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Summary of Health Indicators

 
 More info on Prevalence Tables:
 Summary of Health Indicators
 Summary of Breastfeeding Indicators
 Geographic Comparison of Health Indicators
 Health Indicators by Demographic Variables
 Birth Outcome and Risk Factor Analysis
   

Use

Use the PedNSS Table 2, Summary of Health Indicators to examine the overall prevalence for all of the health indicators that are collected through PedNSS for infants and children who are served by the public health program.

Use the PNSS Table 2, Summary of Health Indicators tables to examine the overall prevalence for all the health indicators that are collected through PNSS for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women who are served by the public health program.

PedNSS Summary of Health Indicators tables include:

  • Table 2, Summary of Health Indicators

PNSS Summary of Health Indicators tables include:

  • Table 2, Summary of Health Indicators

These tables can be used to answer questions such as:

  • What is the prevalence of overweight children 2 years of age and older?
  • Is the prevalence of first trimester anemia in the state higher or lower than the national prevalence?


Interpreting the Data

The following paragraphs provide general information about the table data that will help you with interpretation.

Records
The PedNSS table analysis includes one unique record per child for the reporting period of January 1 through December 31.

The PNSS table analysis includes one record for each pregnancy.

Prevalence
The number of records included in the PedNSS data table analysis varies with each health indicator.

The number of records included in the PNSS analysis for each health indicator varies because some health indicators include data from all records (complete, prenatal only, or postpartum only) while others include complete and prenatal only records or complete and postpartum only records.

Comparisons of Contributor-level and National Data
For contributor-level (contributor, U.S. Territory, and tribal government) tables, the data include both contributor prevalence and PedNSS national prevalence, allowing you to compare the two values. Because the national prevalence of health indicators is relatively stable from one year to the next, the tables use national data from the prior year. This practice allows the CDC to produce the contributor's PedNSS and PNSS reports as soon as the data for the reporting period are received from the contributor.

New Data Items
The following health indicators have recently been added to the PedNSS:

  • Exclusively Breastfed
  • TV Viewing
  • Smoking in Household

The following health indicators have recently been added to the PNSS:

  • Parity
  • Interpregnancy Interval
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Chronic Hypertension
  • Pregnancy-induced Hypertension
  • Prepregnancy Multivitamin Consumption
  • Multivitamin Consumption During Pregnancy
  • Full Term Low Birthweight

Note that data for these indicators have not yet been submitted by all contributors. However, as these data are collected by contributors and sent to the CDC, they will also be included in the tables.

Data Constraints
Since breastfeeding data are collected only during the early postpartum period, the PNSS data can be used only to monitor the initiation of breastfeeding and not duration. However, because PedNSS data is collected for infants up to 2 years of age it can be used to determine breastfeeding prevalence for both initiation and duration.


Sample Tables


Sample: PedNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

We're going to look at sections of the PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators. You can click on the View Sample Table link below each portion to review the entire table. The sample table is numbered to match the portions shown below.


Birthweight

Sample: PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators
view tableView Sample PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

1 The number of Low Birthweight records with valid birthweight data included in the analysis is 57,790; the prevalence (%) is 9.1%. The numbers of Low Birthweight and High Birthweight records are the same (57,790) because this value is the total number of records for infants born during the reporting year with valid birthweight data.

Review the definition of Birthweight and its prevalence calculation.


Growth Indicators

Sample: PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PedNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

2 The number of Underweight and Obese records (199,314) is the same because this value is the number of records for children from birth to 5 years of age with valid Height and Weight data.

The number of records (75,004) for children 2 years of age or older for 85th to less than 95th (Overweight) and greater than or equal to 95th (Obese) is the same (75,004) and includes only records that have valid Height and Weight data for children 2 to 5 years of age.

Review the definition of Growth Indicators and its prevalence calculation.


Anemia

Sample: PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PedNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

3 The Anemia data include records with either valid hemoglobin (Hb) or valid hematocrit (Hct) values for children 6 months to 5 years of age. If both Hb and Hct values are reported, only the Hb value is included. As a result, the number of Hb/Hct records (114,976) does not equal the sum of the Hb records (103,555) and the Hct (27,826) records.

Review the definition of Anemia and its prevalence calculation.


Breastfeeding

Sample: PedNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PedNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

4 The number of Ever Breastfed records (57,876) includes the number of infants born during the reporting period with valid breastfeeding data.

The Ever Breastfed data and the Birthweight data are based on infants born during the reporting period. Note that the number of records differs for the Ever Breastfed (57,876) analysis and the Birthweight (57,790) analysis because more valid data were recorded for Ever Breastfed than for Birthweight.

