Illness caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae is usually self-limiting and patients may not seek care. Clinicians can treat the disease on a case-by-case basis with:
- Macrolides (azithromycin) — first-line therapy
- Tetracyclines (tetracycline and doxycycline)
Note: Clinicians should not prescribe tetracyclines for young children under normal circumstances.
C. pneumoniae shows in vitro resistance to the following antibiotics, which are not recommended for treatment:
- Sulfa drugs
Symptoms of C. pneumoniae infection can reappear after a short or conventional course of antibiotics. Persistent infection after treatment has been demonstrated by recovery of viable bacteria; therefore, a secondary course of treatment may be recommended.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Treatment Guidelines
- IDSA and ATS Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults, 2007pdf icon[46 pages]external icon
- PIDS and IDSA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age, 2011pdf icon[52 pages]external icon
- Beatty W, Morrison R, Byrne G. Persistent chlamydiae: From cell culture to a paradigm for chlamydial pathogenesis. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:686–99.
- Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:29–35.
- Burillo A, Bouza E. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2010;24:61–71.
- Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: Clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbio Infect. 2006;12:12–24.