Volume 10, Issue 33, September 6, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 33, September 6, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week, Science Clips is pleased to collaborate with CDC Vital Signs by featuring scientific articles from the latest issue (www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns). The articles marked with an asterisk are general review articles which may be of particular interest to clinicians and public health professionals seeking background information in this area.

  1. CDC Vital Signs
    • Cardiovascular Disease – Million Hearts 2022
      1. *Decline in cardiovascular mortality: Possible causes and implicationsExternal
        Mensah GA, Wei GS, Sorlie PD, Fine LJ, Rosenberg Y, Kaufmann PG, Mussolino ME, Hsu LL, Addou E, Engelgau MM, Gordon D.
        Circ Res. 2017 Jan 20;120(2):366-380.

        If the control of infectious diseases was the public health success story of the first half of the 20th century, then the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke has been the success story of the century’s past 4 decades. The early phase of this decline in coronary heart disease and stroke was unexpected and controversial when first reported in the mid-1970s, having followed 60 years of gradual increase as the US population aged. However, in 1978, the participants in a conference convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute concluded that a significant recent downtick in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality rates had definitely occurred, at least in the US Since 1978, a sharp decline in mortality rates from coronary heart disease and stroke has become unmistakable throughout the industrialized world, with age-adjusted mortality rates having declined to about one third of their 1960s baseline by 2000. Models have shown that this remarkable decline has been fueled by rapid progress in both prevention and treatment, including precipitous declines in cigarette smoking, improvements in hypertension treatment and control, widespread use of statins to lower circulating cholesterol levels, and the development and timely use of thrombolysis and stents in acute coronary syndrome to limit or prevent infarction. However, despite the huge growth in knowledge and advances in prevention and treatment, there remain many questions about this decline. In fact, there is evidence that the rate of decline may have abated and may even be showing early signs of reversal in some population groups. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, through a request for information, is soliciting input that could inform a follow-up conference on or near the 40th anniversary of the original landmark conference to further explore these trends in cardiovascular mortality in the context of what has come before and what may lie ahead.

      2. *Trends and patterns of geographic variation in cardiovascular mortality among US counties, 1980-2014External
        Roth GA, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Bertozzi-Villa A, Stubbs RW, Morozoff C, Naghavi M, Mokdad AH, Murray CJ.
        Jama. 2017 May 16;317(19):1976-1992.

        Importance: In the United States, regional variation in cardiovascular mortality is well-known but county-level estimates for all major cardiovascular conditions have not been produced. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases by county. Design and Setting: Deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics and population counts from the US Census Bureau, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Human Mortality Database from 1980 through 2014 were used. Validated small area estimation models were used to estimate county-level mortality rates from all cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and flutter, rheumatic heart disease, aortic aneurysm, peripheral arterial disease, endocarditis, and all other cardiovascular diseases combined. Exposures: The 3110 counties of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-standardized cardiovascular disease mortality rates by county, year, sex, and cause. Results: From 1980 to 2014, cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death in the United States, although the mortality rate declined from 507.4 deaths per 100000 persons in 1980 to 252.7 deaths per 100000 persons in 2014, a relative decline of 50.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 49.5%-50.8%). In 2014, cardiovascular diseases accounted for more than 846000 deaths (95% UI, 827-865 thousand deaths) and 11.7 million years of life lost (95% UI, 11.6-11.9 million years of life lost). The gap in age-standardized cardiovascular disease mortality rates between counties at the 10th and 90th percentile declined 14.6% from 172.1 deaths per 100000 persons in 1980 to 147.0 deaths per 100000 persons in 2014 (posterior probability of decline >99.9%). In 2014, the ratio between counties at the 90th and 10th percentile was 2.0 for ischemic heart disease (119.1 vs 235.7 deaths per 100000 persons) and 1.7 for cerebrovascular disease (40.3 vs 68.1 deaths per 100000 persons). For other cardiovascular disease causes, the ratio ranged from 1.4 (aortic aneurysm: 3.5 vs 5.1 deaths per 100000 persons) to 4.2 (hypertensive heart disease: 4.3 vs 17.9 deaths per 100000 persons). The largest concentration of counties with high cardiovascular disease mortality extended from southeastern Oklahoma along the Mississippi River Valley to eastern Kentucky. Several cardiovascular disease conditions were clustered substantially outside the South, including atrial fibrillation (Northwest), aortic aneurysm (Midwest), and endocarditis (Mountain West and Alaska). The lowest cardiovascular mortality rates were found in the counties surrounding San Francisco, California, central Colorado, northern Nebraska, central Minnesota, northeastern Virginia, and southern Florida. Conclusions and Relevance: Substantial differences exist between county ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality rates. Smaller differences exist for diseases of the myocardium, atrial fibrillation, aortic and peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, and endocarditis.

      3. Increasing cardiac rehabilitation participation from 20% to 70%: A road map From the Million Hearts Cardiac Rehabilitation CollaborativeExternal
        Ades PA, Keteyian SJ, Wright JS, Hamm LF, Lui K, Newlin K, Shepard DS, Thomas RJ.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 Feb;92(2):234-242.

        The primary aim of the Million Hearts initiative is to prevent 1 million cardiovascular events over 5 years. Concordant with the Million Hearts’ focus on achieving more than 70% performance in the “ABCS” of aspirin for those at risk, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation, we outline the cardiovascular events that would be prevented and a road map to achieve more than 70% participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR)/secondary prevention programs by the year 2022. Cardiac rehabilitation is a class Ia recommendation of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization, promotes the ABCS along with lifestyle counseling and exercise, and is associated with decreased total mortality, cardiac mortality, and rehospitalizations. However, current participation rates for CR in the United States generally range from only 20% to 30%. This road map focuses on interventions, such as electronic medical record-based prompts and staffing liaisons that increase referrals of appropriate patients to CR, increase enrollment of appropriate individuals into CR, and increase adherence to longer-term CR. We also calculate that increasing CR participation from 20% to 70% would save 25,000 lives and prevent 180,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States.

      4. Is rapid health improvement possible? Lessons from the Million Hearts InitiativeExternal
        Frieden TR, Wright JS, Conway PH.
        Circulation. 2017 May 2;135(18):1677-1680.

        [No abstract]

      5. [No abstract]

      6. Million Hearts: Description of the national surveillance and modeling methodology used to monitor the number of cardiovascular events prevented during 2012-2016External
        Ritchey MD, Loustalot F, Wall HK, Steiner CA, Gillespie C, George MG, Wright JS.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 2;6(5).

        BACKGROUND: This study describes the national surveillance and modeling methodology developed to monitor achievement of the Million Hearts initiative’s aim of preventing 1 million acute myocardial infarctions, strokes, and other related cardiovascular events during 2012-2016. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculate sex- and age-specific cardiovascular event rates (combination of emergency department, hospitalization, and death events) among US adults aged >/=18 from 2006 to 2011 and, based on log-linear models fitted to the rates, calculate their annual percent change. We describe 2 baseline strategies to be used to compare observed versus expected event totals during 2012-2016: (1) stable baselines assume no rate changes, with modeled 2011 rates held constant through 2016; and (2) trend baselines assume 2006-2011 rate trends will continue, with the annual percent changes applied to the modeled 2011 rates to calculate expected 2012-2016 rates. Events prevented estimates during 2012-2013 were calculated using available data: 115 210 (95% CI, 60 858, 169 562) events were prevented using stable baselines and an excess of 43 934 (95% CI, -14 264, 102 132) events occurred using trend baselines. Women aged >/=75 had the most events prevented (stable, 76 242 [42 067, 110 417]; trend, 39 049 [1901, 76 197]). Men aged 45 to 64 had the greatest number of excess events (stable, 22 912 [95% CI, 855, 44 969]; trend, 38 810 [95% CI, 15 567, 62 053]). CONCLUSIONS: Around 115 000 events were prevented during the initiative’s first 2 years compared with what would have occurred had 2011 rates remained stable. Recent flattening or reversals in some event rate trends were observed supporting intensifying national action to prevent cardiovascular events.

      7. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groupsExternal
        Vaughan AS, Ritchey MD, Hannan J, Kramer MR, Casper M.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2017 Dec;27(12):796-800.

        PURPOSE: Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. METHODS: Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. RESULTS: Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties.

      8. Research needs to improve hypertension treatment and control in African AmericansExternal
        Whelton PK, Einhorn PT, Muntner P, Appel LJ, Cushman WC, Diez Roux AV, Ferdinand KC, et al .
        Hypertension. 2016 Nov;68(5):1066-1072.

        [No abstract]

      9. Vital Signs: Recent trends in stroke death rates – United States, 2000-2015External
        Yang Q, Tong X, Schieb L, Vaughan A, Gillespie C, Wiltz JL, King SC, Odom E, Merritt R, Hong Y, George MG.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Sep 8;66(35):933-939.

        INTRODUCTION: The prominent decline in U.S. stroke death rates observed for more than 4 decades has slowed in recent years. CDC examined trends and patterns in recent stroke death rates among U.S. adults aged >/=35 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity, state, and census region. METHODS: Trends in the rates of stroke as the underlying cause of death during 2000-2015 were analyzed using data from the National Vital Statistics System. Joinpoint software was used to identify trends in stroke death rates, and the excess number of stroke deaths resulting from unfavorable changes in trends was estimated. RESULTS: Among adults aged >/=35 years, age-standardized stroke death rates declined 38%, from 118.4 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 73.3 per 100,000 persons in 2015. The annual percent change (APC) in stroke death rates changed from 2000 to 2015, from a 3.4% decrease per year during 2000-2003, to a 6.6% decrease per year during 2003-2006, a 3.1% decrease per year during 2006-2013, and a 2.5% (nonsignificant) increase per year during 2013-2015. The last trend segment indicated a reversal from a decrease to a statistically significant increase among Hispanics (APC = 5.8%) and among persons in the South Census Region (APC = 4.2%). Declines in stroke death rates failed to continue in 38 states, and during 2013-2015, an estimated 32,593 excess stroke deaths might not have occurred if the previous rate of decline could have been sustained. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Prior declines in stroke death rates have not continued in recent years, and substantial variations exist in timing and magnitude of change by demographic and geographic characteristics. These findings suggest the importance of strategically identifying opportunities for prevention and intervening in vulnerable populations, especially because effective and underused interventions to prevent stroke incidence and death are known to exist.

      10. Characteristics of health care practices and systems that excel in hypertension controlExternal
        Young A, Ritchey MD, George MG, Hannan J, Wright J.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Jun 7;15:E73.

        Approximately 1 in 3 US adults has hypertension, but only half have their blood pressure controlled. We identified characteristics of health care practices and systems (hereinafter practices) effective in achieving control rates at or above 70% by using data collected via applications submitted from April through June 2017 for consideration in the Million Hearts Hypertension Control Challenge. We included 96 practices serving 635,000 patients with hypertension across 34 US states in the analysis. Mean hypertension control rate was 77.1%; 27.1% of practices had a control rate of 80% or greater. Although many practices served large populations with multiple risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, high control rates were achieved with implementation of evidenced-based strategies.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Knee osteoarthritis and the risk of medically treated injurious falls among older adults: the Health ABC StudyExternal
        Barbour KE, Sagawa N, Boudreau RM, Winger ME, Cauley JA, Nevitt MC, Fujii T, Patel KV, Strotmeyer ES.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018 Aug 21.

        BACKGROUND: The risk of falls among adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been documented, yet, to our knowledge no studies have examined knee OA and medically treated injurious falls (hereafter injurious falls) (overall and by sex), an outcome of substantial clinical and public health relevance. METHODS: Using data from the Health ABC Knee Osteoarthritis Substudy, a community-based study of white and black older adults, we tested associations between knee OA status and the risk of injurious falls among 734 participants with a mean (SD) age of 74.7 (2.9) years. Knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) was defined as having a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of >/=2 in at least one knee. Knee symptomatic ROA (sROA) was defined as having both ROA and pain symptoms in the same knee. Injurious falls were defined using a validated diagnoses code algorithm from linked Medicare Fee-for-Service claims. Cox regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The mean (SD) follow-up time was 6.59 (3.12) years. Of the 734 participants, 255 (34.7%) had an incident injurious fall over the entire study period. In the multivariate model, compared with those without ROA or pain, individuals with sROA (HR=1.09; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.65) did not have a significantly increased risk of injurious falls. Compared with men without ROA or pain, men with sROA (HR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.91) had a significantly higher risk of injurious falls. No associations were found for women or by injurious fall type. CONCLUSION: Knee sROA was independently associated with an increased risk of injurious falls in older men, but not in older women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. Trends and disparities in cardiovascular mortality among U.S. adults with and without self-reported diabetes mellitus, 1988-2015External
        Cheng YJ, Imperatore G, Geiss LS, Saydah SH, Albright AL, Ali MK, Gregg EW.
        Diabetes Care. 2018 Aug 21.

        OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has declined substantially in the U.S. The aims of this study were to examine trends and demographic disparities in mortality due to CVD and CVD subtypes among adults with and without self-reported diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the National Health Interview Survey (1985-2014) with mortality follow-up data through the end of 2015 to estimate nationally representative trends and disparities in major CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, heart failure, and arrhythmia mortality among adults >/=20 years of age by diabetes status. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 11.8 years from 1988 to 2015 of 677,051 adults, there were significant decreases in major CVD death (all P values <0.05) in adults with and without diabetes except adults 20-54 years of age. Among adults with diabetes, 10-year relative changes in mortality were significant for major CVD (-32.7% [95% CI -37.2, -27.9]), IHD (-40.3% [-44.7, -35.6]), and stroke (-29.2% [-40.0, -16.5]), but not heart failure (-0.5% [-20.7, 24.7]), and arrhythmia (-12.0% [-29.4, 77.5]); the absolute decrease of major CVD among adults with diabetes was higher than among adults without diabetes (P < 0.001). Men with diabetes had larger decreases in CVD death than women with diabetes (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Major CVD mortality in adults with diabetes has declined, especially in men. Large reductions were observed for IHD and stroke mortality, although heart failure and arrhythmia deaths did not change. All race and education groups benefitted to a similar degree, but significant gaps remained across groups.

