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March, 2012
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2012-137

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Warehousing and Storage (NAICS 493)

Related Publications:
Air Transportation | Couriers/Messengers | Transit/Ground Transportation | Truck Transportation | TWU | Utilities | Water Transportation

Number, Rate, and Costs of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the U.S. Warehousing and Storage Industry by Selected Characteristics, 2003–2006.

  Costs (2006 Dollars)
Characteristic Number of Fatalities Fatality Rate (per 100,000 workers) Mean (thousands) Median (thousands) Total(millions)
All U.S. Industries 22,197 3.9 $960 $944 $21,316
 
All Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities 3,704 12.9 944 974 3,496
 
All Warehousing and Storage 86 7.7 828 822 71
 
Year
  2003 23 10.2 792 821 18
  2004 20 8.6 879 845 18
  2005 26 8.5 813 818 21
  2006 17 4.9 840 822 14
 
Sex
  Male 79 10.0 819 821 65
  Female 7 2.2 936 947 7
 
Age Group
  16-24 6 3.8 923 831 6
  25-34 18 5.7 995 912 18
  35-44 21 7.4 1,046 956 22
  45-54 22 9.6 889 821 20
  55-64 12 11.7 483 495 6
  65+ 7 24.8 67 57 <1
 
Race
  White 65 7.3 838 830 52
  Black -- -- -- -- --
  Other1 -- -- -- -- --
 
Ethnicity2
  Not Hispanic 68 8.2 842 854 57
  Hispanic 18 6.3 774 764 14
 
Selected SOC Occupation Group
Construction and Extraction -- -- -- -- --
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 6 32.1 856 952 5
Management 5 2.9 1,130 1,117 6
Office and Administrative Support -- -- -- -- --
Production -- -- -- -- --
Transportation and Material Moving 67 14.0 799 822 54
 
Event or Exposure
02 Struck by object 7 0.6 663 787 5
03 Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects 9 0.8 904 885 8
04 Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials 6 0.5 1,117 1,020 7
11 Fall to lower level 17 1.5 682 726 12
3* Exposure to harmful substances or environments 5 0.4 929 1,011 5
42 Nonhighway accident, except rail, air, water 20 1.8 840 882 17
43 Pedestrian, nonpassenger struck by vehicle, mobile equipment 8 0.7 812 769 6
6* Assaults and violent acts 7 0.6 992 837 7
 
Selected Source of Injury
34 Material handling machinery 6 0.5 912 853 5
62 Floors, walkways, ground surfaces 20 1.8 720 733 14
82 Highway vehicle, motorized 11 1.0 787 790 9
85 Plant and industrial powered vehicles, tractors 24 2.2 846 882 20
91 Ammunition 5 0.4 1,110 944 6

NOTE: Dashes indicate data that do not meet publication criteria.
         Asterisks denote a summary level code not assigned to individual cases.

1This category includes all other races, such as American Indian and Asian, as well as unknown or missing races.

2Numbers are not reported for “unknown”, “not classified” or “not reported” categories.

 

Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Model


Theoretical Basis of Cost Estimation

The cost to society of a workplace fatality was estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an occupational fatal injury. For these calculations, only medical expenses were used to estimate the direct cost associated with the fatality. The indirect cost was derived by calculating the present value of future earnings summed from the year of death until the decedent would have reached age 67, accounting for the probability of survival were it not for the premature death. (For more information, see Biddle, E [2004]. Economic Cost of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1980–1997. Contemporary Economic Policy 22(3):370–381 or Biddle, E [2009]. The Cost of Fatal Injuries to Civilian Workers in the US, 1992-2001and Biddle E and Keane P [2011]. The Economic Burden of Occupational Injuries to Civilian Workers in the United States, 1992-2002. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS.)

Mathematical Representation of Indirect Costs

formula for PVF = present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury
where:

Variable Definition
 PVF = present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury
 Py,q,s (n) = probability that a person of age y, race q, and sex s will survive to age n
 q = race of the individual
 s = sex of the individual
 n = age if the individual had survived
 Ys, j(n) = median annual compensation of an employed person of sex s, specific occupation j, and age n (includes median annual earnings, benefits, and wage growth adjustments)
 j = specific occupation of individual at death
formula for mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n = mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n
 g = earnings growth rate attributable to overall productivity
 y = age of the individual at death
 r = real discount rate (3%)

Data Sources

Fatality data: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). This research was conducted with restricted access to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

Probability of survival: National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics.

Median annual earnings: BLS Occupational Employment Statistics Survey. Wage data are based on the occupation of the decedent and the year and State of death adjusted by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Deflator to the base year of dollar. The wage growth adjustment, which is the rate of change in wages between age groups, was calculated by NIOSH using BLS Current Population Survey data.

Benefits: BLS Employer Cost for Employee Benefits. Benefits data are based on the year of death adjusted by the GDP Deflator.

Mean annual home production: Expectancy Data. Data are derived through a time diary study sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by the University of Maryland.

Earnings growth rate: BLS Employment Compensation Index (ECI).

Medical costs: National Council on Compensation Insurance. This is a single 4-year average medical cost.

Employment estimates for rate calculations: BLS Current Population Survey.

Fatality Rate Calculations

Fatality rates were calculated by NIOSH and may differ from previously published BLS CFOI rates. Fatality rates were calculated as deaths per 100,000 workers. Fatality rates for sex, race, age group, and occupation were calculated using employment estimates by the individual characteristic within the specific industry. Employment estimates for the specific industry were used to generate rates for event and source.

 

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Warehousing and Storage (NAICS 493) [PDF - 320 KB]

 

 
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