Illness caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae is usually self-limiting and patients may not seek care. Clinicians can treat the disease on a case-by-case basis with:

  • Macrolides (azithromycin) — first-line therapy
  • Tetracyclines (tetracycline and doxycycline)
  • Fluoroquionolones

Note: Clinicians should not prescribe tetracyclines for young children under normal circumstances.

C. pneumoniae show in vitro resistance to the following antibiotics, which are not recommended for treatment:

  • Penicillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Sulfa drugs

Symptoms of C. pneumoniae infection can reappear after a short or conventional course of antibiotics. Persistent infection after treatment has been demonstrated by recovery of viable bacteria; therefore, a secondary course of treatment may be recommended.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treatment guidelines


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Page last reviewed: November 15, 2021