Infection with human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) can be confirmed by—
- direct detection of viral genome by polymerase chain reaction assay;
- direct detection of viral antigens in respiratory secretions (collected within 1 week of symptom onset) using immunofluorescence or enzyme immunoassay;
- isolation and identification of the virus in cell culture; or
- demonstration of a significant rise in HPIV-specific IgG antibodies between appropriately collected paired serum specimens or specific IgM antibodies in a single serum specimen.
- Page last reviewed: August 18, 2015
- Page last updated: August 18, 2015
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