Surveillance

CDC tracks invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease using 2 surveillance systems:

Invasive disease refers to when the bacteria invade parts of the body, like blood, that are normally free from germs. CDC does not track non-invasive H. influenzae disease, such as ear infections.

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

CDC conducts national surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease through NNDSS. CDC receives NNDSS data weekly regarding cases of nationally notifiable diseases.

Bact Facts Interactive
magnifying glass with bacteria symbol

Analyze and visualize ABCs H. influenzae data using Bact Facts Interactive.

Active Bacterial Core surveillance

CDC also tracks invasive H. influenzae disease with active laboratory-based surveillance through ABCs. As part of the Emerging Infections Program, ABCs aims to:

  • Determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive H. influenzae disease
  • Monitor impact of the H. influenzae type b vaccination program
  • Monitor emergence of disease due to non-type b H. influenzae (i.e., types a, c, d, e, f, and nontypeable bacteria)
  • Determine appropriate verification and validation criteria for serotyping

Disease trends

The epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease in the United States has shifted since the introduction of the Hib vaccine. The United States began using Hib vaccine for children in 1987 and for infants in 1990. Since then, the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease in children aged younger than 5 years old decreased by 99%. In contrast, rates of nontypeable and H. influenzae types a and f are increasing.

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows estimated incidence rates (per 100,000 persons) of invasive H. influenzae disease.

Figure 1 shows estimated incidence rates (per 100,000 persons) of invasive H. influenzae disease caused by serotype b, other serotypes excluding b, and nontypeable bacteria in the United States from 1999 through 2019. Disease caused by type b remains low, while disease caused by non-b and nontypeable bacteria are increasing.

Source: Active Bacterial Core surveillance

Figure 2

Figure 2 shows estimated incidence rates (per 100,000 persons) of typeable invasive H. influenzae disease.

Figure 2 shows estimated incidence rates (per 100,000 persons) of typeable invasive H. influenzae disease by serotype (a through f) in the United States from 1999 through 2019. Serotype f has consistently had higher incidence than other serotypes during this time period. Serogroup a has increased, while serogroup b  has remained consistently low during this time period.

Source: Active Bacterial Core surveillance

Figure 3

Figure 3 shows estimated incidence rates (per 100,000 persons) of invasive H. influenzae disease by serotype and age in the United States from 2015 through 2019. Children younger than 1 year old and adults older than 65 years old have the highest incidence of H. influenzae disease. Across age groups, nontypeable bacteria cause the highest incidence of H. influenzae disease.

Source: Active Bacterial Core surveillance