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NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Truck Transportation (NAICS 484)

March, 2012
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2012-135
Related Publications:
Air Transportation | Couriers/Messengers | Transit/Ground Transportation | TWU | Utilities | Warehousing/Storage | Water Transportation

Number, Rate, and Costs of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the U.S. Truck Transportation Industry by Selected Characteristics, 2003–2006.

Costs (2006 Dollars)
CharacteristicNumber of FatalitiesFatality Rate (per 100,000 workers)Mean (thousands)Median (thousands)Total(millions)
All U.S. Industries 22,1973.9$960$944$21,316
All Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities3,70412.99449743,496
All Truck Transportation2,16727.89021,0001,954
Age Group
Not Hispanic1,92428.88879831,707
Selected SOC Occupation Group
Construction and Extraction532.49771,0165
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair176.19231,02816
Management Occupations51.41,7181,5709
Office and Administrative Support60.81,0191,0956
Transportation and Material Moving2,12035.08999981,906
Selected Event or Exposure
02Struck by object1321.7841898111
03Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects480.69021,04743
11Fall to lower level580.752846631
13Fall on same level110.17567148
31Contact with electric current100.19839709
32Contact with temperature extremes90.19839709
34Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances360.51,0251,10837
38Oxygen deficiency, n.e.c.60.11,1221,1927
41Highway accident1,54419.89201,0191,420
42Nonhighway accident, except rail, air, water170.281384114
43Pedestrian, nonpassenger struck by vehicle, mobile equipment1622.1874931142
44Railway accident440.686897538
51Fire--unintended or uncontrolled70.11,0361,0287
61Assaults and violent acts by person(s)240.39881,07524
62Self-inflicted injury320.41,0311,13133
Selected Source of Injury
07Chemical products--general320.41,0811,13535
13Containers--variable restraint140.279282011
16Skids, pallets50.16837263
32Construction, logging, and mining machinery90.19441,0468
34Material handling machinery50.12911181
41Building materials--solid elements370.59011,04933
42Fasteners, connectors, ropes, ties100.19121,0739
44Machine, tool, and electric parts70.19811,0127
48Vehicle and mobile equipment parts90.18649518
5*Persons, plants, animals, and minerals130.26437398
62Floors, walkways, ground surfaces740.963264447
82Highway vehicle, motorized1,83623.69131,0151,675
85Plant and industrial powered vehicles, tractors200.396296919
93Atmospheric and environmental conditions120.289092611

NOTE: Asterisks denote a summary level code not assigned to individual cases.

1This category includes all other races, such as American Indian and Asian, as well as unknown or missing races.

2Numbers are not reported for “unknown”, “not classified” or “not reported” categories.

Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Model

Theoretical Basis of Cost Estimation

The cost to society of a workplace fatality was estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an occupational fatal injury. For these calculations, only medical expenses were used to estimate the direct cost associated with the fatality. The indirect cost was derived by calculating the present value of future earnings summed from the year of death until the decedent would have reached age 67, accounting for the probability of survival were it not for the premature death. (For more information, see Biddle, E [2004]. Economic Cost of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1980–1997. Contemporary Economic Policy 22(3):370–381 or Biddle, E [2009]. The Cost of Fatal Injuries to Civilian Workers in the US, 1992-2001and Biddle E and Keane P [2011]. The Economic Burden of Occupational Injuries to Civilian Workers in the United States, 1992-2002. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS.)

Mathematical Representation of Indirect Costs

formula for PVF = present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury

PVF= present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury
Py,q,s (n)= probability that a person of age y, race q, and sex s will survive to age n
q= race of the individual
s= sex of the individual
n= age if the individual had survived
Ys, j(n)= median annual compensation of an employed person of sex s, specific occupation j, and age n (includes median annual earnings, benefits, and wage growth adjustments)
j= specific occupation of individual at death
formula for mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n= mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n
g= earnings growth rate attributable to overall productivity
y= age of the individual at death
r= real discount rate (3%)

Data Sources

Fatality data: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). This research was conducted with restricted access to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

Probability of survival: National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics.

Median annual earnings: BLS Occupational Employment Statistics Survey. Wage data are based on the occupation of the decedent and the year and State of death adjusted by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Deflator to the base year of dollar. The wage growth adjustment, which is the rate of change in wages between age groups, was calculated by NIOSH using BLS Current Population Survey data.

Benefits: BLS Employer Cost for Employee Benefits. Benefits data are based on the year of death adjusted by the GDP Deflator.

Mean annual home production: Expectancy Data. Data are derived through a time diary study sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by the University of Maryland.

Earnings growth rate: BLS Employment Compensation Index (ECI).

Medical costs: National Council on Compensation Insurance. This is a single 4-year average medical cost.

Employment estimates for rate calculations: BLS Current Population Survey.

Fatality Rate Calculations

Fatality rates were calculated by NIOSH and may differ from previously published BLS CFOI rates. Fatality rates were calculated as deaths per 100,000 workers. Fatality rates for sex, race, age group, and occupation were calculated using employment estimates by the individual characteristic within the specific industry. Employment estimates for the specific industry were used to generate rates for event and source.

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Truck Transportation (NAICS 484) [PDF - 339 KB]

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