      3. Trends in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer screening in five states, 2008-2015External
        Gargano JW, Park IU, Griffin MR, Niccolai LM, Powell M, Bennett NM, Johnson Jones ML, Whitney E, Pemmaraju M, Brackney M, Abdullah N, Scahill M, Dahl RM, Cleveland AA, Unger ER, Markowitz LE.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 23.

        Background: We describe changes in rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2, 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) during a period of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake and changing cervical cancer screening recommendations. Methods: We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for CIN2+ in catchment areas in five states, 2008-2015. Each site used local laboratory or administrative data to estimate the annual proportion of population receiving cervical cancer screening. We calculated population-based CIN2+ rates per 100,000 women by age group. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CIN2+ for 2-year periods among all women and in the estimated screened population to evaluate changes over time. Results: A total of 16,572 CIN2+ cases were reported. Among women aged 18-20 and 21-24 years, CIN2+ rates declined in all sites, whereas in women aged 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years, trends in rates differed across sites. The percent of women screened annually declined in all sites and age groups. Compared to 2008-2009, rates among screened women were significantly lower for all three periods in women aged 18-20 years (2010-2011: IRR=0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99), 2012-2013: IRR=0.63 (0.47-0.85), 2014-2015: IRR=0.44 (0.28-0.68)) and lower for the latter two time periods in women aged 21-24 years (2012-2013: IRR=0.86 (0.79-0.94); 2014-2015: 0.61 (0.55-0.67)). Rates among screened women increased for age groups 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39. Conclusions: From 2008-2015, both CIN2+ rates and cervical cancer screening declined in women aged 18-24 years. The significant decreases in CIN2+ rates among screened women aged 18-24 years are consistent with population-level impact of HPV vaccination.

      4. Considerations in epidemiologic definitions of undiagnosed diabetesExternal
        Geiss LS, Bullard KM, Brinks R, Gregg EW.
        Diabetes Care. 2018 Sep;41(9):1835-1838.

        Accurately quantifying undiagnosed type 2 diabetes is an important challenge for conducting diabetes surveillance and identifying the potential missed opportunities for preventing complications. However, there has been little focused attention on how undiagnosed diabetes is defined in epidemiologic surveys and how limitations in methods used to ascertain undiagnosed diabetes may impact our understanding of the magnitude of this important public health problem. This Perspective highlights weaknesses in how undiagnosed diabetes is quantified in epidemiologic research and the biases and caveats that should be considered when using estimates of undiagnosed diabetes to influence public health policy.

      5. BACKGROUND: Over 16,000 women are diagnosed with a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated gynecologic cancer every year. Because most of these cancers are preventable, correct and appropriate information about the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening can help reduce incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign materials, which were used by seven National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program recipients in tailored educational sessions on gynecologic cancer with women and healthcare providers in the community setting. Session participants completed presession and postsession questionnaires. Differences in knowledge and intentions were assessed using chi-square tests for women in the general public, obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs), primary care physicians (PCPs), and other healthcare providers. RESULTS: Women’s knowledge improved significantly presession to postsession that HPV causes vaginal (39%-65%, p < 0.001) and vulvar cancers (26%-60%, p < 0.001), but postsession few women correctly identified all HPV-associated gynecologic cancers (15%). From presession to postsession, more women were able to correctly identify recommended age groups for whom the HPV vaccine is recommended (15%-30%, p < 0.001), and that the Pap test only screens for cervical cancer (58%-73%, p < 0.001). Among providers, OB/GYNs had more baseline knowledge of HPV-associated gynecologic cancers than other providers. Postsession, PCPs and other providers increased their knowledge of HPV vaccine recommended age groups (33%-71% and 23%-61%, respectively), and the 3-year recommended screening interval for the Pap test (73%-91% and 63%-85%, respectively). HPV vaccine knowledge did not show significant improvement among OB/GYNs postsessions. CONCLUSIONS: Women and healthcare providers who attended the Inside Knowledge sessions significantly improved their knowledge of HPV-associated gynecologic cancers. Additional educational activities during the sessions that support distinguishing between HPV-associated versus other gynecologic cancers and clarify HPV vaccine recommendations may help with further increases in knowledge.

      6. Trends in human papillomavirus-associated cancers – United States, 1999-2015External
        Van Dyne EA, Henley SJ, Saraiya M, Thomas CC, Markowitz LE, Benard VB.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):918-924.

        Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known cause of cervical cancer, as well as some oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal, penile, and anal cancers. To assess trends, characterized by average annual percent change (AAPC), in HPV-associated cancer incidence during 1999-2015, CDC analyzed data from cancer registries covering 97.8% of the U.S. POPULATION: A total of 30,115 new cases of HPV-associated cancers were reported in 1999 and 43,371 in 2015. During 1999-2015, cervical cancer rates decreased 1.6% per year; vaginal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates decreased 0.6% per year; oropharyngeal SCC rates increased among both men (2.7%) and women (0.8%); anal SCC rates also increased among both men (2.1%) and women (2.9%); vulvar SCC rates increased (1.3%); and penile SCC rates remained stable. In 2015 oropharyngeal SCC (15,479 cases among men and 3,438 among women) was the most common HPV-associated cancer. Continued surveillance through high-quality cancer registries is important to monitor cancer incidence and trends in these potentially preventable cancers.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. XDR tuberculosis in South Africa: genomic evidence supporting transmission in communitiesExternal
        Auld SC, Sarita Shah N, Mathema B, Brown TS, Ismail N, Omar SV, Brust JC, Nelson KN, Allana S, Campbell A, Mlisana K, Moodley P, Gandhi NR.
        Eur Respir J. 2018 Aug 16.

        Background: Despite evidence that transmission is driving an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis epidemic, our understanding of where and between whom transmission occurs is limited. We sought to determine whether there was genomic evidence of transmission between individuals without an epidemiologic connection.Methods: We conducted a prospective study of XDR tuberculosis patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, during 2011-2014. We collected sociodemographic and clinical data, and identified epidemiologic links based on person-to-person or hospital-based connections. We performed whole-genome sequencing on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and determined pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences.Findings: Among 404 participants, 123 (30%) had person-to-person or hospital-based links, leaving 281 (70%) epidemiologically unlinked. The median SNP difference between participants with person-to-person and hospital-based links was 10 (IQR 8-24) and 16 (IQR 10-23), respectively. The median SNP difference between unlinked participants and their closest genomic link was 5 (IQR 3-9); half of unlinked participants were within 7 SNPs of at least five participants.Conclusions: The majority of epidemiologically unlinked XDR tuberculosis patients had low pairwise SNP differences, consistent with transmission, with at least one other participant. These data suggest that much of transmission may result from casual contact in community settings between individuals not known to one another.

      2. The national and provincial burden of medically-attended influenza-associated influenza-like-illness and severe acute respiratory illness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2013-2015External
        Babakazo P, Lubula L, Disasuani W, Manya LK, Nkwembe E, Mitongo N, Kavunga-Membo H, Changachanga JC, Muhemedi S, Ilunga BK, Wemakoy EO, Tamfum JM, Kabamba-Tshilobo J, Tempia S.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Aug 17.

        BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. We estimated age-specific numbers and rates of influenza-associated ILI outpatient consultations and SARI hospitalizations for Kinshasa Province using a combination of administrative and influenza surveillance data. These estimates were extrapolated to each of the remaining 10 provinces accounting for provincial differences in prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare seeking behavior. Rates were reported per 100,000 population. RESULTS: During 2013-2015 the mean annual national number of influenza-associated ILI outpatient consultations was 1,003,212 (95% Confidence Incidence [CI]: 719,335-1,338,050 – Rate: 1,205.3; 95% CI: 864.2-1,607.5); 199,839 (95% CI: 153,563-254,759 – Rate: 1,464.0; 95% CI: 1,125.0-1,866.3) among children aged <5 years and 803,374 (95% CI: 567,772-1,083,291 – Rate: 1,154.5; 95% CI: 813.1-1,556.8) among individuals aged >/=5 years. The mean annual national number of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations was 40,361 (95% CI: 24,014-60,514 – Rate: 48.5; 95% CI: 28.9-72.7); 25,452 (95% CI: 19,146-32,944 – Rate: 186.5; 95% CI: 140.3-241.3) among children aged <5 years and 14,909 (95% CI: 4,868-27,570 – Rate: 21.4; 95% CI: 28.9-72.7) among individuals aged >/=5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of influenza-associated ILI outpatient consultations and SARI hospitalizations was substantial and was highest among hospitalized children aged <5 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      3. Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV-positive status in the US: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III)External
        Blanco C, Wall MM, Compton WM, Kahana S, Feng T, Saha T, Elliott JC, Hall HI, Grant BF.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Aug 3;105:1-8.

        We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53.0% among females and 47.0% among males. Among individuals tested, the prevalence of HIV was 1.06%, resulting in a known estimated prevalence of 0.54% in the full sample. In adjusted results, being non-white, aged 30-44, having college, being non-heterosexual, having history of unprotected sex or history of childhood sexual abuse and lower mental health-related quality of life increased the odds of having been tested, whereas being foreign-born, 45 years or older, family income >/=$20,000, being unemployed or a student, living in a rural setting and older age at first sex lowered those odds. Among those tested, being 30-64, being non-heterosexual, having history of unprotected sex or having a sexually transmitted disease in the last year was associated with greater odds of being HIV+. Having some college decreased those odds. In the adjusted results all psychiatric disorders were associated with increased rates of HIV testing, but only a lifetime history of drug use disorder and antisocial personality disorders were associated with HIV status among those tested. Despite CDC recommendations, only about half of US adults have ever been tested for HIV, interfering with efforts to eradicate HIV infection.

      4. Evidence of hepatitis E virus infections among persons who use crack cocaine from the Midwest region of BrazilExternal
        Castro VO, Tejada-Strop A, Weis SM, Stabile AC, de Oliveira S, Teles SA, Kamili S, Motta-Castro AR.
        J Med Virol. 2018 Aug 22.

        The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HEV infection among persons who use crack from Midwest region of Brazil. Sera samples from 698 users of crack collected from November 2013 to July 2015 were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM markers. Of the 698 serum samples, 99 (14.2%) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. Two samples were positive for anti-HEV IgM but both were negative for HEV RNA. The variables independently associated with anti-HEV positivity were increasing age and absence of stable partnership. This study showed high prevalence of past hepatitis E virus infection among persons who use crack. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      5. Disease characteristics and management of hospitalised adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a retrospective multicentre surveyExternal
        Chen L, Zhou F, Li H, Xing X, Han X, Wang Y, Zhang C, Suo L, Wang J, Yu G, Wang G, Yao X, Yu H, Wang L, Liu M, Xue C, Liu B, Zhu X, Li Y, Xiao Y, Cui X, Li L, Uyeki TM, Wang C, Cao B.
        BMJ Open. 2018 Feb 15;8(2):e018709.

        OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. DESIGN: This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: 13 teaching hospitals in northern, central and southern China from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 PARTICIPANTS: Information on hospitalised patients aged >/=14 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia with illness onset in the community was collected using standard case report forms. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Resource use for CAP management. RESULTS: Of 14 793 patients screened, 5828 with radiographically confirmed CAP were included in the final analysis. Low mortality risk patients with a CURB-65 score 0-1 and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class I-II accounted for 81.2% (4434/5594) and 56.4% (2034/3609) patients, respectively. 21.7% (1111/5130) patients had already achieved clinical stability on admission. A definite or probable pathogen was identified only in 12.7% (738/5828) patients. 40.9% (1575/3852) patients without pseudomonal infection risk factors received antimicrobial overtreatment regimens. The median duration between clinical stability to discharge was 5.0 days with 30-day mortality of 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02489578; Results.

      6. Antiretroviral nonadherence and condomless sex in the HIV Outpatient Study, USA, 2007-2014External
        Durham MD, Hart R, Buchacz K, Hammer J, Young B, Yang D, Wood K, Yangco B, Brooks JT.
        Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Feb;29(2):147-156.

        Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) to undetectable levels and its effectiveness depends on consistent adherence. Consistent adherence and use of safe sex practices may substantially decrease the risk of HIV transmission. We sought to explore the potential association between self-reported nonadherence to ART and engaging in unsafe sexual practices capable of transmitting HIV. Using clinical and audio computer-assisted self-interview data from the prospective HIV Outpatient Study from 2007 to 2014, we assessed the frequency of self-reported ART nonadherence during the three days prior to the survey among HIV-infected persons in care and factors associated with self-reported ART nonadherence. Of 1729 patients included in this analysis (median age = 48 years, 74.3% men who have sex with men), 17% were nonadherent, 15% had a detectable VL, and 42% reported condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past six months. In multivariable analysis, self-reported nonadherence was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8 per additional ten years, [95% CI] 0.7-1.0), non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (aOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6 versus white), public health insurance (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3 compared with private), survey date in 2011-2014 versus 2007-2010 (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), CD4 cell count >/= 500 versus < 200 cells/mm(3) (aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5), greater number of ART regimen doses (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.2), and binge drinking (aOR 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). In this analysis, self-reported nonadherence was not associated with engaging in condomless sex.

      7. Heavy precipitation as a risk factor for shigellosis among homeless persons during an outbreak – Oregon, 2015-2016External
        Hines JZ, Jagger MA, Jeanne TL, West N, Winquist A, Robinson BF, Leman RF, Hedberg K.
        J Infect. 2018 Mar;76(3):280-285.

        OBJECTIVES: Shigella species are the third most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. During a Shigella sonnei outbreak in Oregon from July 2015 through June 2016, Shigella cases spread among homeless persons with onset of the wettest rainy season on record. METHODS: We conducted time series analyses using Poisson regression to determine if a temporal association between precipitation and shigellosis incidence existed. Models were stratified by housing status. RESULTS: Among 105 infections identified, 45 (43%) occurred in homeless persons. With increasing precipitation, cases increased among homeless persons (relative risk [RR] = 1.36 per inch of precipitation during the exposure period; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17-1.59), but not among housed persons (RR = 1.04; 95% CI 0.86-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy precipitation likely contributed to shigellosis transmission among homeless persons during this outbreak. When heavy precipitation is forecast, organizations working with homeless persons could consider taking proactive measures to mitigate spread of enteric infections.

