Volume 10, Issue 24, July 3, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 24, July 3, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      • Serologic follow-up of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus cases and contacts – Abu Dhabi, United Arab EmiratesExternal
        Al Hosani FI, Kim L, Khudhair A, Pham H, Al Mulla M, Al Bandar Z, Pradeep K, Elkheir KA, Weber S, Khoury M, Donnelly G, Younis N, El Saleh F, Abdalla M, Imambaccus H, Haynes LM, Thornburg NJ, Harcourt JL, Miao C, Tamin A, Hall AJ, Russell ES, Harris AM, Kiebler C, Mir RA, Pringle K, Alami NN, Abedi GR, Gerber SI.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 13.

        Background: Although there is evidence of person-to-person transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in household and healthcare settings, more data are needed to describe and better understand the risk factors and transmission routes in both settings, as well as the extent that disease severity affects transmission. Methods: A sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted among Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) case-patients and their household contacts to investigate transmission risk in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Cases diagnosed between January 1, 2013-May 9, 2014 and their household contacts were approached for enrollment. Demographic, clinical, and exposure history data were collected. Sera were screened by MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (N) ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence, with results confirmed by microneutralization assay. Results: Ninety-one percent (n=31/34) of case-patients were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and did not require oxygen during hospitalization. MERS-CoV antibodies were detected in 13 of 24 (54%) cases with available sera, including 3 asymptomatic, 9 mildly symptomatic, and 1 severely symptomatic case-patient. No serologic evidence of MERS-CoV transmission was found among 105 household contacts with available sera. Conclusions: Transmission of MERS-CoV was not documented in this investigation of mostly asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic cases and their household contacts. These results have implications for clinical management of cases and formulation of isolation policies to reduce the risk of transmission.

      • Stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV among adults and adolescents in the United StatesExternal
        Pitasi MA, Chavez PR, DiNenno EA, Jeffries WL, Johnson CH, Demeke H, August EM, Bradley H.
        AIDS and Behavior. 2018 :1-5.

        Stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) cause psychological distress for PLWH and hinder HIV prevention efforts. We estimated the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes among 6809 adults and 885 adolescents who responded to online surveys in 2015. Fear of casual contact with PLWH was reported by 17.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.3-18.6%] of adults and 31.6% (CI 27.8-35.4%) of adolescents. Among adults, 12.5% (CI 11.6-13.5%) endorsed a measure of moral judgment toward PLWH. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH persist in the United States. Continued monitoring of these attitudes and efforts to reduce associated stigma are warranted.

    • Food Safety
      • Produce-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, USA, 1998-2013External
        Bennett SD, Sodha SV, Ayers TL, Lynch MF, Gould LH, Tauxe RV.
        Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jun 20:1-10.

        The US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) gives food safety regulators increased authority to require implementation of safety measures to reduce the contamination of produce. To evaluate the future impact of FSMA on food safety, a better understanding is needed regarding outbreaks attributed to the consumption of raw produce. Data reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1998-2013 were analysed. During 1998-2013, there were 972 raw produce outbreaks reported resulting in 34 674 outbreak-associated illnesses, 2315 hospitalisations, and 72 deaths. Overall, the total number of foodborne outbreaks reported decreased by 38% during the study period and the number of raw produce outbreaks decreased 19% during the same period; however, the percentage of outbreaks attributed to raw produce among outbreaks with a food reported increased from 8% during 1998-2001 to 16% during 2010-2013. Raw produce outbreaks were most commonly attributed to vegetable row crops (38% of outbreaks), fruits (35%) and seeded vegetables (11%). The most common aetiologic agents identified were norovirus (54% of outbreaks), Salmonella enterica (21%) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (10%). Food-handling errors were reported in 39% of outbreaks. The proportion of all foodborne outbreaks attributable to raw produce has been increasing. Evaluation of safety measures to address the contamination on farms, during processing and food preparation, should take into account the trends occurring before FSMA implementation.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Determinants of human papillomavirus vaccine attitudes: an interview of Wisconsin parentsExternal
        Barnes KL, VanWormer JJ, Stokley S, Vickers ER, McLean HQ, Belongia EA, Bendixsen CG.
        BMC Public Health. 2018 Jun 15;18(1):746.

        BACKGROUND: Parental attitudes play a key role in their decisions to vaccinate adolescents against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Little is known, however, about the formative experiences that shape parents’ attitudes about the HPV vaccine. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 parents of 11-17 year old adolescents in Wisconsin who changed their HPV vaccine attitudes (per prior surveys) over one year. A modified grounded theory approach was then used to generate primary themes of attitudinal determinants. RESULTS: Participants were predominately mothers. We identified three major themes that shaped parents’ HPV attitudes: (1) the perceived likelihood of the HPV vaccine preventing cancer, (2) agency in adolescence and gauging their adolescent child’s intent for sexual activity, (3) the credibility of HPV vaccine information sources. General messaging around cancer prevention did not always supersede some parents’ concerns about the vaccine’s perceived link to sexual activity. Parents often viewed their adolescent child’s feelings about the HPV vaccine as a gauge of their (child’s) intent for sexual activity. Interviewees felt a sense of responsibility to educate themselves about the HPV vaccine using multiple sources and particularly looked to their medical provider to filter conflicting information. CONCLUSIONS: More family-specific (vs. disease-prevention) messaging and recommendations may be needed in the clinical environment to sway some parents’ negative attitudes about the HPV vaccine. Future research should explore additional strategies to improve HPV vaccine attitudes, such as situating the vaccine in the context of a monogamous lifestyle that many parents wish to impart to their children.

      • INTRODUCTION: Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017. National rotavirus vaccine coverage estimates increased since vaccine introduction but plateaued at 71%-75% in 2013-2015, a level 15%-20% lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Pooled VE of full series RV5 and RV1 against rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and emergency department visits were 84% (95% CI: 80%-87%) and 83% (95% CI: 72%-89%), respectively. Vaccine introduction resulted in a median decline in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and ED visits of 80% and 57%, respectively, along with indirect protection of unvaccinated age groups and a decrease in health care costs. A biennial pattern in rotavirus detection emerged post-vaccine implementation. Expert Commentary: The increasing use of rotavirus vaccines has substantially diminished the burden and changed the epidemiology of rotavirus disease in US children; efforts to increase rotavirus vaccine coverage should continue.

      • Adverse events after vaccination among HIV-positive persons, 1990-2016External
        Su JR, Ng C, Lewis PW, Cano MV.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(6):e0199229.

        Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes immune dysregulation, potentially affecting response to vaccines in infected persons. We investigated if unexpected adverse events (AEs) or unusual patterns of AEs after vaccination were reported among HIV-positive persons. We searched for domestic reports among HIV-positive persons to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2016. We analyzed reports by age group (<19 and >/=19 years), sex, serious or non-serious status, live vaccine type (live versus inactivated), AEs reported, and CD4 counts. Of 532,235 reports received, 353 (0.07%) described HIV-positive persons, of whom 67% were aged >/=19 years, and 57% were male; most reports (75%) were non-serious. The most commonly reported inactivated vaccines were pneumococcal polysaccharide (27%) and inactivated influenza (27%); the mostly reported common live virus vaccines were combination measles, mumps, and rubella (8%) and varicella (6%). Injection site reactions were commonly reported (39%). Of 67 reports with CD4 counts available, 41 (61%) described persons immunocompromised at time of vaccination (CD4 count <500 cells/mm3), and differed from overall reports only in that varicella was the most common live virus vaccine (4 reports). Of 22 reports describing failure to protect against infection, 6 described persons immunocompromised at time of vaccination, among whom varicella vaccine was most common (3 reports). Of 66 reports describing live virus vaccines, 7 described persons with disseminated infection: 6 had disseminated varicella, 3 of whom had vaccine strain varicella-zoster virus. Of 18 reported deaths, 7 resulted from disseminated infection: 6 were among immunocompromised persons, 1 of whom had vaccine strain varicella-zoster virus. We identified no unexpected or unusual patterns of AEs among HIV-positive persons. These data reinforce current vaccine recommendations for this risk group. However, healthcare providers should know their HIV-positive patients’ immune status because immunocompromising conditions can potentially increase the risk of rare, but severe, AEs following vaccination with live virus vaccines.

    • Injury and Violence
      • Exploring substance use and impaired driving among adults aged 21 years and older in the US, 2015External
        Jewett A, Peterson AB, Sauber-Schatz EK.
        Traffic Inj Prev. 2018 Jun 21:1-27.