The number of infants Breastfed for At Least 6 Months (46,271) includes infants who reached 6 months of age and who had a visit with valid breastfeeding data recorded during the reporting period.

The number of infants Breastfed For At Least 12 Months (29,312) includes infants who reached 12 months of age and who had a visit with valid breastfeeding data recorded during the reporting period.

Review the definition of Breastfeeding and its prevalence calculation.


Sample: PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

We're going to look at sections of the PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators. You can click on the View Sample Table link below each portion to review the entire table. The sample table is numbered to match the portions shown below.


Prepregnancy BMI, Parity, and Interpregnancy Interval

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators
view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

1 Prepregnancy BMI, Parity, and Interpregnancy Interval are health indicators that are collected at both the prenatal and postpartum visits. Therefore, all records (Complete, Prenatal, and Postpartum) with valid data are included in the analysis of these health indicators. Note that the Parity (3,628) analysis includes more records with valid data than does Prepregnancy BMI (3,428) and Interpregnancy Interval (1,905).

The number of Complete, Prenatal, and Postpartum records with valid height and weight data is 3,428. The Prepregnancy BMI distribution shows the percent of women in each weight category. The prevalence (%) of obese women is 28.4%.

Review the definition of Prepregnancy BMI and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Parity and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Interpregnancy Interval and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Complete, Prenatal and Postpartum records.


Maternal Weight Gain

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

2 Maternal Weight Gain is based on pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. The number of Complete and Postpartum records with both valid Prepregnancy BMI (calculated from height and weight) and Maternal Weight Gain data is 2.398. The prevalence (%) of women who gained less than the IOM recommended weight gain based on their prepregancy BMI is 14%.

Review the definition of Maternal Weight Gain and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Prepregnancy BMI and its prevalence calculation.


Anemia

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

3 Anemia prevalence during the prenatal period is reported by pregnancy trimesters and postpartum because anemia is defined differently for each time period.

The Postpartum analysis includes the number of complete and postpartum records with valid Hemoglobin (Hb) and Hemocrit (Hct) measurements taken at greater than 4 weeks or 28 days postpartum. At 4 weeks or more postpartum, Hb and Hct measurements are expected to return to pre-pregnancy or first trimester levels.

Review the definition of Anemia and its prevalence calculation.


Medical Care

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators

4 The number of Medical Care records (3,085) includes only Complete and Postpartum records. Medical care data is always collected at the prenatal visit. It must be collected at the postpartum visit if the woman was not enrolled in the program participation in the PNSS while she was pregnant or if she reported at the prenatal visit that she had not begun medical care. The proportion of women who received medical care in the first trimester of their pregnancy was 83.6% compared to 3% of women that reported receiving no care.

Review the definition of Medical Care and its prevalence calculation.


WIC

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators


5

WIC Enrollment includes all records, Complete, Prenatal, and Postpartum (3,081). The distribution shows when women enrolled in WIC initially for infants born during this reporting period. For example, 9.7% of women enrolled in WIC for the first time at their postpartum visit.

Review the definition of WIC Enrollment and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Complete, Prenatal and Postpartum records.


Smoking and Smoking Changes

Sample: PNSS Table 2C Summary of Health Indicators

view tableView Sample PNSS Table 2C, Summary of Health Indicators


6 The Smoking indicators show smoking status before and during pregnancy, and during last three months of pregnancy.
7 The Smoking Changes indicators monitor changes in the smoking behaviors of women who smoked prior to pregnancy. The prevalence of Quit Smoking by the First Prenatal Visit and Stayed Off Cigarettes can be used to monitor smoking behaviors during pregnancy as it shows women who smoked 3 months prior to pregnancy but quit at the first prenatal visit and stayed off cigarettes during their pregnancy. This analysis includes only Complete records, that is, women having both a prenatal and postpartum visit.

The percent of women who smoked prior to pregnancy quit smoking by their first prenatal visit was 37.8%. Of these, 32.4% did not smoke in the last 3 months of pregnancy. So, you can conclude that about 5% of women who smoked prior to pregnancy and quit at their first visit, resumed smoking during the last 3 months of pregnancy.

The number of records included in Quit Smoking by the First Prenatal Visit and Stayed Off Cigarettes analysis is 1,010. Note that the number of Complete records (1,010) included in this analysis had valid data for all of the following data items:

  • Smoking 3 Months Prior to Pregnancy
  • Smoking During Pregnancy
  • Smoking Last 3 months of Pregnancy

Review the definition of Smoking and its prevalence calculation.
Review the definition of Smoking Changes and its prevalence calculation.

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Page last reviewed: October 29, 2009
Page last updated: October 29, 2009
Content Source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
 

 



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