Treatment

Illness caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae is usually self-limiting and patients may not seek care. Clinicians can treat the disease on a case-by-case basis with:

  • Macrolides (azithromycin) — first-line therapy
  • Tetracyclines (tetracycline and doxycycline)
  • Fluoroquionolones

Note: Clinicians should not prescribe tetracyclines for young children under normal circumstances.

C. pneumoniae shows in vitro resistance to the following antibiotics, which are not recommended for treatment:

  • Penicillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Sulfa drugs

Symptoms of C. pneumoniae infection can reappear after a short or conventional course of antibiotics. Persistent infection after treatment has been demonstrated by recovery of viable bacteria; therefore, a secondary course of treatment may be recommended.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Treatment Guidelines

References

  • Beatty W, Morrison R, Byrne G. Persistent chlamydiae: From cell culture to a paradigm for chlamydial pathogenesis. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:686–99.
  • Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S. Chlamydophila pneumoniaeClin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:29–35.
  • Burillo A, Bouza E. Chlamydophila pneumoniaeInfect Dis Clin N Am. 2010;24:61–71.
  • Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: Clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbio Infect. 2006;12:12–24.