      8. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection among hospitalized patients in Jingzhou city, China, 2010-2012External
        Jiang H, Huai Y, Chen H, Uyeki TM, Chen M, Guan X, Liu S, Peng Y, Yang H, Luo J, Zheng J, Huang J, Peng Z, Xiang N, Zhang Y, Klena JD, Hu DJ, Rainey JJ, Huo X, Xiao L, Xing X, Zhan F, Yu H, Varma JK.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(8):e0201312.

        BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis and a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined as isolation of Sp from a normally sterile site, including blood or cerebrospinal fluid. The aim of this study is to describe outcomes as well as clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized IPD case patients in central China. METHODS: We conducted surveillance for IPD among children and adults from April 5, 2010 to September 30, 2012, in four major hospitals in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province. We collected demographic, clinical, and outcome data for all enrolled hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or meningitis, and collected blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for laboratory testing for Sp infections. Collected data were entered into Epidata software and imported into SPSS for analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 22,375 patients, including 22,202 (99%) with SARI and 173 (1%) with meningitis. One hundred and eighteen (118, 3%) with either SARI or meningitis were Sp positive, 32 (0.8%) from blood/CSF culture, and 87 (5%) from urine antigen testing. Of those 118 patients, 57% were aged >/=65 years and nearly 100% received antibiotics during hospitalization. None were previously vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 7), 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or seasonal influenza vaccine. The main serotypes identified were 14, 12, 3, 1, 19F, 4, 5, 9V, 15 and 18C, corresponding to serotype coverage rates of 42%, 63%, and 77% for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Further work is needed to expand access to pneumococcal vaccination in China, both among children and potentially among the elderly, and inappropriate use of antibiotics is a widespread and serious problem in China.

      9. Measles outbreak propagated by children congregating at water collection points in Mayuge District, eastern Uganda, July – October, 2016External
        Majwala RK, Nakiire L, Kadobera D, Ario AR, Kusiima J, Atuhairwe JA, Matovu JK, Zhu BP.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 20;18(1):412.

        BACKGROUND: On 12 October, 2016 a measles outbreak was reported in Mayuge District, eastern Uganda. We investigated the outbreak to determine its scope, identify risk factors for transmission, evaluate vaccination coverage and vaccine effectiveness, and recommend evidence-based control measures. METHODS: We defined a probable case as onset of fever (>/=3 days) and generalized rash, plus >/=1 of the following: conjunctivitis, cough, and/or runny nose in a Mayuge District resident. A confirmed case was a probable case with measles-specific IgM (+) not explained by vaccination. We reviewed medical records and conducted active community case-finding. In a case-control investigation involving probable case-persons and controls matched by age and village, we evaluated risk factors for transmission for both cases and controls during the case-person’s likely exposure period (i.e., 7-21 days prior to rash onset). We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) using the formula: VE approximately (1-ORprotective) x 100. We calculated vaccination coverage using the percentage of controls vaccinated. RESULTS: We identified 62 probable case-persons (attack rate [AR] = 4.0/10,000), including 3 confirmed. Of all age groups, children < 5 years were the most affected (AR = 14/10,000). The epidemic curve showed a propagated outbreak. Thirty-two percent (13/41) of case-persons and 13% (21/161) of control-persons visited water-collection sites (by themselves or with parents) during the case-persons’ likely exposure period (ORM-H = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.5-17). Among children aged 9-59 months, the effectiveness of the single-dose measles vaccine was 75% (95% CI = 25-92); vaccination coverage was 68% (95% CI = 61-76). CONCLUSIONS: Low vaccine effectiveness, inadequate vaccination coverage and congregation at water collection points facilitated measles transmission in this outbreak. We recommended increasing measles vaccination coverage and restriction of children with signs and symptoms of measles from accessing public gatherings.

      10. Evaluation of a computer-based and counseling support intervention to improve HIV patients’ viral loadsExternal
        Marks G, O’Daniels C, Grossman C, Crepaz N, Rose CE, Patel U, Stirratt MJ, Gardner LI, Cachay ER, Mathews WC, Drainoni ML, Sullivan M, Bradley-Springer L, Corwin M, Gordon C, Rodriguez A, Dhanireddy S, Giordano TP.
        AIDS Care. 2018 Aug 16:1-9.

        We sought to integrate a brief computer and counseling support intervention into the routine practices of HIV clinics and evaluate effects on patients’ viral loads. The project targeted HIV patients in care whose viral loads exceeded 1000 copies/ml at the time of recruitment. Three HIV clinics initiated the intervention immediately, and three other HIV clinics delayed onset for 16 months and served as concurrent controls for evaluating outcomes. The intervention components included a brief computer-based intervention (CBI) focused on antiretroviral therapy adherence; health coaching from project counselors for participants whose viral loads did not improve after doing the CBI; and behavioral screening and palm cards with empowering messages available to all patients at intervention clinics regardless of viral load level. The analytic cohort included 982 patients at intervention clinics and 946 patients at control clinics. Viral loads were assessed at 270 days before recruitment, at time of recruitment, and +270 days later. Results indicated that both the control and intervention groups had significant reductions in viral load, ending with approximately the same viral level at +270 days. There was no evidence that the CBI or the targeted health coaching was responsible for the viral reduction in the intervention group. Results may stem partially from statistical regression to the mean in both groups. Also, clinical providers at control and intervention clinics may have taken action (e.g., conversations with patients, referrals to case managers, adherence counselors, mental health, substance use specialists) to help their patients reduce their viral loads. In conclusion, neither a brief computer-based nor targeted health coaching intervention reduced patients’ viral loads beyond levels achieved with standard of care services available to patients at well-resourced HIV clinics.

      11. Infectious diseases acquired by international travellers visiting the USAExternal
        Stoney RJ, Esposito DH, Kozarsky P, Hamer DH, Grobusch MP, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Libman M, Gautret P, Lim PL, Leder K, Schwartz E, Sotir MJ, Licitra C.
        J Travel Med. 2018 Aug 1;25(1).

        Background: Estimates of travel-related illness have focused predominantly on populations from highly developed countries visiting low- or middle-income countries, yet travel to and within high-income countries is very frequent. Despite being a top international tourist destination, few sources describe the spectrum of infectious diseases acquired among travellers to the USA. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis summarizing demographic and travel characteristics, and clinical diagnoses among non-US-resident international travellers seen during or after travel to the USA at a GeoSentinel clinic from 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2016. Results: There were 1222 ill non-US-resident travellers with 1393 diagnoses recorded during the 20-year analysis period. Median age was 40 (range 0-86 years); 52% were female. Patients visited from 63 countries and territories, most commonly Canada (31%), Germany (14%), France (9%) and Japan (7%). Travellers presented with a range of illnesses; skin and soft tissue infections of unspecified aetiology were the most frequently reported during travel (29 diagnoses, 14% of during-travel diagnoses); arthropod bite/sting was the most frequently reported after travel (173 diagnoses, 15% after-travel diagnoses). Lyme disease was the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease after travel (42, 4%). Nonspecific respiratory, gastrointestinal and systemic infections were also among the most frequently reported diagnoses overall. Low-frequency illnesses (<2% of cases) made up over half of diagnoses during travel and 41% of diagnoses after travel, including 13 cases of coccidioidomycosis and mosquito-borne infections like West Nile, dengue and Zika virus diseases. Conclusions: International travellers to the USA acquired a diverse array of mostly cosmopolitan infectious diseases, including nonspecific respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatologic and systemic infections comparable to what has been reported among travellers to low- and middle-income countries. Clinicians should consider the specific health risks when preparing visitors to the USA and when evaluating and treating those who become ill.

      12. Pretreatment HIV drug resistance among adults initiating ART in NamibiaExternal
        Taffa N, Roscoe C, Sawadogo S, De Klerk M, Baughman AL, Wolkon A, Mutenda N, DeVos J, Zheng DP, Wagar N, Prybylski D, Yang C, Hamunime N, Agolory S, Raizes E.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Aug 20.

        Background: Continued use of standardized, first-line ART containing NNRTIs and NRTIs may contribute to ongoing emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in Namibia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2015-16 to estimate the prevalence of significant pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and viral load (VL) suppression rates 6-12 months after initiating standardized first-line ART. Consenting adult patients (>/=18 years) initiating ART were interviewed about prior antiretroviral drug (ARV) exposure and underwent resistance testing using dried blood spot samples. PDR was defined as mutations causing low-, intermediate- and high-level resistance to ARVs according to the 2014 WHO Surveillance of HIV Drug Resistance in Adults Initiating ART. The prevalence of PDR was described by patient characteristics, ARV exposure and VL results. Results were weighted to be nationally representative. Results: Successful genotyping was performed for 381 specimens; 144 (36.6%) specimens demonstrated HIVDR, of which 54 (12.7%) demonstrated PDR. Resistance to NNRTIs was most prevalent (11.9%). PDR was higher in patients with previous ARV exposure compared with no exposure (30.5% versus 9.6%) (prevalence ratio = 3.17; P < 0.01). Conclusions: This survey demonstrated overall PDR at >10% among adults initiating ART in Namibia. Patients with prior ARV exposure had higher rates of PDR. Introducing a non-NNRTI-based regimen for first-line ART should be considered to maximize benefit of ART and minimize the emergence of HIVDR.

      13. The burden of influenza-associated respiratory hospitalizations in Bhutan, 2015-2016External
        Thapa B, Roguski K, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Siener K, Gould P, Jamtsho T, Wangchuk S.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Aug 23.

        BACKGROUND: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs. In this study, we estimated influenza-associated respiratory hospitalization rates in Bhutan, a country considering influenza vaccine introduction. METHODS: Using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction laboratory results from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance, we estimated the proportion of respiratory hospitalizations attributable to influenza each month among patients aged <5, 5-49, and >/=50 years in six Bhutanese districts for 2015 and 2016. We divided the sum of the monthly influenza-attributed hospitalizations by the total of the six district populations to generate age-specific rates for each year. RESULTS: In 2015, 10% of SARI patients tested positive for influenza (64/659) and 18% tested positive (129/736) in 2016. The incidence of influenza-associated hospitalizations among all age groups was 50/100,000 persons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45-55) in 2015 and 118/100,000 persons (95% CI: 110-127) in 2016. The highest rates were among children <5 years: 182/100,000 (95% CI: 153-210) in 2015 and 532/100,000 (95% CI: 473-591) in 2016. The second highest influenza-associated hospitalization rates were among adults >/=50 years: 110/100,000 (95% CI: 91-130) in 2015 and 193/100,000 (95% CI: 165-221) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza viruses were associated with a substantial burden of severe illness requiring hospitalization especially among children and older adults. These findings can be used to understand the potential impact of seasonal influenza vaccination in these age groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      14. Notes from the field: Mumps outbreak – Alaska, May 2017-July 2018External
        Tiffany A, Shannon D, Mamtchueng W, Castrodale L, McLaughlin J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):940-941.

        [No abstract]

      15. Repeat HIV testing among HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men attending Silom Community Clinic, Bangkok, 2011 – 2014External
        Wimonsate W, Pattanasin S, Ungsedhapand C, Pancharoen K, Luechai P, Satumay K, Winaitham S, Sukwicha W, Sirivongrangsan P, Dunne EF, Holtz TH.
        Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Aug 16:956462418788724.

        Since 2010, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health has recommended that men who have sex with men (MSM) have an HIV test at least two times a year. We calculated the proportion of, and factors associated with, testing adherence among the HIV-uninfected MSM clients attending Silom Community Clinic @TropMed. We defined testing adherence as repeating at least one HIV test within six months of an initial HIV-negative test, and used log-binomial regression to test for associated factors. We included 1927 clients during 2011-2014; 362 (19%) were adherent with an increased trend ( p < 0.01), from 16% to 24%. Clients aged 18-24 years and those having a history of HIV testing were more likely to adhere (aRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6; and aRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, respectively). One-fifth adhered to the recommendation; older clients or naive testees were less likely to adhere. We need to impress on clients the importance of repeat HIV testing.

      16. 65 years of influenza surveillance by a World Health Organization-coordinated global networkExternal
        Ziegler T, Mamahit A, Cox NJ.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 May 4.

        The 1918 devastating influenza pandemic left a lasting impact on influenza experts and the public, and the importance of global influenza surveillance was soon recognized. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) was founded in 1952 and renamed to Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System in 2011 upon the adoption by the World Health Assembly, of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits (“PIP Framework”). The importance of influenza surveillance had been recognized and promoted by experts prior to the years leading up to the establishment of WHO. In the 65 years of its existence, the Network has grown to comprise 143 National Influenza Centers recognized by WHO, 6 WHO Collaborating Centers, 4 Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and 13 H5 Reference Laboratories. The Network has proven its excellence throughout these 65 years, providing detailed information on circulating seasonal influenza viruses, as well as immediate response to the influenza pandemics in 1957, 1968, and 2009, and to threats caused by animal influenza viruses and by zoonotic transmission of coronaviruses. For its central role in global public health, the Network has been highly recognized by its many partners and by international bodies. Several generations of world-renowned influenza scientists have brought the Network to where it is now and they will take it forward to the future, as influenza will remain a preeminent threat to humans and to animals.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Attitudes, motivators, and barriers to emergency preparedness using the 2016 Styles SurveyExternal
        Kruger J, Chen B, Heitfeld S, Witbart L, Bruce C, Pitts DL.
        Health Promot Pract. 2018 Aug 20.