        INTRODUCTION: Alcohol or drug impaired driving can cause motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and death. Estimates of drug impaired driving are difficult to obtain. This study explores self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and impaired driving among adults aged 21 years and older in the U.S. METHODS: Self-reported data from 3,383 adults in the 2015 Fall ConsumerStyles survey were analyzed. Respondents were asked about alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and driving while impaired in the last 30 days. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated. Prevalence ratios and Poisson log-linear regressions were used to identify factors associated with substance use and impaired driving. RESULTS: Alcohol use was reported by 49.5% (n = 1,676) of respondents; of these 4.9% (n = 82) reported alcohol impaired driving. Marijuana use was reported by 5.5% (n = 187) of respondents; of these 31.6% (n = 59) reported marijuana impaired driving. Prescription opioid use was reported by 8.8% (n = 298) of respondents; of these 3.4% (n = 10) reported prescription opioid impaired driving. Polysubstance use of alcohol and marijuana (concurrent use) was reported by 2.7% (n = 93) respondents. Among those, 10.8% (n = 10) reported driving impaired by both alcohol and marijuana. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired driving was self-reported among alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid users. This report demonstrates the need for more robust alcohol and drug-related data collection, reporting, and analyses, as well as the emerging need for surveillance of marijuana and prescription opioid impaired driving. States can consider using proven strategies to prevent impaired driving and evaluate promising practices.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Safety, immunogenicity and protection of A(H3N2) live attenuated influenza vaccines containing wild-type nucleoprotein in a ferret modelExternal
        Korenkov DA, Laurie KL, Reading PC, Carolan LA, Chan KF, Isakova S, Smolonogina TA, Subbarao K, Barr IG, Villanueva J, Shcherbik S, Bousse T, Rudenko LG.
        Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Jun 18.

        Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are promising tools for the induction of broad protection from influenza due to their ability to stimulate cross-reactive T cells against influenza pathogens. One of the major targets for cytotoxic T-cell immunity is viral nucleoprotein (NP), which is relatively conserved among antigenically distant influenza viruses. Nevertheless, a diversity of epitope composition has been found in the NP protein of different lineages of influenza A viruses. The H2N2 master donor virus which is currently used as a backbone for the LAIV and donor of the six genomic segments encoding the internal proteins, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (MDV Len/17), was isolated 60years ago. As such, NP-specific T-cell immunity induced upon vaccination with classical LAIVs with a 6:2 genome composition containing this older NP might be suboptimal against currently circulating influenza viruses. In this study, a panel of H3N2 LAIV candidates with wild-type NP genes derived from circulating viruses were generated by reverse genetics (5:3 genome composition). These viruses displayed the cold adaptation and temperature sensitivity phenotypes of MDV Len/17 in vitro. LAIVs with both 6:2 and 5:3 genome compositions were attenuated and replicated to a similar extent in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets. LAIVs were immunogenic as high neutralizing and hemagglutination inhibition serum antibody titers were detected 21days after infection. All vaccinated animals were protected against infection with heterologous H3N2 influenza A viruses. Thus, LAIV with a 5:3 genome composition is safe, immunogenic and can induce cross-protective immunity.

    • Program Evaluation
    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      • The influence of poverty and rabies knowledge on healthcare seeking behaviors and dog ownership, CameroonExternal
        Barbosa Costa G, Gilbert A, Monroe B, Blanton J, Ngam Ngam S, Recuenco S, Wallace R.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(6):e0197330.

        BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in Northern Cameroon to describe dog ownership characteristics, rates of dog bites, and post-bite healthcare seeking behaviors. METHODS: The survey was performed in four rural Cameroonian communities. A structured community-based questionnaire was conducted over a 20-day period in April 2010, and focused on socio-economic factors correlated with gaps in rabies knowledge. Information pertaining to socio-demographics, as well as attitudes and practices with regard to animal bites and bite treatment practices were recorded. Characteristics of dog ownership such as dog confinement, resources provided to dogs, and dog vaccination status were examined. Human to dog ratios were compared on a linear scale to poverty scores by community. When applicable, 2-tailed Chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact tests were calculated to determine relationships between variables. We also used One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to identify associations between rabies knowledge and wealth with dog ownership, dog vaccination, and human healthcare seeking behaviors. Independent variables were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 208 households were enrolled. Respondents were predominantly male (68.3%), with a median age of 43.6 years. Eighty-four households (39.9%) reported owning a total of 141 dogs (human dog ratio 10.4:1). The majority of dogs (61%) were allowed to roam freely. A history of rabies vaccination was reported for 30.8% of owned dogs. Respondents reported 11 bites during the two years preceding the survey (annual bite incidence was 2.6% [95% CI 1.4%- 4.6%]). Only one person (9.1%) received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and none described symptoms of clinical illness consistent with rabies. Respondents who indicated that they would seek medical care and PEP after a dog bite had higher average wealth and rabies knowledge index scores (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Respondents who indicated that they would seek care from a traditional healer had significantly lower wealth scores, but not significantly different knowledge scores (p < 0.01 and p = 0.49, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the communities evaluated, the majority of dogs were allowed to roam freely and had no history of rabies vaccination; factors that favor enzootic transmission of canine rabies virus. We also identified a strong relationship between poverty and dog ownership. Bite events were relatively common among respondents, and very few victims reported utilizing health services to treat wounds. Increased wealth and knowledge were significantly associated with increased likelihood that a respondent would seek medical care and post-exposure prophylaxis. These findings indicate the need for educational outreach to raise awareness of dog rabies and proper prevention measures.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Differences in obesity prevalence by demographic characteristics and urbanization level among adults in the United States, 2013-2016External
        Hales CM, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Freedman DS, Aoki Y, Ogden CL.
        Jama. 2018 Jun 19;319(23):2419-2429.

        Importance: Differences in obesity by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin among US adults have been reported, but differences by urbanization level have been less studied. Objectives: To provide estimates of obesity by demographic characteristics and urbanization level and to examine trends in obesity prevalence by urbanization level. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis of measured height and weight among adults aged 20 years or older in the 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Exposures: Sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, education level, smoking status, and urbanization level as assessed by metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs; large: >/=1 million population). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] >/=30) and severe obesity (BMI >/=40) by subgroups in 2013-2016 and trends by urbanization level between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016. Results: Complete data on weight, height, and urbanization level were available for 10792 adults (mean age, 48 years; 51% female [weighted]). During 2013-2016, 38.9% (95% CI, 37.0% to 40.7%) of US adults had obesity and 7.6% (95% CI, 6.8% to 8.6%) had severe obesity. Men living in medium or small MSAs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of obesity compared with men living in large MSAs (42.4% vs 31.8%, respectively; adjusted difference, 9.8 percentage points [95% CI, 5.1 to 14.5 percentage points]); however, the age-adjusted prevalence among men living in non-MSAs was not significantly different compared with men living in large MSAs (38.9% vs 31.8%, respectively; adjusted difference, 4.8 percentage points [95% CI, -2.9 to 12.6 percentage points]). The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was higher among women living in medium or small MSAs compared with women living in large MSAs (42.5% vs 38.1%, respectively; adjusted difference, 4.3 percentage points [95% CI, 0.2 to 8.5 percentage points]) and among women living in non-MSAs compared with women living in large MSAs (47.2% vs 38.1%, respectively; adjusted difference, 4.7 percentage points [95% CI, 0.2 to 9.3 percentage points]). Similar patterns were seen for severe obesity except that the difference between men living in large MSAs compared with non-MSAs was significant. The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and severe obesity also varied significantly by age group, race and Hispanic origin, and education level, and these patterns of variation were often different by sex. Between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and severe obesity significantly increased among all adults at all urbanization levels. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative survey of adults in the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in 2013-2016 varied by level of urbanization, with significantly greater prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among adults living in nonmetropolitan statistical areas compared with adults living in large metropolitan statistical areas.

      2. Use of colorectal cancer screening tests by stateExternal
        Joseph DA, King JB, Richards TB, Thomas CC, Richardson LC.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Jun 14;15:E80.

        [No abstract]

      3. Projection of the future diabetes burden in the United States through 2060External
        Lin J, Thompson TJ, Cheng YJ, Zhuo X, Zhang P, Gregg E, Rolka DB.
        Popul Health Metr. 2018 Jun 15;16(1):9.

