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Resources and References


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  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Parainfluenza Viral Infections. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, eds. Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 30th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2015.
  • Abedi GR, Prill MM, Langley GE, Wikswo ME, Weinberg GA, Curns AT, et al. Estimates of parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations and cost among children aged less than 5 years in the United States, 1998–2010. J Ped Infect Dis. 2014; doi: 10.1093/jpids/piu047
  • CDC. Guidelines for preventing health-care--associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR. 2004; 53(RR-03):1-36.
  • Glezen WP, Denny FW. Parainfluenza viruses in: Evans A, Kaslow R, eds. Viral infections in humans: epidemiology and control. 4th ed. New York: Plenum; 1997:551-67.
  • Karron RA, Collins PL. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins Publishers; 2007: 1497-1526.

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