        This study assessed adults’ perceptions toward preparedness to better inform emergency planning efforts for households and communities. The 2016 Styles, an Internet panel survey, was used to assess emergency preparedness competencies. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the sociodemographic factors by preparedness status. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between perceived preparedness and characteristics associated with preparedness attitudes, motivators, and barriers. Approximately 40% of adults surveyed reported that they were prepared for emergencies. The main motivator for those prepared was awareness of local disasters (38.9%), and a leading barrier was confusion about how to plan for the unknown (23.7%). Those prepared were more likely to have the right supplies (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 1.50]), discuss emergency plans (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI = [1.02-1.42]), and act before an emergency occurred (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = [1.15, 1.59]), compared with adults who did not report being prepared. Results from this research indicate that identifying motivation to prepare for emergencies can contribute to public health disaster planning. Preparation is a critical step that allows the community and its citizens to be more equipped to function during and after a disaster.

      2. Scripted surge pharmacy pandemic exercise: Testing vaccine administration and antiviral dispensingExternal
        Sokolow LZ, Patel A, Koonin LM, Graitcer SB.
        Health Secur. 2018 Jul/Aug;16(4):262-273.

        In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated with the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) to develop and conduct the Scripted Surge Pharmacy Pandemic Exercise to assess the capacity of pharmacies to administer vaccines and dispense medications during a severe influenza pandemic and to evaluate their various approaches to this activity. A mass merchant pharmacy and a supermarket pharmacy were recruited in 2 different states. At each pharmacy, 2 consecutive 90-minute exercise runs were completed in which actors, simulating patients, presented themselves to the pharmacy counter and requested a vaccine and/or prescription(s). Each run was slightly different in terms of patient flow, staffing, and physical configuration. Individual plays were timed, and a quality assessment was conducted as each patient left the store. Despite the complexities of the pandemic scenario, the number of vaccines administered and prescriptions dispensed surpassed what that pharmacy could typically accomplish during current peak hours of operation. Furthermore, the number of requests successfully processed increased between the first and second runs at each site, suggesting that processing efficiency improved with practice and experience. Few unexpected outcomes were observed, most of which were attributable to exercise artificialities, and they were judged unlikely to occur under real-world scenarios and routine pharmacy practice. The experience gained from this exercise indicates that pharmacies can likely play an important role in improving access to vaccinations and medications during a future pandemic.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. A molecular algorithm to detect and differentiate human pathogens infecting Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae)External
        Graham CB, Maes SE, Hojgaard A, Fleshman AC, Sheldon SW, Eisen RJ.
        Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Feb;9(2):390-403.

        The incidence and geographic range of tick-borne illness associated with Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus have dramatically increased in recent decades. Anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Borrelia spirochete infections, including Lyme borreliosis, account for tens of thousands of reported cases of tick-borne disease every year. Assays that reliably detect pathogens in ticks allow investigators and public health agencies to estimate the geographic distribution of human pathogens, assess geographic variation in their prevalence, and evaluate the effectiveness of prevention strategies. As investigators continue to describe new species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and to recognize some Ixodes-borne Borrelia species as human pathogens, assays are needed to detect and differentiate these species. Here we describe an algorithm to detect and differentiate pathogens in unfed I. scapularis and I. pacificus nymphs including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia mayonii, and Borrelia miyamotoi. The algorithm comprises 5 TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and 3 sequencing protocols. It employs multiple targets for each pathogen to optimize specificity, a gene target for I. scapularis and I. pacificus to verify tick-derived DNA quality, and a pan-Borrelia target to detect Borrelia species that may emerge as human disease agents in the future. We assess the algorithm’s sensitivity, specificity, and performance on field-collected ticks.

      2. Experimental evaluation of the impact of household aerosolized insecticides on pyrethroid resistant Aedes aegyptiExternal
        Gray L, Florez SD, Barreiro AM, Vadillo-Sanchez J, Gonzalez-Olvera G, Lenhart A, Manrique-Saide P, Vazquez-Prokopec GM.
        Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 22;8(1):12535.

        The extensive reliance on insecticides to control Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and disrupt transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika has fueled the emergence of widespread resistance to insecticides. Mismatch between the frequency of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes and the occurrence of pyrethroid-based insecticide applications for vector control is often hypothesized to be due to household use of commercial insecticide products. We experimentally quantified phenotypic and genotypic responses of four Ae. aegypti strains (three field, pyrethroid resistant, and one laboratory, pyrethroid susceptible) after exposure to two commonly used household aerosol insecticide products (a space spray and a residual spray formulation) containing pyrethroid active ingredients. Experiments were performed within homes of Merida, Mexico. After exposure to the products, all three pyrethroid resistant field Ae. aegypti strains had significantly lower mortality rates (averaging 41% and 50% for the two products, respectively) than the controls (99%). Applying insecticides as surface sprays led to a significant increase in the frequency of I1016 kdr homozygotes in surviving Ae. aegypti, suggesting strong selection pressure for this allele. Given the large-scale use of household aerosol insecticide products in areas that are endemic for Ae. aegypti-transmitted diseases, their role as a pyrethroid resistance selection source, particularly when used as space sprays, should be taken into consideration when designing resistance management plans.

      3. Evaluating acarological risk for exposure to Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens in recreational and residential settings in Washington County, MinnesotaExternal
        Hahn MB, Bjork JK, Neitzel DF, Dorr FM, Whitemarsh T, Boegler KA, Graham CB, Johnson TL, Maes SE, Eisen RJ.
        Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Feb;9(2):340-348.

        The distribution of I. scapularis, the tick vector of the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, has been expanding over the last two decades in the north-central United States in parallel with increasing incidence of human cases of Lyme disease in that region. However, assessments of residential risk for exposure to ticks are lacking from this region. Here, we measured the density of host-seeking I. scapularis nymphs in two suburban and two rural public recreational sites located in Washington County, Minnesota as well as in nearby residential properties. We sought to compare tick densities across land use types and to identify environmental factors that might impact nymphal density. We also assessed the prevalence of infection in the collected ticks with Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. mayonii), and other I. scapularis-borne pathogens including B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Similar to studies from the eastern United States, on residential properties, I. scapularis nymphal densities were highest in the ecotonal areas between the forest edge and the lawn. Residences with the highest densities of nymphs were more likely to have a higher percentage of forest cover, log piles, and signs of deer on their property. In recreational areas, we found the highest nymphal densities both in the wooded areas next to trails as well as on mowed trails. Among the 303 host-seeking I. scapularis nymphs tested for pathogens, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, A. phagocytophilum and B. miyamotoi were detected in 42 (13.8%), 14 (4.6%), and 2 (0.6%) nymphs, respectively.

      4. Risk factors for tick exposure in suburban settings in the Northeastern United StatesExternal
        Mead P, Hook S, Niesobecki S, Ray J, Meek J, Delorey M, Prue C, Hinckley A.
        Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Feb;9(2):319-324.

        Prevention of tick-borne diseases requires an understanding of when and where exposure to ticks is most likely. We used an epidemiologic approach to define these parameters for residents of a Lyme-endemic region. Two persons in each of 500 Connecticut households were asked to complete a log each night for one week during June, 2013. Participants recorded their whereabouts in 15min increments (indoors, outdoors in their yard, outdoors on others’ private property, or outdoors in public spaces) and noted each day whether they found a tick on themselves. Demographic and household information was also collected. Logs were completed for 934 participants in 471 households yielding 51,895 time-place observations. Median participant age was 49 years (range 2-91 years); 52% were female. Ninety-one participants (9.8%) reported finding a tick during the week, with slightly higher rates among females and minors. Household factors positively associated with finding a tick included having indoor/outdoor pets (odds ratio (OR)=1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.9), the presence of a bird feeder in the yard (OR=1.9; CI:1.2-3.2), and presence of an outdoor dining area (OR=2.2; CI:1.1-4.3). Individual factors associated with finding a tick on a given day were bathing or showering (OR=3.7; CI:1.3-10.3) and hours spent in one’s own yard (OR=1.2, CI:1.1-1.3). Nineteen participants found ticks on multiple days, more than expected assuming independence (p<0.001). Participants who found ticks on multiple days did not spend more time outdoors but were significantly more likely to be male than those finding ticks on a single day (p<0.03). Our findings suggest that most tick exposures in the study area occurred on private property controlled by the respective homeowner. Interventions that target private yards are a logical focus for prevention efforts.

      5. Serologic assessment for exposure to spotted fever group rickettsiae in dogs in the Arizona-Sonora border regionExternal
        Yaglom HD, Nicholson WL, Casal M, Nieto NC, Adams L.
        Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Aug 21.

        Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe tick-borne rickettsial illness. In the south-western United States and Mexico, RMSF displays unique epidemiologic and ecologic characteristics, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog tick) as the primary vector. Expansion and spread of the disease from hyperendemic regions of Arizona or Mexico to new areas is a key public health concern. Dogs are thought to play an important role in the emergence and circulation of R. rickettsii in these regions and are often one of earliest indicators of RMSF presence. A canine serosurvey was conducted in 2015 among owned and stray dogs at rabies clinic and animal shelters in three southern Arizona counties where RMSF had not previously been identified. Of the 217 dogs sampled, 11 (5.1%) tested positive for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) IgG antibodies, with seropositivity ranging from 2.9% to 12.2% across the three counties. Large dogs were significantly more likely than small dogs to have positive titres reactive with R. rickettsii; no additional statistically significant relationships were observed between seropositivity of canine age, sex, neuter or ownership status. In addition, 17 (7.8%) dogs had ticks attached at the time of sampling, and stray dogs were significantly more likely to have ticks present than owned dogs (p < 0.001). All 57 ticks collected were identified as Rh. sanguineus s.l., and four (7%) had DNA evidence of genera-wide Rickettsia species. The results of this project demonstrated canine seroprevalence levels lower than those previously reported from dogs in highly endemic areas, indicating a low risk of SFGR transmission to humans in the southern Arizona border region at this time. Continued surveillance is critical to identify SFGR emergence in new geographic regions and to inform prevention efforts for humans and dogs in those areas.

    • Drug Safety
      1. US emergency department visits for adverse drug events from antibiotics in children, 2011-2015External
        Lovegrove MC, Geller AI, Fleming-Dutra KE, Shehab N, Sapiano MR, Budnitz DS.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Aug 23.

        Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed medications for children; however, at least one-third of pediatric antibiotic prescriptions are unnecessary. National data on short-term antibiotic-related harms could inform efforts to reduce overprescribing and to supplement interventions that focus on the long-term benefits of reducing antibiotic resistance. Methods: Frequencies and rates of emergency department (ED) visits for antibiotic adverse drug events (ADEs) in children were estimated using adverse event data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance project and retail pharmacy dispensing data from QuintilesIMS (2011-2015). Results: On the basis of 6542 surveillance cases, an estimated 69464 ED visits (95% confidence interval, 53488-85441) were made annually for antibiotic ADEs among children aged </=19 years from 2011 to 2015, which accounts for 46.2% of ED visits for ADEs that results from systemic medication. Two-fifths (40.7%) of ED visits for antibiotic ADEs involved a child aged </=2 years, and 86.1% involved an allergic reaction. Amoxicillin was the most commonly implicated antibiotic among children aged </=9 years. When we accounted for dispensed prescriptions, the rates of ED visits for antibiotic ADEs declined with increasing age for all antibiotics except sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Amoxicillin had the highest rate of ED visits for antibiotic ADEs among children aged </=2 years, whereas sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resulted in the highest rate among children aged 10 to 19 years (29.9 and 24.2 ED visits per 10000 dispensed prescriptions, respectively). Conclusions: Antibiotic ADEs lead to many ED visits, particularly among young children. Communicating the risks of antibiotic ADEs could help reduce unnecessary prescribing. Prevention efforts could target pediatric patients who are at the greatest risk of harm.

    • Environmental Health
      1. BACKGROUND: Schools are particularly vulnerable to pests, but integrated pest management (IPM) can address pest problems. This study describes IPM policies and practices and the extent to which they are associated with school characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study, a nationally representative survey of schools in the United States (N = 568, response rate = 69%). Pairwise comparisons assessed differences in pest prevention strategies by school characteristics. RESULTS: Nationwide, 55.3% of schools conducted campus-wide inspections for pests at least monthly; 35.6% of schools notified staff, students, and families prior to each application of pesticides; and 56.1% of schools required custodial or maintenance staff to receive training on pest management practices that limit the use of pesticides. During the 12 months before the study, 46.5% of schools almost always or always used spot treatments and baiting rather than widespread applications of pesticides, and 36.8% of schools almost always or always marked indoor and outdoor areas that had been treated with pesticides. No clear pattern emerged for school characteristics associated with IPM policies and practices. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in implementation of IPM-related policies and practices suggest opportunities for targeted education among school staff about IPM principles.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Genomic characterization and copy number variation of Bacillus anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 in a historical collection of 412 strainsExternal
        Pena-Gonzalez A, Rodriguez RL, Marston CK, Gee JE, Gulvik CA, Kolton CB, Saile E, Frace M, Hoffmaster AR, Konstantinidis KT.
        mSystems. 2018 Jul-Aug;3(4).

        Bacillus anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 carry the main virulence factors responsible for anthrax. However, the extent of copy number variation within the species and how the plasmids are related to pXO1/pXO2-like plasmids in other species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group remain unclear. To gain new insights into these issues, we sequenced 412 B. anthracis strains representing the total phylogenetic and ecological diversity of the species. Our results revealed that B. anthracis genomes carried, on average, 3.86 and 2.29 copies of pXO1 and pXO2, respectively, and also revealed a positive linear correlation between the copy numbers of pXO1 and pXO2. No correlation between the plasmid copy number and the phylogenetic relatedness of the strains was observed. However, genomes of strains isolated from animal tissues generally maintained a higher plasmid copy number than genomes of strains from environmental sources (P < 0.05 [Welch two-sample t test]). Comparisons against B. cereus genomes carrying complete or partial pXO1-like and pXO2-like plasmids showed that the plasmid-based phylogeny recapitulated that of the main chromosome, indicating limited plasmid horizontal transfer between or within these species. Comparisons of gene content revealed a closed pXO1 and pXO2 pangenome; e.g., plasmids encode <8 unique genes, on average, and a single large fragment deletion of pXO1 in one B. anthracis strain (2000031682) was detected. Collectively, our results provide a more complete view of the genomic diversity of B. anthracis plasmids, their copy number variation, and the virulence potential of other Bacillus species carrying pXO1/pXO2-like plasmids. IMPORTANCE Bacillus anthracis microorganisms are of historical and epidemiological importance and are among the most homogenous bacterial groups known, even though the B. anthracis genome is rich in mobile elements. Mobile elements can trigger the diversification of lineages; therefore, characterizing the extent of genomic variation in a large collection of strains is critical for a complete understanding of the diversity and evolution of the species. Here, we sequenced a large collection of B. anthracis strains (>400) that were recovered from human, animal, and environmental sources around the world. Our results confirmed the remarkable stability of gene content and synteny of the anthrax plasmids and revealed no signal of plasmid exchange between B. anthracis and pathogenic B. cereus isolates but rather predominantly vertical descent. These findings advance our understanding of the biology and pathogenomic evolution of B. anthracis and its plasmids.