        BACKGROUND: In the United States, diabetes has increased rapidly, exceeding prior predictions. Projections of the future diabetes burden need to reflect changes in incidence, mortality, and demographics. We applied the most recent data available to develop an updated projection through 2060. METHODS: A dynamic Markov model was used to project prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among US adults by age, sex, and race (white, black, other). Incidence and current prevalence were from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1985-2014. Relative mortality was from NHIS 2000-2011 follow-up data linked to the National Death Index. Future population estimates including birth, death, and migration were from the 2014 Census projection. RESULTS: The projected number and percent of adults with diagnosed diabetes would increase from 22.3 million (9.1%) in 2014 to 39.7 million (13.9%) in 2030, and to 60.6 million (17.9%) in 2060. The number of people with diabetes aged 65 years or older would increase from 9.2 million in 2014 to 21.0 million in 2030, and to 35.2 million in 2060. The percent prevalence would increase in all race-sex groups, with black women and men continuing to have the highest diabetes percent prevalence, and black women and women of other race having the largest relative increases. CONCLUSIONS: By 2060, the number of US adults with diagnosed diabetes is projected to nearly triple, and the percent prevalence double. Our estimates are essential to predict health services needs and plan public health programs aimed to reduce the future burden of diabetes.

      4. Differences in obesity prevalence by demographics and urbanization in US children and adolescents, 2013-2016External
        Ogden CL, Fryar CD, Hales CM, Carroll MD, Aoki Y, Freedman DS.
        Jama. 2018 Jun 19;319(23):2410-2418.

        Importance: Differences in childhood obesity by demographics and urbanization have been reported. Objective: To present data on obesity and severe obesity among US youth by demographics and urbanization and to investigate trends by urbanization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Measured weight and height among youth aged 2 to 19 years in the 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which are serial, cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Exposures: Sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, education of household head, and urbanization, as assessed by metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs; large: >/= 1 million population). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] >/=95th percentile of US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] growth charts) and severe obesity (BMI >/=120% of 95th percentile) by subgroups in 2013-2016 and trends by urbanization between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016. Results: Complete data on weight, height, and urbanization were available for 6863 children and adolescents (mean age, 11 years; female, 49%). In 2013-2016, the prevalence among youth aged 2 to 19 years was 17.8% (95% CI, 16.1%-19.6%) for obesity and 5.8% (95% CI, 4.8%-6.9%) for severe obesity. Prevalence of obesity in large MSAs (17.1% [95% CI, 14.9%-19.5%]), medium or small MSAs (17.2% [95% CI, 14.5%-20.2%]) and non-MSAs (21.7% [95% CI, 16.1%-28.1%]) were not significantly different from each other (range of pairwise comparisons P = .09-.96). Severe obesity was significantly higher in non-MSAs (9.4% [95% CI, 5.7%-14.4%]) compared with large MSAs (5.1% [95% CI, 4.1%-6.2%]; P = .02). In adjusted analyses, obesity and severe obesity significantly increased with greater age and lower education of household head, and severe obesity increased with lower level of urbanization. Compared with non-Hispanic white youth, obesity and severe obesity prevalence were significantly higher among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic youth. Severe obesity, but not obesity, was significantly lower among non-Hispanic Asian youth than among non-Hispanic white youth. There were no significant linear or quadratic trends in obesity or severe obesity prevalence from 2001-2004 to 2013-2016 for any urbanization category (P range = .07-.83). Conclusions and Relevance: In 2013-2016, there were differences in the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity by age, race and Hispanic origin, and household education, and severe obesity was inversely associated with urbanization. Demographics were not related to the urbanization findings.

      5. Age and sex differences in hearing loss association with depressive symptoms: analyses of NHANES 2011-2012External
        Scinicariello F, Przybyla J, Carroll Y, Eichwald J, Decker J, Breysse PN.
        Psychol Med. 2018 Jun 18:1-7.

        BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and significant health problem. Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the USA and might be a factor in depression. To determine whether hearing loss is associated with depressive symptoms in US adults ages 20-69 years. METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2011-2012) were used to assess the potential relationship between hearing loss and depression, in adults (20-69 years) who answered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression screening module, with pure tone audiometry measurements, and complete information on the co-variates data (n = 3316). The degree of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) were defined as slight/mild hearing loss 26-40 dB; moderate/worse hearing loss 41 dB by pure tone audiometry examination. RESULTS: Moderate/worse HFHL was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR 1.54, 95% CL 1.04-2.27) when the analyses were conducted among all participants. Further stratification by gender and age groups found that moderate/worse HFHL (OR 3.85, 95% CL 1.39-10.65) and moderate/worse SFHL (OR 5.75, 95% CL 1.46-22.71) were associated with depressive symptoms in women ages 52-69 years. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate/worse speech frequency and HFHL are associated with depression in women ages 52-69 years, independent of other risk factors. Hearing screenings are likely to reduce delays in diagnosis and provide early opportunities for noise prevention counseling and access to hearing aids. Health professionals should be aware of depressive signs and symptoms in patients with hearing loss.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Impact of a rapid results initiative approach on improving male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Western KenyaExternal
        Akama E, Mburu M, Mutegi E, Nyanaro G, Otieno JP, Ndolo S, Ochanda B, Ojwang L, Lewis-Kulzer J, Abuogi L, Oyaro P, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Onono M.
        AIDS and Behavior. 2018 :1-10.

        A rapid results initiative (RRI) aimed at increasing male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and service uptake among pregnant women at 116 antenatal clinics in Western Kenya was compared at baseline, during the RRI, and 3-months post-RRI. Male involvement increased from 7.4 to 54.2% during RRI (risk difference [RD] 0.47, CI 0.45-0.48) then 43.4% post-RRI (RD 0.36, CI 0.35-0.37). Among HIV-infected women, facility delivery increased from 40.0 to 49.9% (RD 0.10, 95% CI 0.06-0.13) and 65.0% post-RRI (RD 0.25, 95% CI 0.22-0.28). HIV-infected pregnant women linkage to HIV care increased from 58.6 to 85.9% (RD 0.27, CI 0.24-0.30) and 97.3% post-RRI (RD 0.39, CI 0.36-0.41). Time to ART initiation reduced from 29 days (interquartile range [IQR] 6-56) to 14 days (IQR 0-28) to 7 days (IQR 0-20). A male-centered RRI can significantly increase men’s engagement in antenatal care leading to improved partner utilization of PMTCT and antenatal services.

      2. Prospective predictors of multiple sexual partners among African American men who have sex with menExternal
        Chittamuru D, Icard LD, Jemmott 3rd JB, O’Leary A.
        Arch Sex Behav. 2018 Jun 20.

        Studies show that having sex with multiple partners increases the risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The present article reports prospective predictors of having multiple sexual partners among 505 African American men in Philadelphia who have sex with men (MSM) who participated in an intervention trial and attended a 6-month follow-up. Participants completed audio computer-assisted surveys of demographics, sexual behavior, and Reasoned Action Approach and Social Cognitive Theory mediators concerning multiple partners. We analyzed the incidence of self-reported multiple partners at the 6-month follow-up, controlling for treatment condition and baseline levels of the theoretical variables. The odds of having multiple partners decreased with increasing age (p < .03). Participants who said they were HIV positive had lower odds of having multiple partners (p < .009). The more pride participants reported in their identities as black or African American men, the lower the odds that they reported having multiple partners (p < .02). Adverse outcome expectancies accruing to multiple partners fully mediated the effect of black pride and partially mediated the effects of age on the odds of having multiple partners. Modifiable factors such as perceived negative outcome expectancies regarding having multiple sex partners should be addressed in designing interventions and prevention programs with the goal of decreasing the number of sexual partners among African American MSM.

      3. Screening for latent tuberculosis infection among HIV-infected Medicaid enrolleesExternal
        Friedman EE, Khan A, Duffus WA.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan 1:33354918776639.

        OBJECTIVES: In the United States, universal screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection among people with HIV is recommended, but the percentage receiving screening is unknown. This study assessed screening for latent TB infection among people with HIV enrolled in Medicaid during 2006-2010. METHODS: We used nationwide fee-for-service Medicaid records to identify people with HIV, measure screening for latent TB infection, and examine associated demographic, social, and clinical factors. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We created 2 multivariate models to prevent collinearity between variables for length of HIV infection. RESULTS: Of 152 831 people with HIV, 26 239 (17.2%) were screened for latent TB infection. The factor most strongly associated with screening was TB exposure or suspected TB (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 3.27-4.37). Significant demographic characteristics associated with screening included being African American (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24-1.32) or </=20 years of age (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.28-1.42). Significant clinical and social factors associated with screening included poor housing conditions, low body mass index, chemotherapy treatment, and use of certain substances (ORs ranged from 1.24 [95% CI, 1.20-1.27] to 1.47 [95% CI, 1.22-1.76]). The screening rate for latent TB infection was higher among people with newly diagnosed HIV infection than among those with established infection (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41) and among people with a longer established HIV infection than among those with shorter HIV infection (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.23-1.26 for each additional year). CONCLUSION: Screening for latent TB infection among fee-for-service Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV was suboptimal, despite the presence of demographic, social, or clinical characteristics that should have increased the likelihood of screening. The lack of certain data in Medicaid may have resulted in an underestimation of screening.

