use, and dual method use (use of condom and most or moderately effective contraceptive) at last coitus. RESULTS: Of 103 women enrolled, 74 reported a history of sexual activity. The average age was 22.1; 89% were African American, 52% were perinatally infected, 89% received combination antiretroviral therapy, and 63% had undetectable viral loads. At last coitus, 46% reported most or moderately effective contraception, 62% reported condom use and 27% reporting dual-method use. The odds of most or moderately effective contraceptive use was significantly reduced among those with detectable viral loads (versus undetectable viral loads; aOR 0.13 [0.04, 0.38]). Older age (aOR 0.85 [0.74, 0.98] and more frequent coitus (>once/week versus < = once/week; aOR 0.24 [0.08, 0.72]) was significantly associated with reduced condom use. Having a detectable viral load (versus undetectable viral loads; aOR 0.13 [0.03, 0.69]) and more frequent coitus (>once/week versus < = once/week; aOR 0.14 [0.03,0.82]), was associated with reduced dual method use, while being enrolled in school (aOR 5.63 [1.53, 20.71]) was significantly associated with increased dual method use. CONCLUSIONS: Most or moderately effective contraception, condom and dual method use remained inadequate in this cohort of young HIV-infected women. Individual-level interventions are needed to increase the uptake of dual methods with user-independent contraceptives.

      4. Intrauterine device expulsion after postpartum placement: A systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
        Jatlaoui TC, Whiteman MK, Jeng G, Tepper NK, Berry-Bibee E, Jamieson DJ, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep 7.

        OBJECTIVE: To estimate expulsion rates among women with postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) placement by timing of insertion, IUD type, and delivery method. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1974 to May 2018. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We searched databases for any published studies that examined postpartum placement of a copper IUD or levonorgestrel intrauterine system and reported counts of expulsions. We assessed study quality using the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force evidence grading system. We calculated pooled absolute rates of IUD expulsion and estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) for timing of postpartum placement, delivery method, and IUD type using log-binomial multivariable regression model. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We identified 48 level I to II-3 studies of poor to good quality. Pooled rates of expulsion varied by timing of IUD placement, ranging from 1.9% with interval placements (4 weeks postpartum or greater), 10.0% for immediate placements (10 minutes or less after placental delivery), and 29.7% for early placements (greater than 10 minutes to less than 4 weeks postpartum). Immediate and early postpartum placements were associated with increased risk of expulsion compared with interval placement (adjusted RR 7.63, 95% CI 4.31-13.51; adjusted RR 6.17, 95% CI 3.19-11.93, respectively). Postpartum placement less than 4 weeks after vaginal delivery was associated with an increased risk of expulsion compared with cesarean delivery (adjusted RR 5.19, 95% CI 3.85-6.99). Analysis of expulsion rates at less than 4 weeks postpartum also indicated that the levonorgestrel intrauterine system was associated with a higher risk of expulsion (adjusted RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.50-2.43) compared with CuT380A. CONCLUSION: Postpartum IUD expulsion rates vary by timing of placement, delivery method, and IUD type. These results can aid in counseling women to make an informed choice about when to initiate their IUD and to help institutions implement postpartum contraception programs.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Objective: This study examined factors associated with prescription opioid analgesic use in the US population using data from a nationally representative sample. It focused on factors previously shown to be associated with opioid use disorder or overdose. Variations in the use of different strength opioid analgesics by demographic subgroup were also examined. Methods: Data came from respondents aged 16 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014). Respondents were classified as opioid users if they reported using one or more prescription opioid analgesics in the past 30 days. Results: Opioid users reported poorer self-perceived health than those not currently using opioids. Compared with those not using opioids, opioid users were more likely to rate their health as being “fair” or “poor” (40.4% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 34.9%-46.2%] compared with 15.6% [95% CI = 14.3%-17.1%]), experienced more days of pain during the past 30 days (mean = 14.3 [95% CI = 12.9-15.8] days compared with 2.3 [95% CI = 2.0-2.7] days), and had depression (22.5% [95% CI = 17.3%-28.7%] compared with 7.1% [95% CI = 6.2%-8.0%]). Among those who reported using opioids during the past 30 days, 18.8% (95% CI = 14.4%-24.1%) reported using benzodiazepine medication during the same period and 5.2% (95% CI = 3.5%-7.7%) reported using an illicit drug during the past six months. When opioid strength was examined, a smaller percentage of adults aged 60 years and older used stronger-than-morphine opioids compared with adults aged 20-39 and 40-59 years. Conclusions: Higher percentages of current opioid users than nonusers reported having many of the factors associated with opioid use disorder and overdose.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. The Zika Contraception Access Network established a network of 153 physicians across Puerto Rico as a short-term emergency response during the 2016-2017 Zika virus outbreak to provide client-centered contraceptive counseling and same-day contraception services at no cost for women who chose to prevent pregnancy. Between May 2016 and August 2017, 21 124 women received services. Contraception was used as a medical countermeasure to reduce adverse Zika-related reproductive outcomes during the outbreak and may be considered a key strategy in other emergencies.

      2. Sampling considerations for a potential Zika virus urosurvey in New York CityExternal
        Thompson CN, Lee CT, Immerwahr S, Resnick S, Culp G, Greene SK.
        Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Oct;146(13):1628-1634.

        In 2016, imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infections and the presence of a potentially competent mosquito vector (Aedes albopictus) implied that ZIKV transmission in New York City (NYC) was possible. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed contingency plans for a urosurvey to rule out ongoing local transmission as quickly as possible if a locally acquired case of confirmed ZIKV infection was suspected. We identified tools to (1) rapidly estimate the population living in any given 150-m radius (i.e. within the typical flight distance of an Aedes mosquito) and (2) calculate the sample size needed to test and rule out the further local transmission. As we expected near-zero ZIKV prevalence, methods relying on the normal approximation to the binomial distribution were inappropriate. Instead, we assumed a hypergeometric distribution, 10 missed cases at maximum, a urine assay sensitivity of 92.6% and 100% specificity. Three suspected example risk areas were evaluated with estimated population sizes of 479-4,453, corresponding to a minimum of 133-1244 urine samples. This planning exercise improved our capacity for ruling out local transmission of an emerging infection in a dense, urban environment where all residents in a suspected risk area cannot be feasibly sampled.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019