    • Global Health
      1. The body of knowledge needed to effectively practice travel medicine has expanded since the 1990s, as migrants begin to comprise an increasing proportion of the world’s population. We describe the unique needs of migrants, and provide resources available to migration health practitioners. As the number of the world’s migrants grows, collaboration across disciplines is key to achieving high-quality migration health practices.

    • Health Economics
      1. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), when accompanied by timely access to intervention services, can improve language outcomes for children born deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and result in economic benefits to society. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs promote UNHS and using information systems support access to follow-up diagnostic and early intervention services so that infants can be screened no later than 1 month of age, with those who do not pass their screen receiving diagnostic evaluation no later than 3 months of age, and those with diagnosed hearing loss receiving intervention services no later than 6 months of age. In this paper, we first document the rapid roll-out of UNHS/EHDI policies and programs at the national and state/territorial levels in the United States between 1997 and 2005. We then review cost analyses and economic arguments that were made in advancing those policies in the United States. Finally, we examine evidence on language and educational outcomes that pertain to the economic benefits of UNHS/EHDI. In conclusion, although formal cost-effectiveness analyses do not appear to have played a decisive role, informal economic assessments of costs and benefits appear to have contributed to the adoption of UNHS policies in the United States.

      2. PURPOSE: Adolescents’ concerns about confidential service receipt have been linked to avoidance of sexual and reproductive healthcare. Healthcare system changes allowing young adults to remain on a parent’s health insurance plan up to age 26 may have extended these concerns to young adults. This study examines: (1) The association between the relationship of young women to primary health plan policy holder (parent or self) on receipt of reproductive health services and chlamydia screening. (2) Changes, over time, in the proportion of young women who are parentally- versus self-insured. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of commercially insured young women (18-25) enrolled >/=330 days in health plans included in the Truven Health MarketScan commercial claims and encounters database (2007-2014). RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2014, the proportion of parentally-insured young women increased significantly across all age groups (AOR=4.32, CI=4.29, 4.33). Compared to self-insured young women, parentally-insured young women were less likely to receive a reproductive health service (AOR=.66, CI=.66, .67) and sexually active parentally-insured young women were less likely to receive chlamydia testing (AOR=.75, CI=.75, .76) using their parent’s insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Young women who are insured through a parent are less likely to receive reproductive health services or chlamydia testing using their parent’s insurance, which could suggest that concerns about confidential receipt of health services may result in missed care. Various policies, including those related to explanation of benefits sent to a plan policy holder outlining services received, may affect the receipt of confidential healthcare by young adults.

      3. The economic value of informal caregiving for persons with dementia: Results from 38 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2015 and 2016 BRFSSExternal
        Rabarison KM, Bouldin ED, Bish CL, McGuire LC, Taylor CA, Greenlund KJ.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Aug 23:e1-e8.

        OBJECTIVES: To estimate the economic value from a societal perspective of informal caregiving of persons with dementia in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. METHODS: Using a cost replacement method and data from the 2015 and 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System caregiver module, the US Bureau of Labor and Statistics May 2016 Occupation Profiles, and the US Department of Labor, we estimated the number and economic direct cost of caregiving hours. RESULTS: An estimated 3.2 million dementia caregivers provided more than 4.1 billion hours of care, with an average of 1278 hours per caregiver. The median hourly value of dementia caregiving was $10.28. Overall, we valued these caregiving hours at $41.5 billion, with an average of $13 069 per caregiver. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of persons with dementia provide care that has important economic implications. Without these efforts, many people would either not receive needed care or have to pay for that support. Surveillance data can be used to estimate the contributions of informal caregivers and the economic value of the care they provide. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 23, 2018: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304573).

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Healthcare-associated measles after a nationwide outbreak in MongoliaExternal
        Lake JG, Luvsansharav UO, Hagan JE, Goodson JL, Jigjidsuren N, Gombojamts N, Park BJ, Smith R.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 2;67(2):288-290.

        Measles virus is highly infectious and can spread rapidly where vaccine coverage is low and isolation precautions suboptimal. We describe healthcare-associated measles transmission during the 2015-2016 measles outbreak in Mongolia, describe infection prevention gaps, and outline preventive strategies.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Does influenza vaccination status change physician ordering patterns for respiratory viral panels? Inspection for selection biasExternal
        Balasubramani GK, Saul S, Nowalk MP, Middleton DB, Ferdinands JM, Zimmerman RK.
        Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 Aug 21.

        PURPOSE: Hospitalized patients with an acute respiratory illness (ARI) were compared to determine if demographic characteristics, timing or influenza vaccination biased who received clinical respiratory viral panel (RVP) testing. METHODS: 171 enrollees in an influenza vaccine effectiveness study and a sample of non-enrollees (N = 1029) admitted to a community hospital with ARI during December 2015 through April 2016 comprised the study sample. Those who received clinical RVP testing (n = 292) were compared to those who did not by age, sex, influenza vaccination status, and period (pre-peak influenza season vs. peak/post peak influenza season), using Chi square- and t-tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 70 years, 58% was female and 45% had been vaccinated against influenza in the 2015-2016 season. Those with clinical RVP testing were significantly younger (67 years) than those without RVP (71 years; P < 0.001), but did not differ with respect to sex or vaccination status. The odds of clinical RVP testing were significantly (P = 0.004) related to younger age (< 65 years) (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.14-2.00) and to later period (peak/post peak influenza season; OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.84-3.79) but were unrelated to influenza vaccination status or the interaction of time and vaccination status. CONCLUSION: RVP testing was significantly higher among younger hospitalized patients with an ARI and during the peak and post peak influenza periods than earlier in the season, but influenza vaccination status was not a significant factor. Studies that enroll based on clinical RVP testing should account for potential differences by age.

      2. Using surveillance and economic data to make informed decisions about rotavirus vaccine introductionExternal
        Cohen AL, Aliabadi N, Serhan F, Tate JE, Zuber P, Parashar UD.
        Vaccine. 2018 Aug 18.

        While rotavirus vaccines are available, safe, and effective, many countries are not yet widely using these vaccines. Surveillance for rotavirus disease and potential vaccine adverse events is critical for country decision making about rotavirus vaccine. This special issue shares rotavirus and intussusception disease surveillance data and rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses from countries that have yet to introduce rotavirus vaccines into their routine infant immunization programs. The studies highlight the substantial burden of rotavirus disease and the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in a broad set of countries without rotavirus vaccine in their routine immunization programs.

      3. Adoption of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine recommendationsExternal
        Kempe A, Allison MA, MacNeil JR, O’Leary ST, Crane LA, Beaty BL, Hurley LP, Brtnikova M, Lindley MC, Albert AP.
        Pediatrics. 2018 Aug 20.

        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that 16- to 23-year-olds may be vaccinated with the serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine on the basis of individual clinical decision-making (Category B). We assessed the following among US pediatricians and family physicians (FPs): (1) practices regarding MenB vaccine delivery, (2) factors influencing a decision to recommend the MenB vaccine, and (3) factors associated with discussing the MenB vaccine. METHODS: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of pediatricians and FPs via e-mail and Internet from October 2016 to December 2016. RESULTS: The response rate was 72% (660 of 916). During routine visits, 51% of pediatricians and 31% of FPs reported always or often discussing MenB vaccine. Among those who discussed often or always, 91% recommended vaccination; among those who never or rarely discussed, 11% recommended. We found that 73% of pediatricians and 41% of FPs currently administered the MenB vaccine. Although many providers reported not knowing about factors influencing recommendation decisions, MenB disease outbreaks (89%), disease incidence (62%), and effectiveness (52%), safety (48%), and duration of protection of MenB vaccine (39%) increased the likelihood of recommendation, whereas the Category B recommendation (45%) decreased likelihood. Those somewhat or not at all aware of the MenB vaccine (risk ratio 0.32 [95% confidence interval 0.25-0.41]) and those practicing in a health maintenance organization (0.39 [0.18-0.87]) were less likely, whereas those aware of disease outbreaks in their state (1.25 [1.08-1.45]) were more likely to discuss MenB vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care physicians have significant gaps in knowledge about MenB disease and the MenB vaccine, and this appears to be a major driver of the decision not to discuss the vaccines.

      4. Primary ovarian insufficiency and adolescent vaccinationExternal
        Naleway AL, Mittendorf KF, Irving SA, Henninger ML, Crane B, Smith N, Daley MF, Gee J.
        Pediatrics. 2018 Aug 21.

        BACKGROUND: Published case series have suggested a potential association between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We describe POI incidence and estimate POI risk after HPV; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed (Tdap); inactivated influenza (II); and meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccination. METHODS: We searched Kaiser Permanente Northwest electronic health records for outpatient diagnoses suggestive of POI in female patients aged 11 to 34 years between 2006 and 2014. We reviewed and adjudicated the medical record to confirm diagnoses and estimate symptom onset dates. We excluded cases with known causes and calculated the incidence of idiopathic POI. We estimated risk by calculating hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: From a cohort of 199 078 female patients, we identified 120 with diagnoses suggestive of POI. After adjudication and exclusion of 26 POI cases with known causes, we confirmed 46 idiopathic POI cases. POI incidence was low in 11- to 14-year-olds (0.87 per 1 000 000 person-months) and increased with age. One confirmed case patient received the HPV vaccine 23 months before the first clinical evaluation for delayed menarche. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.07-1.36) after HPV, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.37-2.10) after Tdap, 1.42 (95% CI: 0.59-3.41) after II, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.27-3.23) after MenACWY vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a statistically significant elevated risk of POI after HPV, Tdap, II, or MenACWY vaccination in this population-based retrospective cohort study. These findings should lessen concern about POI risk after adolescent vaccination.

      5. Promoting adult immunization using population-based data for a composite measureExternal
        Shen AK, Williams WW, O’Halloran AC, Groom AV, Lu PJ, Tsai AY, Lindley MC.
        Am J Prev Med. 2018 Aug 19.

        INTRODUCTION: A composite adult immunization status measure is currently under consideration for adoption into the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set. This paper complements the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set health plan-level measure testing efforts by examining use of survey-based self-reported vaccination data to assess composite adult immunization coverage and identify limitations to using survey data to measure progress. METHODS: The 2015 National Health Interview Survey data were used in 2017 to calculate estimates for a composite of selected vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged >/=19 years, overall and in three age groups: 19-59, 60-64, and >/=65 years for tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td); tetanus toxoid; reduced diphtheria toxoid; and tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and herpes zoster, pneumococcal, and influenza vaccines. RESULTS: Composite coverage for adults aged >/=19 years including receipt of Tdap in the past 10 years and influenza vaccination was 11.9%, ranging from 6.3% in adults aged 60-64 years to 13.7% in adults aged 19-59 years. Excluding influenza, composite coverage was 20.7%, ranging from 8.1% (adults aged 60-64 years) to 25.2% (adults aged 19-59 years). In a composite including any Td-containing vaccine in the past 10 years, coverage including influenza vaccination for adults aged >/=19 years was 23.4%, ranging from 12.6% (adults aged 60-64 years) to 25.7% (adults aged 19-59 years). Excluding influenza, composite coverage was 51.4%, ranging from 15.8% (adults aged 60-64 years) to 63.0% (adults aged 19-59 years). CONCLUSIONS: Survey-based vaccination data may under- or over-estimate coverage, but most adults require at least one additional vaccination by any metric. A composite measure provides a single focal point to promote adherence to standards of care.

      6. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years – United States, 2017External
        Walker TY, Elam-Evans LD, Yankey D, Markowitz LE, Williams CL, Mbaeyi SA, Fredua B, Stokley S.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):909-917.

        The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination of persons aged 11-12 years with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and tetanus and reduced diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap). A booster dose of MenACWY is recommended at age 16 years (1), and catch-up vaccination is recommended for hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), and varicella vaccine (VAR) for adolescents whose childhood vaccinations are not up to date (UTD) (1). ACIP also recommends that clinicians may administer a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (MenB) series to adolescents and young adults aged 16-23 years, with a preferred age of 16-18 years (2). To estimate U.S. adolescent vaccination coverage, CDC analyzed data from the 2017 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for 20,949 adolescents aged 13-17 years.* During 2016-2017, coverage increased for >/=1 dose of HPV vaccine (from 60.4% to 65.5%), >/=1 dose of MenACWY (82.2% to 85.1%), and >/=2 doses of MenACWY (39.1% to 44.3%). Coverage with Tdap remained stable at 88.7%. In 2017, 48.6% of adolescents were UTD with the HPV vaccine series (HPV UTD) compared with 43.4% in 2016.(dagger) On-time vaccination (receipt of >/=2 or >/=3 doses of HPV vaccine by age 13 years) also increased. As in 2016, >/=1-dose HPV vaccination coverage was lower among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (59.3%) than among those living in MSA principal cities (70.1%).( section sign) Although HPV vaccination initiation remains lower than coverage with MenACWY and Tdap, HPV vaccination coverage has increased an average of 5.1 percentage points annually since 2013, indicating that continued efforts to target unvaccinated teens and eliminate missed vaccination opportunities might lead to HPV vaccination coverage levels comparable to those of other routinely recommended adolescent vaccines.

