Management of children who have STIs requires close cooperation among clinicians, laboratorians, and child-protection authorities. Official investigations, when indicated, should be initiated promptly. Certain diseases (e.g., gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis), if acquired after the neonatal period, strongly indicate sexual contact. For other diseases (e.g., HSV, HPV and anogenital warts, and vaginitis), the association with sexual contact is not as clear (see Sexual Assault and Abuse and STIs).