      4. In 2012, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment guidelines expanded indications and recommended antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected persons in the United States, regardless of CD4 cell count. This analysis describes ARV prescriptions among commercially insured HIV-infected adults from 2012 to 2014. We analyzed persons aged 18-64 years from 2012 to 2014 Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters(R) database. We identified HIV-infected persons who had at least one inpatient or two outpatient medical claims and identified pharmacy claims using National Drug Codes. We calculated changes over time in ARV prescription and performed a multivariable regression analysis to examine differences in ARV prescriptions by age, sex, and geographic region. We identified 29,419 HIV-infected persons in 2012, 26,380 in 2013, and 25,414 in 2014. Overall percentage with ARV prescription increased by 7.3%. There was a 23% increase in ARV prescriptions among people new to care and a 6% increase among people already established in care. In 2014, more persons who were new to HIV care did not have an ARV prescription compared to persons established in HIV care (37.5% vs 19.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The percentage of persons without an ARV prescription was highest for persons residing in the Northeast (30.8%) compared to those residing in the West (21.7%), North Central (15.9%) and South (16.5%) and was higher among women (26.2%) compared to men (19.5%) (p < 0.001). Uptake of ARV medication has increased since the guidelines expanded their indications in 2012. Despite improvements from 2012 to 2014, a significant proportion of HIV-infected adults with a commercial health insurance plan were not prescribed ARV medications. Insurance-based strategies could be a novel method to increase the percentage of HIV-infected adults who receive optimal care in the United States.

      5. BACKGROUND: A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that includes a test for recent HIV infection and a viral load (VL) test is the recommended strategy to estimate population-level HIV incidence, reducing false-recent misclassification to <1%. The inclusion of information on exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as a supplement to VL testing, could improve RITA performance by further lowering false-recent misclassification of true long-term infection. METHODS: In 2012, Kenya and South Africa conducted national population-based surveys that collected information on HIV recency (i.e., HIV antibody seroconversion, on average, in the past 130 days) using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg), HIV RNA levels, and ART exposure among HIV-infected respondents aged 15-49 years. In Kenya, ART exposure was defined as testing positive for one or more antiretroviral (ARV) drugs using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and, if not ARV-positive, self-reporting ART exposure in the past. In South Africa ART exposure was defined as testing ARV-positive. Two RITA strategies were compared: RITA #1 defined recent infection as LAg-recent with unsuppressed VL (HIV RNA>/=1,000 copies/mL) and RITA #2 defined recent infection as LAg-recent with unsuppressed VL and, if unsuppressed, having ART exposure. RESULTS: RITA-derived incidence among persons aged 15-49 years in Kenya was 0.9% on RITA #1 and 0.8% on RITA #2. In South Africa, RITA-derived incidence was 2.2% on RITA #1 and 1.7% on RITA #2. Among LAg-recent specimens with unsuppressed VL in Kenya and South Africa, 16.0% and 19.7% had evidence of ART exposure, respectively. DISCUSSION: Although the performance of a VL- and ART-based RITA was encouraging, additional research is needed across HIV-1 subtypes and sub-populations to calibrate and validate this algorithm.

      6. Strategic response to an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 – Syria, 2017-2018External
        Mbaeyi C, Wadood ZM, Moran T, Ather F, Stehling-Ariza T, Nikulin J, Al Safadi M, Iber J, Zomahoun L, Abourshaid N, Pang H, Collins N, Asghar H, Butt OU, Burns CC, Ehrhardt D, Sharaf M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):690-694.

        Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. Although WPV type 2 has not been detected since 1999, and was declared eradicated in 2015,* most VDPV outbreaks have been attributable to VDPV serotype 2 (VDPV2) (3,4). After the synchronized global switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) (containing vaccine virus types 1, 2, and 3) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) (types 1 and 3) in April 2016 (5), GPEI regards any VDPV2 emergence as a public health emergency (6,7). During May-June 2017, VDPV2 was isolated from stool specimens from two children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Deir-ez-Zor governorate, Syria. The first isolate differed from Sabin vaccine virus by 22 nucleotides in the VP1 coding region (903 nucleotides). Genetic sequence analysis linked the two cases, confirming an outbreak of circulating VDPV2 (cVDPV2). Poliovirus surveillance activities were intensified, and three rounds of vaccination campaigns, aimed at children aged <5 years, were conducted using monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2). During the outbreak, 74 cVDPV2 cases were identified; the most recent occurred in September 2017. Evidence indicates that enhanced surveillance measures coupled with vaccination activities using mOPV2 have interrupted cVDPV2 transmission in Syria.

      7. A programmatic approach to address increasing HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM, 2010-2014External
        McCree DH, Walker T, DiNenno E, Hoots B, Valverde E, Cheryl Banez Ocfemia M, Heitgerd J, Stallworth J, Ferro B, Santana A, German E, Harris N.
        Prev Med. 2018 Jun 14.

        From 2010 to 2015, young (13-24years) Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced the largest increase (18%) in numbers of HIV diagnoses among all racial/ethnic groups. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assembled a team of scientists and public health analysts to develop a programmatic approach for addressing the increasing HIV diagnosis among Hispanic/Latino MSM. The team used a data driven review process, i.e., comprehensive review of surveillance, epidemiologic, and programmatic data, to explore key questions from the literature on factors associated with HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM and to inform the approach. This paper describes key findings from the review and discusses the approach. The approach includes the following activities: increase awareness and support testing by expanding existing campaigns targeting Hispanic/Latino MSM to jurisdictions where diagnoses are increasing; strengthen existing efforts that support treatment as prevention and increase engagement in care and viral suppression among Hispanic/Latino MSM living with HIV and promote prevention, e.g., PrEP uptake and condom use, among Hispanic/Latino MSM who are at high-risk for HIV infection.

      8. OBJECTIVES: To understand trends in health care use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), this study compared trends in hospitalization rates, comorbidities, and hospital death rates of hospitalized PLWHA with the overall hospitalized population in Illinois during 2008-2014. METHODS: This study identified principal hospitalizations (the principal discharge diagnosis coded with an HIV-related billing code) and secondary HIV hospitalizations (a non-principal discharge diagnosis coded with an HIV-related billing code) from 2008-2014 Illinois hospital discharge data. Hospitalization rates among PLWHA were calculated using prevalence data from the Illinois Electronic HIV/AIDS Registry; US Census population estimates were used to calculate overall Illinois hospitalization rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends overall and among demographic subgroups. Comorbidities and discharge status for all hospitalizations were identified. RESULTS: In 2014, the hospitalization rate was 2.2 times higher among PLWHA than among the overall Illinois hospitalized population. From 2008 to 2014, principal HIV hospitalization rates per 1000 PLWHA decreased by 48% (from 71 to 37) and secondary HIV hospitalization rates declined by 26% (from 296 to 218). The decline in the principal HIV hospitalization rate was steepest from 2008 to 2011 (annual percentage change = -16.0%; P = .003). Mood disorders, substance-related diagnoses, and schizophrenia accounted for 18% to 22% of principal hospitalizations among PLWHA compared with 7% to 8% of overall Illinois hospitalizations. Hepatitis as a comorbidity was more common among hospitalized PLWHA (18%-22%) than among the overall Illinois hospitalized population (1.4%-1.5%). Hospitalized PLWHA were 3 times more likely than the overall Illinois hospitalized population to die while hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: HIV hospitalizations are largely preventable with appropriate treatment and adherence. Additional efforts to improve retention in HIV care that address comorbidities of PLWHA are needed.

      9. Isoniazid-rifapentine for latent tuberculosis infection: A systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
        Njie GJ, Morris SB, Woodruff RY, Moro RN, Vernon AA, Borisov AS.
        Am J Prev Med. 2018 Jun 11.

        CONTEXT: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients’ preference for self-administered therapy, providers’ lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy. This review examines the most recent evidence regarding 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine’s effectiveness, safety, and treatment completion when directly compared with other latent tuberculosis infection regimens primarily comprising 9-month isoniazid treatment. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using Community Guide methodology, reviewers identified, evaluated, and summarized available evidence published during January 2006-June 2017. Analysis of the data was completed in 2017. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The analysis included 15 unique studies. Three-month isoniazid-rifapentine was determined to be equal to other latent tuberculosis infection regimens in effectiveness (OR=0.89, 95% CI=0.46, 1.70), and has higher treatment completion (87.5%, 95% CI=83.2%, 91.3%) compared with other latent tuberculosis infection regimens (65.9%, 95% CI=53.5%, 77.3%). Three-month isoniazid-rifapentine was associated with similar risk to other latent tuberculosis infection regimens for adverse events (relative risk=0.59, 95% CI=0.23, 1.52); discontinuing treatment because of adverse events (relative risk=0.48, 95% CI=0.17, 1.34); and death (relative risk=0.79, 95% CI=0.56, 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: The 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen is as safe and effective as other recommended latent tuberculosis infection regimens and achieves significantly higher treatment completion rates.