      7. Narcolepsy and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines – Multi-country assessmentExternal
        Weibel D, Sturkenboom M, Black S, de Ridder M, Dodd C, Bonhoeffer J, Vanrolleghem A, van der Maas N, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Gentile A, Giglio N, Castellano V, Kwong JC, Murray BJ, Cauch-Dudek K, Juhasz D, Campitelli M, Datta AN, Kallweit U, Huang WT, Huang YS, Hsu CY, Chen HC, Giner-Soriano M, Morros R, Gaig C, Tio E, Perez-Vilar S, Diez-Domingo J, Puertas FJ, Svenson LW, Mahmud SM, Carleton B, Naus M, Arnheim-Dahlstrom L, Pedersen L, DeStefano F, Shimabukuro TT.
        Vaccine. 2018 Aug 16.

        BACKGROUND: In 2010, a safety signal was detected for narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix, an AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) vaccine. To further assess a possible association and inform policy on future use of adjuvants, we conducted a multi-country study of narcolepsy and adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines. METHODS: We used electronic health databases to conduct a dynamic retrospective cohort study to assess narcolepsy incidence rates (IR) before and during pH1N1 virus circulation, and after pH1N1 vaccination campaigns in Canada, Denmark, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Using a case-control study design, we evaluated the risk of narcolepsy following AS03- and MF59-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines in Argentina, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, we also conducted a case-coverage study in children born between 2004 and 2009. RESULTS: No changes in narcolepsy IRs were observed in any periods in single study sites except Sweden and Taiwan; in Taiwan incidence increased after wild-type pH1N1 virus circulation and in Sweden (a previously identified signaling country), incidence increased after the start of pH1N1 vaccination. No association was observed for Arepanrix-AS03 or Focetria-MF59 adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines and narcolepsy in children or adults in the case-control study nor for children born between 2004 and 2009 in the Netherlands case-coverage study for Pandemrix-AS03. CONCLUSIONS: Other than elevated narcolepsy IRs in the period after vaccination campaigns in Sweden, we did not find an association between AS03- or MF59-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines and narcolepsy in children or adults in the sites studied, although power to evaluate the AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix brand vaccine was limited in our study.

      8. Background: Persons with HIV infection are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus infection. In 2016, the World Health Organization resolved to eliminate hepatitis B as a public health threat by 2030. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination among U.S. patients receiving medical care for HIV infection (“HIV patients”). Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Setting: United States. Participants: 18 089 adults receiving HIV medical care who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project during 2009 to 2012. Measurements: Primary outcomes were prevalence of 1) no documentation of hepatitis B vaccination or laboratory evidence of immunity or infection (candidates to initiate vaccination), and 2) initiation of vaccination among candidates, defined as documentation of at least 1 vaccine dose in a 1-year surveillance period during which patients received ongoing HIV medical care. Results: At the beginning of the surveillance period, 44.2% (95% CI, 42.2% to 46.2%) of U.S. HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination. By the end of the surveillance period, 9.6% (CI, 8.4% to 10.8%) of candidates were vaccinated, 7.5% (CI, 6.4% to 8.6%) had no documented vaccination but had documented infection or immunity, and 82.9% (CI, 81.1% to 84.7%) remained candidates. Among patients at facilities funded by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP), 12.5% (CI, 11.1% to 13.9%) were vaccinated during the surveillance period versus 3.7% (CI, 2.6% to 4.7%) at facilities not funded by RWHAP. At the end of surveillance, 36.7% (CI, 34.4% to 38.9%) of HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination. Limitation: The study was not designed to describe vaccine series completion or actual prevalence of immunity. Conclusion: More than one third of U.S. HIV patients had missed opportunities to initiate hepatitis B vaccination. Meeting goals for hepatitis B elimination will require increased vaccination of HIV patients in all practice settings, particularly at facilities not funded by RWHAP. Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. A cross-national exploration of societal-level factors associated with child physical abuse and neglectExternal
        Klevens J, Ports KA, Austin C, Ludlow IJ, Hurd J.
        Glob Public Health. 2018 Oct;13(10):1495-1506.

        Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development. Our findings suggest that gender inequity may be important for both child physical abuse and neglect. Indicators of literacy and development may also be important for child neglect. Given the limitations of the correlational findings and measurement issues, it is critical to continue to investigate societal-level factors of child maltreatment so that interventions and prevention efforts can incorporate strategies that have the greatest potential for population-level impact.

      2. INTRODUCTION: Falls often cause severe injuries and are one of the most costly health conditions among older adults. Yet, many falls are preventable. The number of preventable medically treated falls and associated costs averted were estimated by applying evidence-based fall interventions in clinical settings. METHODS: A review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted in 2017 using literature published between 1994 and 2017, the authors estimated the prevalence of seven fall risk factors and the effectiveness of seven evidence-based fall interventions. Then authors estimated the number of older adults (aged >/=65 years) who would be eligible to receive one of seven fall interventions (e.g., Tai Chi, Otago, medication management, vitamin D supplementation, expedited first eye cataract surgery, single-vision distance lenses for outdoor activities, and home modifications led by an occupational therapist). Using the reported effectiveness of each intervention, the number of medically treated falls that could be prevented and the associated direct medical costs averted were calculated. RESULTS: Depending on the size of the eligible population, implementing a single intervention could prevent between 9,563 and 45,164 medically treated falls and avert $94-$442 million in direct medical costs annually. The interventions with the potential to help the greatest number of older adults were those that provided home modification delivered by an occupational therapist (38.2 million), and recommended daily vitamin D supplements (16.7 million). CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to estimate the number of medically treated falls that could be prevented and the direct medical costs that could be adverted. Preventing falls can benefit older adults substantially by improving their health, independence, and quality of life.

      3. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillanceExternal
        Wang A, Law R, Lyons R, Choudhary E, Wolkin A, Schier J.
        Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Jul;56(7):646-652.

        CONTEXT: The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC’s notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. METHODS: We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. DISCUSSION: NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Performance standards for biological threat agent assays for Department of Defense applicationsExternal
        Beck L, Coates SG, Gee J, Hadfield T, Jackson P, Keim P, Lindler L, Olson V, Ostlund E, Roberto F, Samuel J, Sharma S, Tallent S, Wagner DM.
        J AOAC Int. 2018 Aug 22.

        There has been a proliferation in the developmentof biological threat agent detection technologies foruse in the field by first responders and private-sectorend-users as well as in Department of Defense(DoD) applications in which active combat maybe occurring and in other parts of the world. Incontrast to the proliferation of detection methodology, there has been a lack of standards defining therequired performance of these technologies. Standardsare necessary to demonstrate the performanceand limitations of the tools, providing confidencein the data to allow appropriate response actions byend-users and responders. In the past, the Departmentof Homeland Security (DHS), Science andTechnology Directorate, funded AOAC to developstandards and perform conformity assessmentunder three efforts. The first effort began in 2003to evaluate the performance of lateral flow immunoassaydevices used by first responders to screensuspicious powders for Bacillus anthracis spores.These devices are colloquially known as “handheldassays” and are frequently referred to as”HHAs.” AOAC formed the Task Force on Bacillusanthracis (TFBA), which created a specific set ofconsensus performance criteria and test protocols(i.e., standards). Five HHA manufacturers submittedtheir technologies to AOAC so that third-partylaboratories could evaluate the tools against the criteria.

      2. Cigarette whole smoke solutions disturb mucin homeostasis in a human in vitro airway tissue modelExternal
        Cao X, Wang Y, Xiong R, Muskhelishvili L, Davis K, Richter PA, Heflich RH.
        Toxicology. 2018 Jul 24;409:119-128.

        Many cigarette smoke-associated airway diseases involve alterations in mucin homeostasis. With the rationale that relevant tissue responses can be measured to evaluate the adverse health effects of tobacco products, we assessed changes in mucin secretion and the density and size of goblet cells in an in vitro human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue model after exposure to a tobacco smoke solution. Cultures were exposed daily for up to five consecutive days to a whole smoke solution (WSS) prepared by machine smoking Marlboro Red or Marlboro Silver cigarettes using the Canadian Intense (CI) protocol. Both WSSs induced concentration- and time-related hypersecretion of mucins 5AC and 5B, accompanied by up-regulation of the respective mucin genes. Mucin secretion returned to baseline levels following a 14-day recovery period. Mucin-secreting goblet cells exhibited increased cell density and decreased size after 5 daily treatments then recovered to their normal size, but with decreased cell density, 14 days after the last treatment. The beating frequency of ciliated cells, which plays a key role in mucociliary clearance, was increased by 5 daily treatments with the CI WSSs then reverted to baseline levels following a 7-day recovery. Taken together, our results indicate that ALI cultures can be used to measure the modulation of mucin production, secretion, and clearance, disturbances that are manifested in tobacco smoke-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Measuring tissue responses directly relevant to the respiratory toxicity of cigarette smoke may provide useful information in support of science-based regulatory decisions.

      3. Attenuation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Indonesia following the reassortment and acquisition of genes from low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus progenitorsExternal
        Dharmayanti N, Thor SW, Zanders N, Hartawan R, Ratnawati A, Jang Y, Rodriguez M, Suarez DL, Samaan G, Pudjiatmoko , Davis CT.
        Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Aug 22;7(1):147.

        The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of avian cloacal swabs and environmental samples revealed influenza A-positive specimens, which were then subjected to virus isolation and genomic sequencing. Genetic analysis of specimens collected at multiple LBMs in Indonesia identified both low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H3N8) and HPAI A(H5N1) viruses belonging to clade Comparison of internal gene segments among the LPAI and HPAI viruses revealed that the latter had acquired the PB2, PB1, and NS genes from LPAI progenitors and other viruses containing a wild type (wt) genomic constellation. Comparison of murine infectivity of the LPAI A(H3N8), wt HPAI A(H5N1) and reassortant HPAI A(H5N1) viruses showed that the acquisition of LPAI internal genes attenuated the reassortant HPAI virus, producing a mouse infectivity/virulence phenotype comparable to that of the LPAI virus. Comparison of molecular markers in each viral gene segment suggested that mutations in PB2 and NS1 may facilitate attenuation. The discovery of an attenuated HPAI A(H5N1) virus in mice that resulted from reassortment may have implications for the capability of these viruses to transmit and cause disease. In addition, surveillance suggests that LBMs in Indonesia may play a role in the generation of reassortant A(H5) viruses and should be monitored.

      4. Evaluation of specimen types for Pima CD4 point-of-care testing: Advantages of fingerstick blood collection into an EDTA microtubeExternal
        Kohatsu L, Bolu O, Schmitz ME, Chang K, Lemwayi R, Arnett N, Mwasekaga M, Nkengasong J, Mosha F, Westerman LE.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(8):e0202018.

        INTRODUCTION: Effective point-of-care testing (POCT) is reliant on optimal specimen collection, quality assured testing, and expedited return of results. Many of the POCT are designed to be used with fingerstick capillary blood to simplify the blood collection burden. However, fingerstick blood collection has inherent errors in sampling. An evaluation of the use of capillary and venous blood with CD4 POCT was conducted. METHODS: Three different specimen collection methods were evaluated for compatibility using the Alere Pima CD4 assay at 5 HIV/AIDS healthcare sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. At each site, whole blood specimens were collected from enrolled patients by venipuncture and fingerstick. Pima CD4 testing was performed at site of collection on venipuncture specimens (Venous) and fingerstick blood directly applied to a Pima CD4 cartridge (Capillary-Direct) and collected into an EDTA microtube (Capillary-Microtube). Venous blood was also tested at the laboratory by the reference CD4 method and Pima for comparison analysis. RESULTS: All three specimen collection methods were successfully collected by healthcare workers for use with the Pima CD4 assay. When compared to the reference CD4 method, Pima CD4 testing with the Capillary-Microtube method performed similarly to Venous, while Pima CD4 counts with the Capillary-Direct method were slightly more biased (-20 cells/muL) and variable (-229 to +189 cells/muL limit of agreement). Even though all three collection methods had similar invalid Pima testing rates (10.5%, 9.8%, and 8.3% for Capillary-Direct, Capillary-Microtube, and Venous respectively), the ability to perform repeat testing with Capillary-Microtube and Venous specimens increased the likelihood of acquiring a valid CD4 result with the Pima assay. CONCLUSIONS: Capillary blood, either directly applied to Pima CD4 cartridges or collected in an EDTA microtube, and venous blood are suitable specimens for Pima CD4 testing. The advantages of capillary blood collection in an EDTA microtube are that it uses fingerstick collection which mimics venous blood and allows extra testing without additional blood collection.

      5. The influence of exposure duration on chemical toxicity has important implications for risk assessment. Although a default 10-fold extrapolation factor is commonly applied when the toxicological dataset includes a subchronic (90-day) study but lacks studies of chronic duration, little consensus has been reached on an appropriate extrapolation factor to apply when the dataset includes a 28-day study but lacks studies of longer durations. The goal of the present assessment was to identify a 28-day to 90-day extrapolation factor by analyzing distributions of ratios of No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Benchmark Doses (BMDs) derived from 28-day and 90-day studies. The results of this analysis suggest that a default 10-fold extrapolation factor in chemical risk assessment applications is sufficient to account for the uncertainty associated with evaluating human health risk based on results from a 28-day study in the absence of results from a 90-day study. This analysis adds significantly to the growing body of literature interpreting the influence of exposure duration on chemical toxicity that will likewise facilitate discussions on the future state of testing requirements in the international regulatory community.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Using decision analysis to support newborn screening policy decisions: A case study for Pompe diseaseExternal
        Prosser LA, Lam KK, Grosse SD, Casale M, Kemper AR.
        MDM Policy Pract. 2018 ;2018.

