Many animals can have brucellosis. If you hunt certain kinds of wild animals, you may have an increased risk of brucellosis. This is because as a hunter you may come into contact with the blood and organs of the animals you are hunting.
Animals That Can Put Hunters at Risk
- wild hogs (feral swine)
In addition, predators such as bears and wolves may get brucellosis after they feed on infected animals. If you hunt or trap these types of predatory animals, be aware of the risk for brucellosis and protect yourself. Dogs that are used for hunting can also be at risk for brucellosis.
How You Can Get Brucellosis from Animals
You can get sick if blood, fluid, or tissue from an infected animal comes in contact with your eyes, nose, mouth, or skin. This can happen when you are involved in hunting-related activities such as:
- Field dressing
- Handling or preparing raw meat for cooking
- Eating meat that is not thoroughly cooked
Protect Yourself from Brucellosis
When you are hunting, avoid all contact with visibly ill animals or those found dead. Be sure to practice safe field dressing techniques, since it is still possible for animals that appear healthy to have brucellosis.
Safe field dressing can help keep you from getting brucellosis. So, be sure to:
- Use clean, sharp knives for field dressing and butchering.
- Wear eye protection and rubber or latex gloves (disposable or reusable) when handling carcasses.
- Avoid direct (bare skin) contact with fluid or organs from the animal.
- Avoid direct (bare skin) contact with hunting dogs that may have come into contact with hunted animals.
- After butchering, burn or bury disposable gloves and parts of the carcass that will not be eaten.
- Don’t feed dogs with raw meat or other parts of the carcass.
- Wash hands as soon as possible with soap and warm water for 20 seconds or more. Dry hands with a clean cloth.
- Clean all tools and reusable gloves with a disinfectant, like dilute bleach. (Follow the safety instructions on the product label).
- Thoroughly cook meat from any animal that is known to be a possible carrier of brucellosis (see the list above).
- Be aware that freezing, smoking, drying and pickling do notkill the bacteria that cause brucellosis.
What To Do If You Think You May Have Brucellosis
Signs and symptoms of brucellosis can include fever, chills, sweating, headache, low appetite, fatigue, and joint or muscle pain.
It may take anywhere from a week up to a month after coming into contact with the infected animal for you to start feeling sick. See a doctor right away if you experience these signs and symptoms. Be sure to tell your doctor about your contact with wild animals, especially wild hogs, deer, moose, elk, and bison. Your doctor can test your blood for brucellosis.
If the test confirms brucellosis, your doctor will prescribe you medication (antibiotics) to treat the infection. You usually need to take them for 6 weeks or longer. If the illness is not treated or comes back, you could have serious problems in your bones, joints, or heart.
Brucellosis does not kill people often, but it can happen. So, be sure to take all of the antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor. This will help prevent the illness from coming back and keep you safe and healthy.