      10. Interval since last HIV test for men and women with recent risk for HIV infection – United States, 2006-2016External
        Pitasi MA, Delaney KP, Oraka E, Bradley H, DiNenno EA, Brooks JT, Prejean J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):677-681.

        Since 2006, CDC has recommended routine screening of all persons aged 13-64 years for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at least annual rescreening of persons at higher risk (1). However, national surveillance data indicate that many persons at higher risk for HIV infection are not screened annually, and delays in diagnosis persist (2). CDC analyzed 2006-2016 data from the General Social Survey (GSS)* and estimated that only 39.6% of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults had ever tested for HIV. Among persons ever tested, the estimated median interval since last test was 1,080 days or almost 3 years. Only 62.2% of persons who reported HIV-related risk behaviors in the past 12 months were ever tested for HIV, and the median interval since last test in this group was 512 days (1.4 years). The percentage of persons ever tested and the interval since last test remained largely unchanged during 2006-2016. More frequent screening of persons with ongoing HIV risk is needed to achieve full implementation of CDC’s screening recommendations and to prevent new infections. Integration of routine screening as standard clinical practice through existing strategies, such as electronic medical record prompts (3), or through new, innovative strategies might be needed to increase repeat screening of persons with ongoing risk.

      11. Maritime varicella illness and death reporting, U.S., 2010-2015External
        Rice ME, Bannerman M, Marin M, Lopez AS, Lewis MM, Stamatakis CE, Regan JJ.
        Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 May – Jun;23:27-33.

        BACKGROUND: Ships destined for, or departing from, U.S. ports of entry must report certain signs and symptoms of potentially communicable diseases of public health interest among travelers to the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: We reviewed ships’ varicella case and outbreak reports from January 2010 through December 2015. RESULTS: DGMQ received 967 reports of varicella and 13 reports of herpes zoster. Most varicella case-patients were 20-49 years of age (84.7%, 472/557) and were cruise ship crew members (78.4%, 758/967). Most often, cruise ship crew member case-patients were born in or held passports from Indonesia (21.7%, 80/369), Philippines (17.6%, 65/369), or India (17.3%, 64/369). Ninety-nine varicella outbreaks were reported, including 439 varicella cases and one herpes zoster case; 97 (98.0%) outbreaks occurred on cruise ships, and 90.2% of associated cases were among crew members (397/440). Most varicella cases were in crew members, who are adults often from tropical regions where varicella immunity is acquired later in childhood or young adulthood or without varicella vaccination programs. CONCLUSION: Varicella vaccination as appropriate for susceptible travelers, particularly crew members, before maritime travel may decrease risk of varicella infection and prevent outbreaks on ships.

      12. Discrimination in healthcare settings is a barrier to healthcare engagement. We analyzed two nationally representative datasets to assess change in discrimination in healthcare settings reported by HIV patients from 1996 to 2011-2013. Perceived discrimination in healthcare settings significantly decreased over time, from 24% in 1996 to 15% in 2011-2013. Improvements over time in HIV clinicians’ engagement in prevention discussions with patients following federal agencies’ recommendations may have been a contributing factor.

      13. [No abstract]

      14. Antiretroviral drug use and HIV drug resistance among MSM and transgender women in sub-Saharan AfricaExternal
        Zhang Y, Fogel JM, Guo X, Clarke W, Breaud A, Cummings V, Hamilton EL, Ogendo A, Kayange N, Panchia R, Dominguez K, Chen YQ, Sandfort T, Eshleman SH.
        Aids. 2018 Jun 19;32(10):1301-1306.

        OBJECTIVE: To analyze antiretroviral drug use and HIV drug resistance among HIV-infected MSM and transgender women who were screened for participation in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 075 study. METHODS: A qualitative assay was used to detect 20 antiretroviral drugs in five drug classes; this assay is based on liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry. HIV viral load testing was performed using the RealTime HIV-1 Viral Load Assay. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with study outcomes. RESULTS: Antiretroviral drugs were detected in 63 (34.4%) of 183 participants who had confirmed HIV infection at screening; 11 (17.5%) of the 63 participants were not virally suppressed. Six (54.5%) of the 11 participants had drug-resistant HIV, including four who had multiclass resistance. Seven (63.6%) of the 11 were at risk of acquiring resistance to additional antiretroviral drugs. In multivariate model, antiretroviral drugs were more frequently detected in older participants, those recruited from Kisumu, Kenya, and those who reported ever having been in HIV care or on antiretroviral therapy (ART). CONCLUSION: Most of HIV-infected persons screened for participation in HIV Prevention Trials Network 075 were not on ART, and many of those who were on ART were not virally suppressed. Many of those participants had drug-resistant HIV. These findings highlight the need for improved HIV care for African MSM and transgender women.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Avian influenza surveillance in domestic waterfowl and environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh, 2007-2012External
        Khan SU, Gurley ES, Gerloff N, Rahman MZ, Simpson N, Rahman M, Haider N, Chowdhury S, Balish A, Zaman RU, Nasreen S, Chandra Das B, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Sturm-Ramirez K, Davis CT, Donis RO, Luby SP.
        Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 20;8(1):9396.

        Avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic strains, pose severe economic, animal and public health concerns. We implemented live bird market surveillance in Bangladesh to identify the subtypes of avian influenza A viruses in domestic waterfowl and market environments. We collected waterfowl samples monthly from 4 rural sites from 2007 to 2012 and environmental samples from 4 rural and 16 urban sites from 2009 to 2012. Samples were tested through real-time RT-PCR, virus culture, and sequencing to detect and characterize avian influenza A viruses. Among 4,308 waterfowl tested, 191 (4.4%) were positive for avian influenza A virus, including 74 (1.9%) avian influenza A/H5 subtype. The majority (99%, n = 73) of the influenza A/H5-positive samples were from healthy appearing waterfowl. Multiple subtypes, including H1N1, H1N3, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N1, H4N2, H4N6, H5N1 (clades 2.2.2,,, H5N2, H6N1, H7N9, H9N2, H11N2 and H11N3, H11N6 were detected in waterfowl and environmental samples. Environmental samples tested positive for influenza A viruses throughout the year. Avian influenza viruses, including H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes were also identified in backyard and small-scale raised poultry. Live bird markets could be high-risk sites for harboring the viruses and have the potential to infect naive birds and humans exposed to them.

      2. Forage ratio analysis of the southern house mosquito in College Station, TexasExternal
        Komar N, Panella NA, Golnar AJ, Hamer GL.
        Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Jun 19.

        Culex quinquefasciatus is the principal vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the South Central United States, yet limited data on host utilization are available. We evaluated host utilization over a 3-month period in 2013 in a residential landscape in College Station, Texas. PCR sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene permitted molecular identification of vertebrate bloodmeals to the species level. Forage ratio analysis identified bird species that were overutilized and underutilized by comparing community feeding index values to expected relative abundance values of bird species, derived from eBird data. Community feeding index values were also used in conjunction with reservoir competence data from the literature to generate reservoir capacity index values, a means of identifying relative importance of vertebrate reservoir hosts. Of 498 blood-engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus, 313 (62.9%) were identified to vertebrate species. The majority (95.5%) of bloodmeals originated from avian species with the remainder from mammals, but not humans. Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) was the principal host for mosquito feeding in June and July, but northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) became primary host in August. Forage ratio analysis revealed the overutilization of house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), American robin (Turdus migratorius), northern mockingbird, northern cardinal, white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), and Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) were under-utilized relative to availability. Reservoir capacity calculations suggested that northern mockingbird and northern cardinal were the principal amplifiers in the study area. These data identify the primary avian species contributing to the enzootic amplification of WNV in East-Central Texas and reveal that the heavy feeding on moderately competent hosts and no feeding on humans likely limit epidemics in this region.

      3. Circulation of Nipah virus in Pteropus giganteus bats in northeast region of India, 2015External
        Yadav P, Sudeep A, Gokhale M, Pawar S, Shete A, Patil D, Kumar V, Lakra R, Sarkale P, Nichol S, Mourya D.
        Indian J Med Res. 2018 Mar;147(3):318-320.