        Background: Newborn screening is a public health program to identify conditions associated with significant morbidity or mortality that benefit from early intervention. Policy decisions about which conditions to include in newborn screening are complex because data regarding epidemiology and outcomes of early identification are often incomplete. Objectives: To describe expected outcomes of Pompe disease newborn screening and how a decision analysis informed recommendations by a federal advisory committee. Methods: We developed a decision tree to compare Pompe disease newborn screening with clinical identification of Pompe disease in the absence of screening. Cases of Pompe disease were classified into three types: classic infantile-onset disease with cardiomyopathy, nonclassic infantile-onset disease, and late-onset disease. Screening results and 36-month health outcomes were projected for classic and nonclassic infantile-onset cases. Input parameters were based on published and unpublished data supplemented by expert opinion. Results: We estimated that screening 4 million babies born each year in the United States would detect 40 cases (range: 13-56) of infantile-onset Pompe disease compared with 36 cases (range: 13-56) detected clinically without screening. Newborn screening would also identify 94 cases of late-onset Pompe disease that might not become symptomatic for decades. By 36 months, newborn screening would avert 13 deaths (range: 8-19) and decrease the number of individuals requiring mechanical ventilation by 26 (range: 20-28). Conclusions: Pompe disease is a rare condition, but early identification can improve health outcomes. Decision analytic modeling provided a quantitative data synthesis that informed the recommendation of Pompe disease newborn screening.

      2. Brief report: Maternal opioid prescription from preconception through pregnancy and the odds of autism spectrum disorder and autism features in childrenExternal
        Rubenstein E, Young JC, Croen LA, DiGuiseppi C, Dowling NF, Lee LC, Schieve L, Wiggins LD, Daniels J.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 Aug 21.

        Opioid use during pregnancy is associated with suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about child neurodevelopmental outcomes. We examined associations between maternal opioid prescriptions preconception to delivery (peri-pregnancy) and child’s risk of ASD, developmental delay/disorder (DD) with no ASD features, or ASD/DD with autism features in the Study to Explore Early Development, a case-control study of neurodevelopment. Preconception opioid prescription was associated with 2.43 times the odds of ASD [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 6.02] and 2.64 times the odds of ASD/DD with autism features (95% CI 1.10, 6.31) compared to mothers without prescriptions. Odds for ASD and ASD/DD were non-significantly elevated for first trimester prescriptions. Work exploring mechanisms and timing between peri-pregnancy opioid use and child neurodevelopment is needed.

      3. Drinking water disinfection byproducts and risk of orofacial clefts in the National Birth Defects Prevention StudyExternal
        Weyer P, Rhoads A, Suhl J, Luben TJ, Conway KM, Langlois PH, Shen D, Liang D, Puzhankara S, Anderka M, Bell E, Feldkamp ML, Hoyt AT, Mosley B, Reefhuis J, Romitti PA.
        Birth Defects Res. 2018 Jul 17;110(12):1027-1042.

        BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBP)s may contribute to orofacial cleft (OFC) development, but studies are sparse and beset with limitations. METHODS: Population-based, maternal interview reports of drinking water filtration and consumption for 680 OFC cases (535 isolated) and 1826 controls were linked with DBP concentration data using maternal residential addresses and public water system monitoring data. Maternal individual-level exposures to trihalomethanes (THM)s and haloacetic acids (HAA)s (microg/L of water consumed) were estimated from reported consumption at home, work, and school. Compared to no exposure, associations with multisource maternal exposure <1/2 or >/=1/2 the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL)s for total THMs (TTHM)s and HAAs (HAA5) or Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLG)s for individual THMs and HAAs (if non-zero) were estimated for all OFCs and isolated OFCs, cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip +/- cleft palate (CL/P) using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Compared to controls, associations were near or below unity for maternal TTHM, HAA5, and individual THM exposures with all OFCs and isolated OFCs, CP, and CL/P. Associations also were near or below unity for individual HAAs with statistically significant, inverse associations observed with each OFC outcome group except CL/P. CONCLUSIONS: This study examined associations for maternal reports of drinking water filtration and consumption and maternal DBP exposure from drinking water with OFCs in offspring. Associations observed were near or below unity and mostly nonsignificant. Continued, improved research using maternal individual-level exposure data will be useful in better characterizing these associations.

      4. A phenotype of childhood autism is associated with preexisting maternal anxiety and depressionExternal
        Wiggins LD, Rubenstein E, Daniels J, DiGuiseppi C, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Schieve LA, Tian LH, Sabourin K, Moody E, Pinto-Martin J, Reyes N, Levy SE.
        J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2018 Aug 21.

        This study explored whether ASD phenotypes in the child were associated with a history of anxiety or depression in the mother. We hypothesized that an ASD profile in children characterized by mild delays and increased rates of dysregulation would be associated with preexisting maternal anxiety or depression. Participants were 672 preschool children with ASD and their mothers. Children were classified as ASD after a comprehensive developmental evaluation. Mothers reported whether a healthcare provider ever diagnosed them with anxiety or depression before the birth of their child. Four child ASD phenotypes were derived from latent class analysis: Mild Language Delay with Cognitive Rigidity (Type 1), Significant Developmental Delay with Repetitive Motor Behaviors (Type 2), General Developmental Delay (Type 3), and Mild Language and Motor Delay with Dysregulation (i.e., aggression, anxiety, depression, emotional reactivity, inattention, somatic complaints, and sleep problems) (Type 4). Type 2 ASD served as the referent category in statistical analyses. Results showed that 22.6% of mothers reported a diagnosis of anxiety or depression before the birth of their child. Maternal anxiety or depression was associated with 2.7 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 5.3) of Type 4 or Dysregulated ASD in the child; maternal anxiety and depression was associated with 4.4 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 14.0) of Type 4 or Dysregulated ASD in the child. Our findings suggest an association between Dysregulated ASD in the child and anxiety and depression in the mother. These findings can enhance screening methods and inform future research efforts.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Approaches to assess vitamin A status in settings of inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) ProjectExternal
        Larson LM, Guo J, Williams AM, Young MF, Ismaily S, Addo OY, Thurnham D, Tanumihardjo SA, Suchdev PS, Northrop-Clewes CA.
        Nutrients. 2018 Aug 16;10(8).

        The accurate estimation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is critical to informing programmatic and policy decisions that could have important public health implications. However, serum retinol and retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations, two biomarkers often used to estimate VAD, are temporarily altered during the acute phase response, potentially overestimating the prevalence of VAD in populations with high levels of inflammation. In 22 nationally-representative surveys, we examined (1) the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) or alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and retinol or RBP, and (2) how different adjustment approaches for correcting for inflammation compare with one another. In preschool age children (PSC) and school age children (SAC), the association between inflammation and retinol and RBP was largely statistically significant; using the regression approach, adjustments for inflammation decreased the estimated prevalence of VAD compared to unadjusted VAD (range: -22.1 to -6.0 percentage points). In non-pregnant women of reproductive age (WRA), the association between inflammation and vitamin A biomarkers was inconsistent, precluding adjustments for inflammation. The burden of VAD can be overestimated if inflammation is not accounted for, and the regression approach provides a method for adjusting retinol and RBP for inflammation across the full range of concentrations in PSC and SAC.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Exposure to a firefighting overhaul environment without respiratory protection increases immune dysregulation and lung disease riskExternal
        Gainey SJ, Horn GP, Towers AE, Oelschlager ML, Tir VL, Drnevich J, Fent KW, Kerber S, Smith DL, Freund GG.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(8):e0201830.

        Firefighting activities appear to increase the risk of acute and chronic lung disease, including malignancy. While self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBA) mitigate exposures to inhalable asphyxiates and carcinogens, firefighters frequently remove SCBA during overhaul when the firegrounds appear clear of visible smoke. Using a mouse model of overhaul without airway protection, the impact of fireground environment exposure on lung gene expression was assessed to identify transcripts potentially critical to firefighter-related chronic pulmonary illnesses. Lung tissue was collected 2 hrs post-overhaul and evaluated via whole genome transcriptomics by RNA-seq. Although gas metering showed that the fireground overhaul levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen cyanine (HCN), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and oxygen (O2) were within NIOSH ceiling recommendations, 3852 lung genes were differentially expressed when mice exposed to overhaul were compared to mice on the fireground but outside the overhaul environment. Importantly, overhaul exposure was associated with an up/down-regulation of 86 genes with a fold change of 1.5 or greater (p<0.5) including the immunomodulatory-linked genes S100a8 and Tnfsf9 (downregulation) and the cancer-linked genes, Capn11 and Rorc (upregulation). Taken together these findings indicate that, without respiratory protection, exposure to the fireground overhaul environment is associated with transcriptional changes impacting proteins potentially related to inflammation-associated lung disease and cancer.

      2. Occupational patterns in unintentional and undetermined drug-involved and opioid-involved overdose deaths – United States, 2007-2012External
        Harduar Morano L, Steege AL, Luckhaupt SE.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):925-930.

        The opioid epidemic affects multiple segments of the U.S. population (1). Occupational patterns might be critical to understanding the epidemic. Opioids are often prescribed for specific types of work-related injuries, which vary by occupation* (2). CDC used mortality data from the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system to examine unintentional or undetermined drug overdose mortality within 26 occupation groups. This study included data from the 21 U.S. states participating in NOMS during 2007-2012.(dagger) Drug overdose mortality was compared with total mortality using proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) indirectly standardized for age, sex, race, year, and state. Mortality patterns specific to opioid-related overdose deaths were also assessed. Construction occupations had the highest PMRs for drug overdose deaths and for both heroin-related and prescription opioid-related overdose deaths. The occupation groups with the highest PMRs from methadone, natural and semisynthetic opioids, and synthetic opioids other than methadone were construction, extraction (e.g., mining, oil and gas extraction), and health care practitioners. The workplace is an integral part of life for the majority of the adult U.S. population; incorporating workplace research and interventions likely will benefit the opioid epidemic response.

      3. Coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing a solar power farm – Monterey County, California, 2016-2017External
        Laws RL, Cooksey GS, Jain S, Wilken J, McNary J, Moreno E, Michie K, Mulkerin C, McDowell A, Vugia D, Materna B.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):931-934.

        In January 2017, two local health departments notified the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) of three cases of coccidioidomycosis among workers constructing a solar power installation (solar farm) in southeastern Monterey County. Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley fever, is an infection caused by inhalation of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides, which is endemic in the southwestern United States, including California. After a 1-3 week incubation period, coccidioidomycosis most often causes influenza-like symptoms or pneumonia, but rarely can lead to severe disseminated disease or death (1). Persons living, working, or traveling in areas where Coccidioides is endemic can inhale fungal spores; workers who are performing soil-disturbing activities are particularly at risk. CDPH previously investigated one outbreak among solar farm construction workers that started in 2011 and made recommendations for reducing risk for infection, including worker education, dust suppression, and use of personal protective equipment (2,3). For the current outbreak, the CDPH, in collaboration with Monterey County and San Luis Obispo County public health departments, conducted an investigation that identified nine laboratory-confirmed cases of coccidioidomycosis among 2,410 solar farm employees and calculated a worksite-specific incidence rate that was substantially higher than background county rates, suggesting that illness was work-related. The investigation assessed risk factors for potential occupational exposures to identify methods to prevent further workplace illness.

      4. A pilot study of healthy living options at 16 truck stops across the United StatesExternal
        Lincoln JE, Birdsey J, Sieber WK, Chen GX, Hitchcock EM, Nakata A, Robinson CF.
        Am J Health Promot. 2018 Mar;32(3):546-553.

        PURPOSE: There is a growing body of evidence that the built environment influences diet and exercise and, as a consequence, community health status. Since long-haul truck drivers spend long periods of time at truck stops, it is important to know if this built environment includes resources that contribute to the emotional and physical well-being of drivers. SETTING: The truck stop environment was defined as the truck stop itself, grocery stores, and medical clinics near the truck stop that could be accessed by a large truck or safely on foot. DESIGN: Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed and utilized a checklist to record the availability of resources for personal hygiene and comfort, communication and mental stimulation, health care, safety, physical activity, and nutrition at truck stops. SUBJECTS: The NIOSH checklist was used to collect data at a convenience sample of 16 truck stops throughout the United States along both high-flow and low-flow truck traffic routes. MEASURES: The checklist was completed by observation within and around the truck stops. RESULTS: No truck stops offered exercise facilities, 94% lacked access to health care, 81% lacked a walking path, 50% lacked fresh fruit, and 37% lacked fresh vegetables in their restaurant or convenience store. CONCLUSION: The NIOSH found that most truck stops did not provide an overall healthy living environment.

      5. BACKGROUND: The annual incidence rate of work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (WUEMSDs) is increasing in US workers according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, the prevalence of WUEMSDs among US total workers has not been estimated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of WUEMSDs among US total workers and among each of major occupations and industries. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey Arthritis supplements (2006, 2009, and 2014) among 50,218 current workers (age >/=18 years) to estimate the 30-day prevalence of WUEMSDs and of WUEMSDs affecting work using the SAS-callable SUDAAN software. RESULTS: About 11.2 million workers reported WUEMSDs based on three surveys (2006, 2009, and 2014). The 30-day prevalence of WUEMSDs was 8.23% the prevalence of WUEMSDs affecting work was 1.24%. The Construction occupation and industry had the highest age- and sex-adjusted 30-day prevalence of WUEMSDs (10.98% for Construction occupation; 9.94% for Construction industry) and WUEMSDs affecting work (3.32% for Construction occupation; 2.31% Construction industry). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that construction workers had the highest prevalence of both WUEMSDs and WUEMSDs affecting work. They may be a priority group for interventions to reduce upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

      6. Occupational traumatic injuries among offshore seafood processors in Alaska, 2010-2015External
        Syron LN, Lucas DL, Bovbjerg VE, Case S, Kincl L.
        J Safety Res. 2018 Sep;66:169-178.

        INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Coast Guard and Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration have identified the Alaskan offshore seafood processing industry as high-risk. This study used Coast Guard injury reports to describe patterns of traumatic injury among offshore seafood processors, as well as identify modifiable hazards. METHODS: From the reports, we manually reviewed and abstracted information on the incident circumstances, injury characteristics and circumstances, and vessel. Traumatic injury cases were coded using the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System, and a Work Process Classification System. Descriptive statistics characterized worker demographics, injuries, and fleets. RESULTS: One fatal and 304 nonfatal injuries among processors were reported to the Coast Guard during 2010-2015 across multiple fleets of catcher-processor and mothership vessels. The most frequently occurring injuries were: by nature of injury, sprains/strains/tears (75, 25%), contusions (50, 16%), and fractures (45, 15%); by body part affected, upper extremities (121, 40%), and trunk (75, 25%); by event/exposure resulting in injury, contact with objects and equipment (150, 49%), and overexertion and bodily reaction (76, 25%); and by source of injury, processing equipment and machinery (85, 28%). The work processes most frequently associated with injuries were: processing seafood on the production line (68, 22%); stacking blocks/bags of frozen product (50, 17%); and repairing/maintaining/cleaning factory equipment (28, 9%). CONCLUSIONS: Preventing musculoskeletal injuries, particularly to workers’ upper extremities and trunks, is paramount. Some injuries, such as serious back injuries, intracranial injuries, and finger crushing or amputations, had the potential to lead to disability. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Safety professionals and researchers can use the study findings to inform future intervention efforts in this industry. Hazard control measures should target: (a) overexertion from lifting and lowering objects and equipment; (b) equipment and boxes falling and striking workers; (c) workers being caught in running machinery during regular operations; and (d) slips, trips, and falls.

      7. Associations between police work stressors and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: Examining the moderating effects of copingExternal
        Violanti JM, Ma CC, Mnatsakanova A, Fekedulegn D, Hartley TA, Gu JK, Andrew ME.
        J Police Crim Psychol. 2018 ;33(3):271-282.

        The role of coping in the association between stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not clear. We investigated the effects of active and passive coping strategies on the associations between police stress (administrative and organization pressure, physical and psychological threats, and lack of support) and PTSD symptoms in 342 police officers. Linear regression model was used in the analyses. The association between physical and psychological stress and PTSD symptoms was stronger in officers who used lower active coping (B = 4.34, p < 0.001) compared to those who utilized higher active coping (p-interaction = 0.027) (B = 1.79, p </= 0.003). A similar result was found between lack of support and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.016) (lower active coping, B = 5.70, p < 0.001; higher active coping, B = 3.33, p < 0.001), but was not significantly different comparing the two groups regarding the association between administrative and organizational pressure and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.376). Associations of total stress, administrative and organizational pressure, and physical and psychological stressors with PTSD symptoms were significantly stronger in officers who utilized higher passive coping (p-interaction = 0.011, 0.030, and 0.023, respectively). In conclusion, low active or high passive coping methods may exacerbate the effect of work stress on PTSD symptoms.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Progressive massive fibrosis resurgence identified in U.S. coal miners filing for black lung benefits, 1970-2016External
        Almberg KS, Halldin CN, Blackley DJ, Laney AS, Storey E, Rose CS, Go LH, Cohen RA.
        Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Aug 17.

        RATIONALE: There has been a resurgence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in the United States, particularly among central Appalachian miners. OBJECTIVES: We characterized the proportion of PMF among former U.S. coal miners applying for Federal Black Lung Program benefits, 1970-2016. METHODS: Data from the U.S. Department of Labor were used to characterize trends in proportion of PMF cases, defined as an approved black lung claim with a determination of PMF, among all miners who filed for federal benefits between January 1, 1970 and December 31, 2016. Joinpoint, logistic, and linear regression models were used to identify changes in the proportion of claimants with PMF over time. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 4,679 unique PMF cases among claimants for federal black lung benefits between 1970 – 2016, with 2,474 miners determined to have PMF since 1996. The number of PMF cases among Federal Black Lung Program claimants fell from 404 (0.5% of claimants) in 1978 to a low of 18 cases (0.6%) in 1988, then increased to 353 cases (8.3%) in 2014. The proportion of federal black lung benefits claimants with PMF has been increasing since 1978 (0.06% APC; 95%CI 0.05%, 0.07%; p < .0001), and began increasing at a significantly increased rate after 1996 (0.26% APC; 95% CI 0.25%, 0.28%; p < .0001). Most miners with PMF (84%) last mined in West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, or Virginia. Since 1970, the proportion of claimants with PMF has increased significantly among miners who last worked in Kentucky (16.6% APC; 95%CI 16.5%, 16.7%), Pennsylvania (4.7% APC; 95%CI 4.6%, 4.8%), Tennessee (16.1% APC; 95%CI 15.7%, 16.4%), West Virginia (16.8% APC; 95%CI 16.6%, 16.9%), and most sharply among miners last working in Virginia (31.5% APC; 95%CI 31.2%, 31.7%), where in 2009, over 17% of claimants received a PMF determination. The proportion of PMF determinations for the rest of the U.S. have not exceeded 4%. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a resurgence of PMF, particularly in central Appalachian miners. The resurgence of this preventable disease points to the need for improved primary and secondary prevention of dust-related lung disease in U.S. coal miners.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Within-host competition can delay evolution of drug resistance in malariaExternal
        Bushman M, Antia R, Udhayakumar V, de Roode JC.
        PLoS Biol. 2018 Aug;16(8):e2005712.

        In the malaria parasite P. falciparum, drug resistance generally evolves first in low-transmission settings, such as Southeast Asia and South America. Resistance takes noticeably longer to appear in the high-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, although it may spread rapidly thereafter. Here, we test the hypothesis that competitive suppression of drug-resistant parasites by drug-sensitive parasites may inhibit evolution of resistance in high-transmission settings, where mixed-strain infections are common. We employ a cross-scale model, which simulates within-host (infection) dynamics and between-host (transmission) dynamics of sensitive and resistant parasites for a population of humans and mosquitoes. Using this model, we examine the effects of transmission intensity, selection pressure, fitness costs of resistance, and cross-reactivity between strains on the establishment and spread of resistant parasites. We find that resistant parasites, introduced into the population at a low frequency, are more likely to go extinct in high-transmission settings, where drug-sensitive competitors and high levels of acquired immunity reduce the absolute fitness of the resistant parasites. Under strong selection from antimalarial drug use, however, resistance spreads faster in high-transmission settings than low-transmission ones. These contrasting results highlight the distinction between establishment and spread of resistance and suggest that the former but not the latter may be inhibited in high-transmission settings. Our results suggest that within-host competition is a key factor shaping the evolution of drug resistance in P. falciparum.

      2. Concurrent seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara species in the United States, 2011- 2014External
        Liu EW, Elder S, Rivera H, Kruszon-Moran D, Handali S, Jones JL.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 23.

        [No abstract]

      3. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of high-dose ivermectin with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on mosquitocidal activity and QT-prolongation (IVERMAL)External
        Smit MR, Ochomo EO, Waterhouse D, Kwambai TK, Abong’o BO, Bousema T, Bayoh NM, Gimnig JE, Samuels AM, Desai MR, Phillips-Howard PA, Kariuki SK, Wang D, Ter Kuile FO, Ward SA, Aljayyoussi G.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Aug 20.

        High-dose ivermectin, co-administered for 3-days with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), killed mosquitoes feeding on individuals for at least 28-days post-treatment in a recent trial (IVERMAL), while 7-days was predicted pre-trial. The current study assessed the relationship between ivermectin blood concentrations and the observed mosquitocidal effects against Anopheles gambiae. 3-days ivermectin 0, 300, or 600 mcg/kg/day plus DP was randomly assigned to 141 adults with uncomplicated malaria in Kenya. During 28-days follow-up, 1,393 venous and 335 paired capillary plasma samples, 850 mosquito-cluster mortality rates, and 524 QTcF-intervals were collected. Using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling, we show a consistent correlation between predicted ivermectin concentrations and observed mosquitocidal-effects throughout the 28-day study duration, without invoking an unidentified mosquitocidal metabolite or drug-drug-interaction. Ivermectin had no effect on piperaquine’s pharmacokinetics or QTcF-prolongation. The PK-PD model can be used to design new treatment regimens with predicted mosquitocidal effect. This methodology could be used to evaluate effectiveness of other endectocides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    • Public Health Law
      1. Health information blocking: Responses under the 21st Century Cures ActExternal
        Black JR, Hulkower RL, Ramanathan T.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Aug 22.

        [No abstract]

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments – United States, 2017External
        Arrazola J, Binkin N, Israel M, Fleischauer A, Daly ER, Harrison R, Engel J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 24;67(33):935-939.

        In 2017, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists performed its sixth periodic Epidemiology Capacity Assessment, a national assessment that evaluates trends in workforce size, funding, and epidemiology capacity among state health departments. A standardized web-based questionnaire was sent to the state epidemiologist in the 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. territories and the Federated States of Micronesia inquiring about the number of current and optimal epidemiologist positions; sources of epidemiology activity and personnel funding; and each department’s self-perceived capacity to lead activities, provide subject matter expertise, and obtain and manage resources for the four Essential Public Health Services (EPHS)* most closely linked to epidemiology. From 2013 to 2017, the number of state health department epidemiologists(dagger) increased 22%, from 2,752 to 3,369, the greatest number of workers since the first full Epidemiology Capacity Assessment enumeration in 2004. The federal government provided most (77%) of the funding for epidemiologic activities and personnel. Substantial to full capacity (50%-100%) was highest for investigating health problems (92% of health departments) and monitoring health status (84%), whereas capacity for evaluating effectiveness (39%) and applied research (29%) was considerably lower. An estimated additional 1,200 epidemiologists are needed to reach full capacity to conduct the four EPHS. Additional resources might be needed to ensure that state health department epidemiologists possess the specialized skills to deliver EPHS, particularly in evaluation and applied epidemiologic research.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): Overview of design and methodologyExternal
        Shulman HB, D’Angelo DV, Harrison L, Smith RA, Warner L.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Aug 23:e1-e9.

        Data System. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors, attitudes, and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. PRAMS is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Reproductive Health in collaboration with state health departments. Data Collection/Processing. Birth certificate records are used in each participating jurisdiction to select a sample representative of all women who delivered a live-born infant. PRAMS is a mixed-mode mail and telephone survey. Annual state sample sizes range from approximately 1000 to 3000 women. States stratify their sample by characteristics of public health interest such as maternal age, race/ethnicity, geographic area of residence, and infant birth weight. Data Analysis/Dissemination. States meeting established response rate thresholds are included in multistate analytic data sets available to researchers through a proposal submission process. In addition, estimates from selected indicators are available online. Public Health Implications. PRAMS provides state-based data for key maternal and child health indicators that can be tracked over time. Stratification by maternal characteristics allows for examinations of disparities over a wide range of health indicators. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 23, 2018: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304563).

      2. Moving the message beyond the methods: Toward integration of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection/HIV preventionExternal
        Steiner RJ, Liddon N, Swartzendruber AL, Pazol K, Sales JM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2018 Mar;54(3):440-443.

        [No abstract]

      3. Use of menstrual cups among school girls: longitudinal observations nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study in rural western KenyaExternal
        van Eijk AM, Laserson KF, Nyothach E, Oruko K, Omoto J, Mason L, Alexander K, Oduor C, Mohammed A, Eleveld A, Ngere I, Obor D, Vulule J, Phillips-Howard PA.
        Reprod Health. 2018 Aug 17;15(1):139.

        BACKGROUND: A menstrual cup can be a good solution for menstrual hygiene management in economically challenged settings. As part of a pilot study we assessed uptake and maintenance of cup use among young school girls in Kenya. METHODS: A total of 192 girls between 14 to 16 years were enrolled in 10 schools in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya; these schools were assigned menstrual cups as part of the cluster-randomized pilot study. Girls were provided with menstrual cups in addition to training and guidance on use, puberty education, and instructions for menstrual hygiene. During repeated individual visits with nurses, girls reported use of the menstrual cup and nurses recorded colour change of the cup. RESULTS: Girls were able to keep their cups in good condition, with only 12 cups (6.3%) lost (dropped in toilet, lost or destroyed). Verbally reported cup use increased from 84% in the first 3 months (n = 143) to 96% after 9 months (n = 74). Colour change of the cup, as ‘uptake’ indicator of use, was detected in 70.8% of 192 participants, with a median time of 5 months (range 1-14 months). Uptake differed by school and was significantly higher among girls who experienced menarche within the past year (adjusted risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60), and was faster among girls enrolled in the second study year (hazard ratio 3.93, 95% CI 2.09-7.38). The kappa score comparing self-report and cup colour observation was 0.044 (p = 0.028), indicating that agreement was only slightly higher than by random chance. CONCLUSIONS: Objective evidence through cup colour change suggests school girls in rural Africa can use menstrual cups, with uptake improving with peer group education and over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17486946 . Retrospectively registered 09 December 2014.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) used multiple methods to provide guidance to healthcare providers on the management and prevention of Zika virus disease during 2016. To better understand providers’ use of information sources related to emerging disease threats, this article describes reported use of information sources by NYC providers to stay informed about Zika, and patterns observed by provider type and practice setting. We sent an electronic survey to all email addresses in the Provider Data Warehouse, a system used to maintain information from state and local health department sources on all prescribing healthcare providers in NYC. The survey asked providers about their use of information sources, including specific information products offered by the NYC DOHMH, to stay informed about Zika during 2016. Trends by provider type and practice setting were described using summary statistics. The survey was sent to 44,455 unique email addresses; nearly 20% (8,711) of the emails were undeliverable. Ultimately, 1,447 (5.8%) eligible providers completed the survey. Most respondents (79%) were physicians. Overall, the most frequently reported source of information from the NYC DOHMH was the NYC Health Alert Network (73%). Providers in private practice reported that they did not use any NYC DOHMH source of information about Zika more frequently than did those working in hospital settings (29% vs 23%); similarly, private practitioners reported that they did not use any other source of information about Zika more frequently than did those working in hospital settings (16% vs 8%). Maintaining timely and accurate databases of healthcare provider contact information is a challenge for local public health agencies. Effective strategies are needed to identify and engage independently practicing healthcare providers to improve communications with all healthcare providers during public health emergencies.

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CDC Science Clips Production Staff

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019