        [No abstract]

    • Environmental Health
      1. Biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs in children and their demographic associations: The TESIE StudyExternal
        Hoffman K, Hammel SC, Phillips AL, Lorenzo AM, Chen A, Calafat AM, Ye X, Webster TF, Stapleton HM.
        Environ Int. 2018 Jun 18;119:26-36.

        Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are used extensively in consumer and personal care products; electronics; furniture; and building materials and are detected in most indoor environments. As a result, human exposure to mixtures of SVOCs is wide-spread. However, very few studies have measured biomarkers of exposure to multiple SVOC classes, and exposure determinants have not been thoroughly explored, particularly for young children. In this study, we investigated biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs among children (age 3-6years), who may experience higher exposures and be more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than other age groups. We enrolled 203 participants in the Toddlers Exposure to SVOCs in Indoor Environments (TESIE) study (181 provided urine samples and 90 provided serum samples).We quantified 44 biomarkers of exposure to phthalates, organophosphate esters (OPEs), parabens, phenols, antibacterial agents and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); we detected 29 of the 44 biomarkers in >95% of samples, and many biomarkers were detected at higher median concentrations than those previously reported in the U.S. general population. Demographic characteristics were associated with differences in concentrations. In general, non-Hispanic white race and higher maternal education were associated with lower concentrations, even after adjusting for other potential confounding variables. Our results suggest that outdoor temperature at the time of biospecimen collection may be a particularly important and under-evaluated predictor of biomarker concentrations; statistically significant relationships were observed between 10 biomarkers and outdoor temperature at the time of collection. A complex correlation structure was also observed among the biomarkers assessed. By and large, statistically significant correlations between biomarkers of exposure to phthalates, parabens, phenols, and OPEs were positive. Conversely, although PFASs were positively correlated with one another, they tended to be negatively correlated with other biomarkers where significant associations were observed. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the assessments of SVOC-associated health impacts should focus on chemical mixtures.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Evaluating the role of public health in implementation of genomics-related recommendations: a case study of hereditary cancers using the CDC Science Impact FrameworkExternal
        Green RF, Ari M, Kolor K, Dotson WD, Bowen S, Habarta N, Rodriguez JL, Richardson LC, Khoury MJ.
        Genet Med. 2018 Jun 15.

        Public health plays an important role in ensuring access to interventions that can prevent disease, including the implementation of evidence-based genomic recommendations. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Science Impact Framework to trace the impact of public health activities and partnerships on the implementation of the 2009 Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Lynch Syndrome screening recommendation and the 2005 and 2013 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing recommendations.The EGAPP and USPSTF recommendations have each been cited by >300 peer-reviewed publications. CDC funds selected states to build capacity to integrate these recommendations into public health programs, through education, policy, surveillance, and partnerships. Most state cancer control plans include genomics-related goals, objectives, or strategies. Since the EGAPP recommendation, major public and private payers now provide coverage for Lynch Syndrome screening for all newly diagnosed colorectal cancers. National guidelines and initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, included similar recommendations and cited the EGAPP and USPSTF recommendations. However, disparities in implementation based on race, ethnicity, and rural residence remain challenges. Public health achievements in promoting the evidence-based use of genomics for the prevention of hereditary cancers can inform future applications of genomics in public health.

    • Health Communication and Education
      1. Successful scientific writing and publishing: A step-by-step approachExternal
        Iskander JK, Wolicki SB, Leeb RT, Siegel PZ.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Jun 14;15:E79.

        Scientific writing and publication are essential to advancing knowledge and practice in public health, but prospective authors face substantial challenges. Authors can overcome barriers, such as lack of understanding about scientific writing and the publishing process, with training and resources. The objective of this article is to provide guidance and practical recommendations to help both inexperienced and experienced authors working in public health settings to more efficiently publish the results of their work in the peer-reviewed literature. We include an overview of basic scientific writing principles, a detailed description of the sections of an original research article, and practical recommendations for selecting a journal and responding to peer review comments. The overall approach and strategies presented are intended to contribute to individual career development while also increasing the external validity of published literature and promoting quality public health science.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Agreement with employer influenza vaccination requirements among US healthcare personnel during the 2016-2017 seasonExternal
        de Perio MA, Yue X, Laney AS, Greby SM, Black CL.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 Jun 20:1-3.

        [No abstract]

      2. Impact of rotavirus vaccines in Sub-Saharan African countriesExternal
        Mwenda JM, Parashar UD, Cohen AL, Tate JE.
        Vaccine. 2018 Jun 15.

        By the end of 2017, 32 (68%) of 47 countries in the World Health Organization’s African Region had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, including 27 countries that received financial support from the Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Several early introducing African countries previously evaluated the impact, vaccine effectiveness, and/or cost effectiveness of their routine rotavirus vaccination programs and found that rotavirus vaccine was effective and resulted in substantial declines in hospitalizations due to rotavirus. This Special Issue of Vaccine provides additional rotavirus vaccine effectiveness and impact data from a broader range of African countries, describes the longer term impact and potential indirect benefits of rotavirus vaccination programs, describes trends in circulating genotypes in the pre- and post-vaccine introduction eras, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in a post-introduction setting. As countries begin transitioning from Gavi support, the findings of these studies provide evidence of the impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination programs under conditions of routine use.

      3. BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix(R) vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012. METHODS: Under five children were enrolled through active surveillance at University Teaching Hospital using a standardized WHO case investigation form. Stool samples were collected from children who presented with >/=3 loose stool in 24h and were admitted to the hospital for acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness. Samples were tested for group A rotavirus antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Randomly selected rotavirus positive samples were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for G and P genotyping and and Nucleotide sequencing was used to confirm some mixed infections. RESULTS: A total of 4150 cases were enrolled and stool samples were collected from 4066 (98%) children between 2008 and 2011, before the vaccine was introduced. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 1561/4066 (38%). After vaccine introduction (2012 to 2015), 3168 cases were enrolled, 3092 (98%) samples were collected, and 977/3092 (32%) were positive for rotavirus. The most common G and P genotype combinations before vaccine introduction were G1P[8] (49%) in 2008; G12P[6] (24%) and G9P[8] (22%) in 2009; mixed rotavirus infections (32%) and G9P[8] (20%) in 2010, and G1P[6] (46%), G9P[6] (16%) and mixed infections (20%) in 2011. The predominant strains after vaccine introduction were G1P[8] (25%), G2P[4] (28%) and G2P[6] (23%) in 2012; G2P[4] (36%) and G2P[6] (44%) in 2013; G1P[8] (43%), G2P[4] (9%), and G2P[6] (24%) in 2014, while G2P[4] (54%) and G2P[6] (20%) continued to circulate in 2015. CONCLUSION: These continual changes in the predominant strains suggest natural secular variation in circulating rotavirus strains post-vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need for ongoing surveillance to continue monitoring how vaccine use affects strain evolution over a longer period of time and assess any normal seasonal fluctuations of the rotavirus strains.

      4. INTRODUCTION: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) can result in inadequate protection against disease. Although healthcare provider reluctance to open multi-dose, lyophilized vaccine vials (particularly the measles-containing vaccine [MCV]) for every eligible child due to concerns about wasting vaccine is a known reason for MOV, little is known about providers’ related attitudes and practices. METHODS: In 100 randomly selected health facilities and 24 districts of Cambodia, we surveyed healthcare providers and their district supervisors regarding routine vaccine administration and wastage knowledge and practices, and child caregivers (five per facility) regarding MOV. Vaccine stock management data covering six months were reviewed to calculate facility and district level wastage rates and vaccine usage patterns for six vaccines, including a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2). RESULTS: Response rates were 100/100 (100%) among facility staff, 48/48 (100%) among district staff, and 436/500 (87%) among caregivers. Mean facility-level wastage rates varied from 4% for single-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine to 60% for 10-dose MCV; district-level wastage rates for all vaccines were 0%. Some vaccines had lower wastage rates in large facilities compared to small facilities. The mean MCV wastage rate was the same before and immediately after MCV2 introduction. Providers reported waiting for a mean of two children prior to opening an MCV vial, and 71% of providers reported offering MCV vaccination less frequently during scheduled vaccination sessions than other vaccines. Less than 5% of caregivers reported that their child had been turned away for vaccination, most frequently (65%) for MCV. DISCUSSION: Although the MCV wastage rate in our study was in line with national targets, providers reported waiting for more than one child before opening an MCV vial, contrary to vaccine management guidelines. Future research should explore the causal links between provider practices related to vaccine wastage and their impact on vaccination coverage.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Self-reported concussions from playing a sport or being physically active among high school students – United States, 2017External
        DePadilla L, Miller GF, Jones SE, Peterson AB, Breiding MJ.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):682-685.

        Increased susceptibility to concussions and longer recovery times among high school athletes compared with older athletes (1) make concussions among youths playing a sport or being physically active an area of concern. Short-term and long-term sequelae of concussions can include cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes (1). Surveillance methods used to monitor concussions among youths likely underestimate the prevalence. Estimates assessed from emergency departments miss concussions treated outside hospitals, those generated using high school athletic trainer reports miss concussions sustained outside of school-based sports (2), and both sources miss medically untreated concussions. To estimate the prevalence of concussions among U.S. high school students related to playing a sport or being physically active, CDC analyzed data from the 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Overall, 15.1% of students (approximately 2.5 million*) reported having at least one of these concussions during the 12 months before the survey, and 6.0% reported two or more concussions. Concussion prevalence was significantly higher among male students than among female students and among students who played on a sports team than among students who did not. Among all sex, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups, the odds of reporting a concussion increased significantly with the number of sports teams on which students played. These findings underscore the need to 1) foster a culture of safety in which concussion prevention and management is explicitly addressed; 2) expand efforts to educate students, parents, coaches, and health care providers regarding the risk for concussion; and 3) identify programs, policies, and practices that prevent concussions.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Use of TaqMan Array Cards to screen outbreak specimens for causes of febrile illness in TanzaniaExternal
        Abade A, Eidex RB, Maro A, Gratz J, Liu J, Kiwelu I, Mujaga B, Kelly ME, Mmbaga BT, Gibson JJ, Mosha F, Houpt ER.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jun;98(6):1640-1642.

        We describe the deployment of a custom-designed molecular diagnostic TaqMan Array Card (TAC) to screen for 31 bacterial, protozoal, and viral etiologies in blood from outbreaks of acute febrile illness in Tanzania during 2015-2017. On outbreaks notified to the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, epidemiologists were dispatched and specimens were collected, transported to a central national laboratory, and tested by TAC within 2 days. This algorithm streamlined investigation, diagnosed a typhoid outbreak, and excluded dozens of other etiologies. This method is usable in-country and may be incorporated into algorithms for diagnosing outbreaks.

      2. Surveillance for azoles resistance in Aspergillus spp. highlights a high number of amphotericin B-resistant isolatesExternal
        Reichert-Lima F, Lyra L, Pontes L, Moretti ML, Pham CD, Lockhart SR, Schreiber AZ.
        Mycoses. 2018 Jun;61(6):360-365.

        Aspergillus spp. are the most common invasive mould infection and are responsible for high mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus is currently of interest because resistance to azole antifungals has emerged. The Campinas University Hospital (HC-UNICAMP) receives high-risk patients susceptible to opportunistic infections but there have been no reports of resistant A. fumigatus. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility profile of Aspergillus isolates, specifically looking for azole resistance. ITS and beta-tubulin DNA sequencing was performed on 228 sequential clinical isolates. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed for all isolates. A. fumigatus represented 74% of the isolates followed by Aspergillus flavus (12%). Nine A. fumigatus isolates from 9 different patients showed high MIC values to at least 1 azole, but cyp51A polymorphisms were detected in only 6 isolates and none correlated with known resistance mutations. The most troubling observation was that the minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B was elevated (>/=2 mg L(-1) ) in 87% of patients with A. flavus isolates and 43% with Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Given that amphotericin B is used to treat azole-resistant infections, these data highlight the need for continuous surveillance in Aspergillus for all antifungal resistance to implement correct treatment strategies for the management of these pathogens.

      3. Additional progress in the development and application of a direct, rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies diagnosisExternal
        Rupprecht CE, Xiang Z, Servat A, Franka R, Kirby J, Ertl HC.
        Vet Sci. 2018 Jun 20;5(2).

        Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT. Considering the ideal molar ratios of biotin to AB in formulation of the DRIT conjugate, 3.9 was found to be superior to 7.4, for detection of RV antigens in the brain of a naturally infected raccoon. Optimization of the DRIT conjugate may also be dependent upon the apparent choice of specific viral antigens for testing, as a gray fox RV variant reacted less strongly than a raccoon RV variant in determining the working dilution of the MAB cocktail. Using the same MABs and protocol, the DRIT was compared to the FAT using more than 800 samples of mammalian brains, representative of more than 25 taxa, including in excess of 250 animal rabies cases from Europe and North America. Sensitivity was determined at 98% (96(-)100%, 95% CI) and specificity was calculated at 95% (92(-)96%, 95% CI). In a comparison among end users, PT of laboratory personnel resulted in values of 77(-)100% sensitivity and 86-100% specificity. Based upon these and previously reported results, the DRIT appears to be a suitable alternative to the FAT for use in lyssavirus diagnosis.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. An evaluation of the relationship among urine, air, and hand measures of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in US manufacturing workersExternal
        Hines CJ, Christianson AL, Jackson MV, Ye X, Pretty JR, Arnold JE, Calafat AM.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2018 Jun 13.

        Background: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed using external and internal exposure measures. We examined the relationship between two measures of external BPA exposure (air and hand-wipe samples) and one of internal exposure (total BPA in urine) for a group of US manufacturing workers. Methods: During 2013-2014, we recruited 78 workers from six US companies that made BPA or made products with BPA. We quantified BPA in seven urine samples, two full-shift air samples and in pre- and end-shift hand-wipe samples collected from workers over 2 consecutive days. We examined correlations between creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of total BPA (total BPACR) and BPA levels in air and hand wipes using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We also applied mixed-effects regression models to examine the relationship between total BPACR with BPA in air (urine~air model) and with BPA in end-shift hand wipes (urine~hand model), separately and together (urine~air+hand model), after adjusting for covariates. Results: End-shift total BPACR strongly correlated with BPA in air (rp = 0.79, P < 0.0001) and nearly as strongly with BPA in end-shift hand wipes (rp = 0.75, P < 0.0001). In mixed-effect models, BPA air concentration and end-shift hand-wipe BPA level were significantly and positively associated with end-shift total BPACR (P < 0.0001 each). We found a significant effect of the Day 1 BPA air concentration on Day 2 total BPACR (P = 0.0104). When BPA air concentration and end-shift hand-wipe BPA level were in the same model, the air concentration (P < 0.0001) was more significant than the hand-wipe level (P = 0.0106). Conclusion: BPA levels in air and end-shift hand wipes strongly correlated with total BPACR, suggesting that both inhalation and dermal contract were likely exposure routes; however, inhalation, on average, appeared to be a more dominant exposure route than dermal contact for these manufacturing workers.

      2. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to engineered nanomaterialsExternal
        Schulte P, Leso V, Niang M, Iavicoli I.
        Toxicol Lett. 2018 Jun 16.

        As the number of nanomaterial workers increases, there is need to consider whether biomonitoring of exposure should be used as a routine risk management tool. Currently no biomonitoring of nanomaterials is mandated by authoritative or regulatory agencies. However, there is a growing knowledge base to support such biomonitoring, but further research is needed, as are investigations of priorities for biomonitoring. That research is focused on validation of biomarkers of exposure and effect. Additionally, there is the possibility of using biomarkers of effect as indicators of early adverse effects in biomonitoring of nanomaterial workers. However, these biomarkers of effect are generally nonspecific. These biomarkers also need validation before they should be used. Overall biomonitoring of nanomaterial workers can be an important supplement to the exposure and risk assessment and risk management practices, although additional research is needed.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Quantifying primaquine effectiveness and improving adherence: a round table discussion of the APMEN Vivax Working GroupExternal
        Thriemer K, Bobogare A, Ley B, Gudo CS, Alam MS, Anstey NM, Ashley E, Baird JK, Gryseels C, Jambert E, Lacerda M, Laihad F, Marfurt J, Pasaribu AP, Poespoprodjo JR, Sutanto I, Taylor WR, van den Boogaard C, Battle KE, Dysoley L, Ghimire P, Hawley B, Hwang J, Khan WA, Mudin RN, Sumiwi ME, Ahmed R, Aktaruzzaman MM, Awasthi KR, Bardaji A, Bell D, Boaz L, Burdam FH, Chandramohan D, Cheng Q, Chindawongsa K, Culpepper J, Das S, Deray R, Desai M, et al .
        Malar J. 2018 Jun 20;17(1):241.

        The goal to eliminate malaria from the Asia-Pacific by 2030 will require the safe and widespread delivery of effective radical cure of malaria. In October 2017, the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group met to discuss the impediments to primaquine (PQ) radical cure, how these can be overcome and the methodological difficulties in assessing clinical effectiveness of radical cure. The salient discussions of this meeting which involved 110 representatives from 18 partner countries and 21 institutional partner organizations are reported. Context specific strategies to improve adherence are needed to increase understanding and awareness of PQ within affected communities; these must include education and health promotion programs. Lessons learned from other disease programs highlight that a package of approaches has the greatest potential to change patient and prescriber habits, however optimizing the components of this approach and quantifying their effectiveness is challenging. In a trial setting, the reactivity of participants results in patients altering their behaviour and creates inherent bias. Although bias can be reduced by integrating data collection into the routine health care and surveillance systems, this comes at a cost of decreasing the detection of clinical outcomes. Measuring adherence and the factors that relate to it, also requires an in-depth understanding of the context and the underlying sociocultural logic that supports it. Reaching the elimination goal will require innovative approaches to improve radical cure for vivax malaria, as well as the methods to evaluate its effectiveness.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Community and street-scale supports for walking in the US Virgin Islands before the 2017 hurricanesExternal
        Omura JD, Ussery EN, Carlson SA, Arnold-Lewis K, Orr J, McGuire DO, Lewis L, Paul P, Peterson EL, Fulton JE, Ellis EM.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Jun 21:e1-e4.

        OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of community and street-scale design features that promote walking across the US Virgin Islands (USVI). METHODS: In May 2016, the USVI Department of Health, with technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a territory-wide audit with a validated tool. We selected street segments (n = 1114) via a 2-stage sampling method, and estimates were weighted to be representative of publicly accessible street length. RESULTS: Overall, 10.7% of the street length contained a transit stop, 11.3% had sidewalks, 21.7% had at least 1 destination (e.g., stores, restaurants), 27.4% had a traffic calming feature (e.g., speed humps), and 53.2% had at least some street lighting. Several features were less prevalent on residential streets compared with commercial streets, including transit stops, sidewalks, destinations, and street lighting (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Across the USVI, community and street-scale features supportive of walking were uncommon. Improving community and street-scale design in the USVI, particularly in residential areas, could increase physical activity by enhancing walkability and therefore improve public health. These data can be used to inform community planning in the USVI. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 21, 2018: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304449).

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. Performance-based grants management is a strategy used by public agencies to improve performance and strengthen accountability by connecting annual award amounts to performance information. This study evaluates the impacts of a performance-based grants management process implemented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to strengthen the effectiveness of its National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. The study uses panel data and interrupted time-series analysis over 10 years for 51 grantees. Results show partial and conditional effectiveness of the performance-based grants management process in strengthening performance. In particular, the implementation of the performance-based grants management system consistently improved the performance of those grantees for whom the targets were challenging. While prior research has found, in some cases, evidence of a positive impact of performance management practices in improving programs delivered directly by public organizations at the local level, this study examines the performance management-performance relationship in a more challenging context of a federal grants program delivered through a highly decentralized system.

    • Public Health, General
      1. Celebrating 140 Years of Public Health ReportsExternal
        Shaw FE, Kuzmichev A, Rosner D.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan 1:33354918783753.

        [No abstract]

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences
      1. Interparental conflict is a common source of psychosocial stress in the lives of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between recent interparental conflict and one component of the physiological stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Parents of 42 children (ages 8-13 years) completed daily diaries of interparental conflict for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, youth participated in the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) while providing 2 pre- and 4 poststress salivary cortisol samples. Youth whose fathers reported a pattern of increasing interparental conflict over the past 8 weeks demonstrated an exaggerated HPA-axis response to acute stress. Mother-reported interparental conflict was not associated with children’s HPA-axis responses without accounting for fathers’ reports. When accounting for fathers’ reports, the offspring of mothers reporting higher average daily interparental conflict demonstrated an attenuated HPA-axis response to the stressor. By estimating both average exposure and recent patterns of change in exposure to conflict, we address the circumstances that may prompt attenuation versus sensitization of the HPA-axis in the context of interparental conflict. We conclude that the HPA-axis is sensitive to proximal increases in interparental conflict which may be one pathway through which stress affects health across development, and that incorporating father’s reports is important to understanding the role of the family environment in stress responses. This study further demonstrates the value of using intensive repeated measures and multiple reporters to characterize children’s psychosocial environment.

    • Statistics as Topic
      1. Multisample U-statistics encompass a wide class of test statistics that allow the comparison of 2 or more distributions. U-statistics are especially powerful because they can be applied to both numeric and nonnumeric data, eg, ordinal and categorical data where a pairwise similarity or distance-like measure between categories is available. However, when comparing the distribution of a variable across 2 or more groups, observed differences may be due to confounding covariates. For example, in a case-control study, the distribution of exposure in cases may differ from that in controls entirely because of variables that are related to both exposure and case status and are distributed differently among case and control participants. We propose to use individually reweighted data (ie, using the stratification score for retrospective data or the propensity score for prospective data) to construct adjusted U-statistics that can test the equality of distributions across 2 (or more) groups in the presence of confounding covariates. Asymptotic normality of our adjusted U-statistics is established and a closed form expression of their asymptotic variance is presented. The utility of our approach is demonstrated through simulation studies, as well as in an analysis of data from a case-control study conducted among African-Americans, comparing whether the similarity in haplotypes (ie, sets of adjacent genetic loci inherited from the same parent) occurring in a case and a control participant differs from the similarity in haplotypes occurring in 2 control participants.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Smoke-free and tobacco-free policies in colleges and universities – United States and Territories, 2017External
        Wang TW, Tynan MA, Hallett C, Walpert L, Hopkins M, Konter D, King BA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):686-689.

        Each year in the United States, cigarette smoking causes an estimated 480,000 deaths, including approximately 41,000 deaths from secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults (1). Smoke-free policies protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure, reduce the social acceptability of smoking, help in preventing youth and young adult smoking initiation, and increase smokers’ efforts to quit smoking (1,2). Given that 99% of adult cigarette smokers first start smoking before age 26 years and many smokers transition to regular, daily use during young adulthood (2),* colleges and universities represent an important venue for protecting students, faculty, staff members, and guests from secondhand smoke exposure through tobacco control policies (3). To assess smoke-free and tobacco-free policies in U.S. colleges and universities, CDC and the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation (ANRF) determined the number of campuses nationwide that completely prohibit smoking (smoke-free) or both smoking and smokeless tobacco product use (tobacco-free) in all indoor and outdoor areas. As of November 2017, at least 2,082 U.S. college and university campuses had smoke-free policies. Among these campuses, 1,743 (83.7%) were tobacco-free; 1,658 (79.6%) specifically prohibited electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use; and 854 (41.0%) specifically prohibited hookah smoking. Smoke-free and tobacco-free policies on college and university campuses can help reduce secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco use initiation, and the social acceptability of tobacco use (1-3).

      2. Distinct motives for use among polytobacco versus cigarette only users and among single tobacco product usersExternal
        Wong EC, Haardorfer R, Windle M, Berg CJ.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Dec 13;20(1):117-123.

        Background: Alternative tobacco product (ATP) use as well as co-use of various tobacco products has increased in recent years, particularly among young adults. However, little is known about the differential role of motives for ATP or polytobacco use. Methods: We examined (1) motives for tobacco use in relation to polytobacco versus cigarette only use and (2) motives for tobacco use in relation to levels of tobacco use across products. We analyzed data from past 30-day tobacco users at Wave 2 (Spring 2015) of a six-wave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 years from seven U.S. colleges/universities. Variables included sociodemographics, tobacco use (cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos [LCCs], smokeless tobacco [SLT], hookah, and e-cigarettes), and tobacco use motives (social, self-enhancement, boredom relief, and affect regulation). Results: Multivariate analyses found that boredom relief motives were associated with polytobacco use versus cigarette only use (p = .007). Higher consumption levels demonstrated the following associations: cigarettes-positively with boredom relief (p = .025) and affect regulation motives (p < .001); LCCs-positively with affect regulation motives (p = .035); SLT-negatively with social (p = .003) and positively with self-enhancement (p = .017) and boredom relief motives (p = .007); and hookah-positively with social (p = .002) and boredom relief motives (p = .033) and negatively with self-enhancement (p = .004) and affect regulation motives (p = .001). Conclusions: Distinct motives for use were associated with polytobacco use among smokers. Moreover, higher levels of use among single product users also demonstrated distinct associations across use motives. These data should inform targeted cessation interventions addressing motives for use in ATP and polytobacco users. Implications: Interventionists, public health practitioners, and health care providers must address the increasing issue of ATP and polytobacco use and tailor interventions to reduce ATP and polytobacco use in light of the distinct motives for use.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019